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1 Authored by South Fort Worth Composite Squadron 02-Mar-2004 Rev 50 Version 2.3 Modified by Lt Colonel Fred Blundell TX-129th Fort Worth Senior Squadron.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Authored by South Fort Worth Composite Squadron 02-Mar-2004 Rev 50 Version 2.3 Modified by Lt Colonel Fred Blundell TX-129th Fort Worth Senior Squadron."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Authored by South Fort Worth Composite Squadron 02-Mar-2004 Rev 50 Version 2.3 Modified by Lt Colonel Fred Blundell TX-129th Fort Worth Senior Squadron For Local Training Rev Jan-2014

2 2 This Training Slide Show is a project undertaken by Lt Colonel Fred Blundell of the TX-129 Fort Worth Senior Squadron, Fort Worth, TX for local use to assist those CAP Members interested in advancing their skills. The information contained herein is for CAP Member’s personal use and is not intended to replace or be a substitute for any of the CAP National Training Programs. Users should review the presentation’s Revision Number at the end of each file name to ensure that they have the most current publication.

3 3 Communications ► Webster: “A process by which information is exchanged between individuals through a common system…” (Merrian-Webster Ninth New Collegiate Dictionary) ► Required: Two (or more) parties Two (or more) parties Common system Common system ► Types of Systems Face to face -- Radio Face to face -- Radio Telephone -- Computer Telephone -- Computer

4 4 Two-Way Radio ► Required Components Receiver/Transmitter Receiver/Transmitter Input Device (microphone or computer) Input Device (microphone or computer) Antenna Antenna Operator Operator Authorized Operating Frequencies Authorized Operating Frequencies

5 5 Operating Frequency TypeCharacteristics Type Characteristics ► ► High Frequency (HF) 3 – 30 MHz Long Range Propagation Determined ► ► Very High Frequency (VHF) 30 – 300 MHz Line of Sight (LOS) Plus ► ► Ultra High Frequency (UHF) 300 MHz and above Line of Sight (LOS)

6 6 Frequency Selection TYPE PROCON TYPE PROCON HF Long Range Noise Propagation Dependent HF Long Range Noise Propagation Dependent Long Antenna Length VHF/ UHF CompactDirectional Antennas Equipment Less noise with FM Wider Bandwidth Range Limited to LOS

7 7 Antennas ► Frequency vs. Wavelength ► Wavelength (m) = 300,000/Frequency (KHz) ► Example:  Wavelength at 150 MHz (VHF) = 2 meters  Wavelength at 4.0 MHz (HF) = 75 meters ► Antenna length should be ¼ wavelength or more ► Special antenna designs permit the antenna to be used on multiple frequencies without physical change ► Antenna tuners can compensate for shorter antennas ► Antennas can be horizontally or vertically polarized

8 8 Propagation Effects There are three types of Radio Waves ► Ground Wave A radio wave that follows the curvature of the earth A radio wave that follows the curvature of the earth Always vertically polarized Always vertically polarized Limited usefulness at frequencies above 2 MHz Limited usefulness at frequencies above 2 MHz Reliable for short range Reliable for short range ► Surface Wave, or Direct Wave The line of sight component of a radio wave The line of sight component of a radio wave Sky Wave Sky Wave A radio wave that is reflected off of the Ionosphere to a point some distance from the transmitter A radio wave that is reflected off of the Ionosphere to a point some distance from the transmitter

9 9 Ionosphere 4 Layers

10 10 Day / Night Transition

11 11 Effect of Skip Distance

12 12 NVIS ► NVIS ► Near Vertical Incidence Sky Wave ► The transmitted signal goes nearly straight up and reflects back down to cover the area within 200 to 300 miles of the transmitting station. ► NVIS is caused by the radiated signal interacting with the ground

13 13 NVIS (Continued) ► NVIS can provide effective coverage with the antenna only a few feet above the ground. ► This makes a tactical installation possible using an inverted V with a 15 to 20 foot mast when there are no trees or other supports available.

