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Chapter Ninth Edition America: Past and Present America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Copyright ©2011,

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter Ninth Edition America: Past and Present America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Copyright ©2011,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter Ninth Edition America: Past and Present America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Democracy and Dissent: The Violence of Party Politics, 1788–

2 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Force of Public Opinion Root cause of political parties: ambiguity of republic ideology – what is a Republic Jefferson and Hamilton both want republic but disagree on what it is Start of political parties – Federalists vs Jeffersonians Republicans

3 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Principle and Pragmatism: Establishing a New Government George Washington unanimously elected president, 1788 Washington was symbol of new government He embodied the hopes and fears of the new republic Washington made his own decisions Congress established three executive departments: War, State, and Treasury

4 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Principle and Pragmatism: Establishing a New Government Judiciary Act of 1789 established Supreme Court with one chief justice and eight associate justices 1789—5% tariff levied to fund government

5 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Conflicting Visions: Alexander Hamilton Washington’s aide-de-camp in Revolution Secretary of the Treasury Wanted stronger ties to Britain – model banks after Britain Strong central government with support of wealthy Envisioned U.S. as an industrial power – Private greed could be source of public good Feared anarchy more than tyranny – belief in elites

6 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Conflicting Visions: Thomas Jefferson Secretary of state under Washington Believed limited government preserves liberty Envisioned U.S. as an agrarian nation Trusted the common people Against large debt Favored France over Britain

7 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Hamilton’s Plan for Prosperity and Security Washington’s first term – finances Congress asked Hamilton for suggestions for solutions to debt problem He produced three reports: –First Report is Report on the Public Credit –Report contains two parts: Funding and Assumption Debt of $54 million, additional state debt of $25 million 80% of debt held by speculators

8 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Funding and Assumption Funding: Congress redeems federal certificates of debt at face value to current holders –Insisted bondholders support new government –Criticized by Madison and others because most debt in hands of speculators –Madison thought only a few would benefit

9 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Funding and Assumption Assumption: federal government pays states’ debts –Opposed by states that had already paid their debts –Madison at first led congress to defeat the funding –But eventually passed in exchange for locating capital on Potomac (Washington D.C.)

10 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Interpreting the Constitution: The Bank Controversy Second Report was Bank of the United States National bank would be privately owned, but partly funded by federal government Opposed because it might “perpetuate a large monied interest” – saw bank as corrupt like British system Jefferson opposed it as unconstitutional

11 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Interpreting the Constitution: The Bank Controversy Hamilton defended constitutionality through doctrine of “implied powers” Congress chartered bank, 1791 Perception that Hamilton was bringing corrupt British system to America Washington approved Hamilton’s idea because it was stronger than Jefferson’s

12 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Setback for Hamilton Third Report was Report on Manufacturing (1791) sought federal encouragement for manufacturing –Protective tariffs and industrial bounties Madison warned that program would strengthen federal government at state expense Jefferson warned that the rise of cities would destroy agriculture Southerners opposed to protective tariffs

13 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Charges of Treason: The Battle over Foreign Affairs French and English Wars shape U.S. political division Washington’s second term focused on foreign affairs Both British and French treated America arrogantly Jeffersonian Republicans –Favored France –States’ rights –Strict interpretation of the Constitution

14 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Charges of Treason: The Battle over Foreign Affairs Hamiltonian Federalists –Favored England –Strong central government and economic planning –Maintenance of order by federal troops

15 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands The Peril of Neutrality British still occupied Ohio River Valley and discriminated against American trade Franco-British War broke out, 1793 England violated American sovereignty and neutrality on high seas British actions indicate a disdain for American rights –Jefferson: punish England by cutting off trade –Hamilton: appease England because too strong

16 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Jay’s Treaty Sparks Domestic Unrest John Jay to England to demand: –Removal of English from American soil –Payment for ships illegally seized –Better commercial relations –Acceptance of United States’ neutrality

17 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Jay’s Treaty Sparks Domestic Unrest Hamilton told English that U.S. not firm and would make compromises Jay’s Treaty won no major concessions British to abandon frontier posts and let a few small ships trade in British West Indies Washington disliked, but accepted, treaty Senate ratified by smallest possible margin Treaty caused major concerns

