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Instructional Software in Elementary Schools EdTech 541 Ron Gardiner.

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1 Instructional Software in Elementary Schools EdTech 541 Ron Gardiner

2 Introduction Schools use many software applications every day. There is software to help manage student information, software to increase productivity, and software to help with instruction. Instructional software, that is software students use to increase learning, is divided into five types: Drill and Practice Tutorial Simulation Instructional Games Problem Solving

3 Drill and Practice Students work on exercises one at a time Feedback is given after a question is answered Feedback varies from correct or incorrect to detailed explanations Types of drill and practice include virtual flash cards Fill-in activities Branching activities The program adjusts the difficulty level of the questions based on the user’s responses

4 Drill and Practice Relative Advantage: Help students gain automaticity Provide immediate feedback ease the burden of grading papers by teachers Can assist in classroom management be being incorporated into classroom centers

5 Drill and Practice Example: IXL Learning

6 Tutorials Designed to teach a lesson comparable teacher-created lesson on the same topic “... tutorials are true teaching materials. Gagne et al (1981) said that good tutorial software should address all nine instructional events," (Robley & Doering, 2012). Tutorials can either be linear branching. Branching tutorials adjust level the instruction based on user responses

7 Tutorials Relative Advantage: A complete instructional package Contain drill and practice activities and provide immediate feedback. Branching tutorials automatically review areas of difficulty Able to provide amore individualized, self-paced lesson Can be used in the absence of a teacher To activate prior knowledge Acquire background information To remediate For students who are ahead of classroom pace

8 Tutorials Example: Math Foundation

9 Simulations Learning through experience is at the heart of simulations Teach about something Teach how to do something Manipulate on-screen objects to learn a process or perform an experiment Observe processes at a faster or slower rate Review processes steps to see how variables affect an outcome How-to simulations can be procedural or situational. Procedural teach the sequence of steps required to perform task. Situational help learners adapt and change to solving problems, and making choices that lead to the best result

10 Simulations Relative Advantage: Safety Dangerous materials or in inaccessible locations are simulated Time can be sped up or slowed down Review and redo Segments can be revisited and the result of using variables can be observed. Students like simulations Accepted by constructivists. Users employ critical thinking skills and learn about the subtleties of process or situations

11 Simulations Example: The Layered Earth Click the picture or the hyperlink. The demo opens in a new window.

12 Instructional Games Instructional games take advantage of students desire to have fun. High-interest activities with game rules Allow for competition Many formats Adventure Role playing Simulations Used as drill and practice activities Games need to be checked for educational value Developmentally appropriate Respectful of gender and diversity Do not promote violence

13 Instructional Games Relative Advantage: Fun, motivational, and engaging Example: ABCya

14 Problem Solving Designed to help students hone problem solving skills Help them achieve a goal when the solution is not obvious Content-area problem skills General problem-solving skills Works along side problem-solving processes Big Six Polya’s Four Step Process Various tools used to solve problems Multiple attempts possible

15 Problem Solving Relative Advantage: Highly visual and challenging format Motivational to keep students engaged Students identify and make meaningful connections to the skills required to solve problems

16 Problem Solving Example: Learn4Good Cone Flip: games/puzzle/problemsolvinggame.htm games/puzzle/problemsolvinggame.htm Click the image or the link to open in a new window

17 References Berkowitz, R. E. (n.d.). Big6 introduction. [0]. Retrieved from /stream/launchflash.html?folder=slisal&filename=nquir03.m4v /stream/launchflash.html?folder=slisal&filename=nquir03.m4v Educational simulations. In (2011). Educational Simulations. Retrieved from Instructional strategies online. (2009). Retrieved from Keesee, G. S. (2011). Educational games. Retrieved from Edutopia. Retrieved from Polya's four step problem solving process. (n.d.). Retrieved from Prensky, M. (2000). Digital game-based learning. McGraw-Hill Companies. Retrieved from - digital game-based learning-ch5.pdf - digital game-based learning-ch5.pdf Robley, M. D., & Doering, A. H. (2012). Integrating educational technology into teaching. (6 ed.). Prentice Hall. Taylor, D. (n.d.). The advantages of instructional software in classroom setting. Retrieved from

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