18 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands New Orleans and Florida Spain had closed Mississippi River to Americans Spain interpreted Jay’s Treaty as Anglo- American alliance against Spain so Spain agree to new treaty with America

19 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands New Orleans and Florida Treaty of San Lorenzo (Pinckney’s Treaty) –Spanish opened the Mississippi River and New Orleans to U.S. West –Settled disputed border between Florida and U.S. –Spanish ceased inciting Indians against settlers

20 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Conquest of the West

21 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Popular Political Culture Political “parties” condemned as factions By end of Washington’s first term, government is divided Widespread concern over loss of common revolutionary purpose Federalists and Republicans suspected each others’ loyalty Party members thought it a patriotic duty to destroy opposing party

22 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Informing the Public: News and Politics Changing the nation’s political life Newspapers widely read, highly influential – most people could read Newspapers shrill, totally partisan Newspapers main source of political information

23 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Whiskey Rebellion: Charges of Republican Conspiracy Excise tax on whiskey imposed —western Pennsylvania farmers protested Lent credence to fears of violence against the government Republican governor refused to act Federalists interpreted as Republican conspiracy Washington and Hamilton led 15,000-man army to crush the rebellion Rebels could not be found – embarrassing fiasco for government Increased Republican electoral strength along the frontier

24 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Whiskey Rebellion: Charges of Republican Conspiracy Washington blamed Republicans for encouraging unrest Jefferson saw it as excuse to raise army to intimidate opposition

25 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Washington’s Farewell Washington increasingly sympathetic to Federalists Fall 1796—Washington released Farewell Address Warned against alliances with nations that weren’t promoting American security

26 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands The Adams Presidency Bitterly divisive election in 1796 Federalists divided, Hamilton tried to push Pinckney over Adams Adams forced to accept people not supportive in cabinet Hamilton interferes with Adam’s presidency and made it difficult

27 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands The XYZ Affair and Domestic Politics Jay’s Treaty prompted France to treat U.S. as unfriendly nation Diplomatic mission failed when three French officials (X, Y, and Z) demanded bribe Provoked anti-French outrage in U.S. XYZ affair led to Quasi war with France – France seized US ships

28 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Crushing Political Dissent Federalists began building up the army –Ostensible purpose: repel French invasion –Actual intention: stifle internal opposition Hamilton commanded army, controlled officers

29 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Crushing Political Dissent Hamilton sought declaration of war against France to begin operations against dissent Adams created navy, refused to ask Congress for war

30 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Silencing Political Opposition: The Alien and Sedition Acts Alien and Sedition Acts –Purpose to silence Republicans –First civil liberties crisis Alien Enemies Act and Alien Act gave the president power to expel any foreigner Sedition Act criminalized criticism of the government – many see as threat to their political rights and infringement on First Amendment

31 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Silencing Political Opposition: The Alien and Sedition Acts The Naturalization Act requires U.S. residency of fourteen years for citizenship Allows Federalists to maintain control

32 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions Republicans saw Alien and Sedition Acts as dire threat to liberty Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions - states have the right to nullify federal law under certain circumstances (States’ Rights) –Jefferson’s Kentucky Resolutions—states may nullify unconstitutional federal law –Madison’s Virginia Resolutions—urged states to protect their citizens

33 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions Purpose of resolutions: clarify differences between Republicans and Federalists, not justify secession

34 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Adams’s Finest Hour 1799—Adams broke with Hamilton Sent new team to negotiate with France War hysteria against France vanished U.S. resolves – United States resolved its differences with France Hamilton’s army seen as a useless expense

35 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands The Peaceful Revolution: The Election of 1800 Hamilton’s High Federalists led campaign to replace Adams with Pinckney Federalists lost, but Republicans Jefferson and Burr tied Election went to House of Representatives and they picked Jefferson after many ballots 12 th amendment to Constitution ensures this didn’t happen again – changed process of electing President and VP

36 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands The Peaceful Revolution: The Election of 1800 Adams and the “midnight judges” –Chief Justice John Marshall Jefferson’s inaugural: “we are all republicans, we are all federalists” Federalists lost touch with public Federalists party split

37 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Danger of Political Extremism Election of 1800 one of the most important Transfer of power from Federalists to Republicans achieved peacefully Nation averted ideological civil war


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