14 14 So What ► Single Frequency HF Radio One frequency of operation One frequency of operation Operator must select the frequency Operator must select the frequency One single frequency can not be effective at all times One single frequency can not be effective at all times Operator must select the most effective frequency for communications Operator must select the most effective frequency for communications Selection of frequency dependent on: Selection of frequency dependent on: Knowledge of propagation Knowledge of propagation Luck Luck

15 15 Changing Frequency ► Considerations for changing Limited selection of authorized frequencies Limited selection of authorized frequencies Will the new frequency be effective? Will the new frequency be effective? Will the other operators know when to change? Will the other operators know when to change? Will the other operators know which frequency to use? Will the other operators know which frequency to use? Is my antenna effective on the new frequency? Is my antenna effective on the new frequency? ► Still dependent of propagation effect and the other station’s operator ► Rule of Thumb: Higher the sun, higher the frequency Higher the sun, higher the frequency

16 16 ALE To The Rescue ► What Is ALE? ► What Does ALE Require? ► How Does ALE Work? ► How Is ALE Implemented? ► ALE Advantages ► ALE Hazards

17 17 What Is ALE ► Automatic Link Establishment ► Four S’s Smart radio Smart radio Suite of frequencies to form a net Suite of frequencies to form a net Sounding other stations in the net Sounding other stations in the net Selecting the best frequency for transmitting to the desired station Selecting the best frequency for transmitting to the desired station ► Improved operational capability without requiring specialized knowledge of propagation

18 18 What ALE Requires ► Smart Radio with station monitor 24/7 ► Frequency Suite across HF spectrum ► Unique Digital Callsign for each station ► Broadband antenna

19 19 How ALE Works ► Radio scans all frequencies in the net ► Radio transmits (sounds) on all net frequencies and logs responding stations ~ every 90 min ► Radio receives and responds to soundings from other stations in net

20 How ALE Works (Continued) ► Radio maintains data base of responding stations Callsign Callsign Frequency Frequency Link quality (signal strength) ► No operator required 20

21 21 How ALE Is Implemented ► Designated Region and Wing Stations maintain constant ALE net ► Other stations join net for specific operational missions ► Region/Wing nets are to be established (Waiting for frequency authorizations) ► Unique wing callsign: xxxxwgCAP xxx = TexasCAP callsign number xxx = TexasCAP callsign number Leading zeros to make 4 digits Leading zeros to make 4 digits wg = Wing 2 digit postal code wg = Wing 2 digit postal code

22 How ALE Is Implemented (Continued) ► Region callsign: xxxregCAP xxx = region callsign (leading zeros if needed) xxx = region callsign (leading zeros if needed) reg = 3 letter region designator ► Examples 0204TXCAP for TexasCAP TXCAP for TexasCAP SWRCAP for Regional station 100SWRCAP for Regional station 22

23 23 Calling A Station ► From ALE Mode of operation: CALL > Select station from list by using up/down arrows, or Enter callsign of desired station SEND > Radio rings when called station responds ► Operator picks up mic and communicates ► To end call: STOP >

24 24 ALE Advantages ► Operator not involved in establishing data base of usable frequencies ► Operator not required to monitor for incoming calls – No static background noise ► Selection of calling frequency done by radio

25 ALE Advantages (Continued) ► No guessing what frequency the other station is on ► Different frequencies may be used to contact multiple stations in different areas 25

26 26 ALE Hazards ► All existing HF hazards exist PLUS ► Lower antenna height may increase radiation exposure to ground personnel ► Spontaneous soundings transmit without operator command

27 ALE Hazards (Continued) ► Mobile installations have added hazards Closer proximity of personnel to antenna Closer proximity of personnel to antenna Whip antenna poses poking hazard Whip antenna poses poking hazard Radio off during vehicle servicing Radio off during vehicle servicing 27

28 28 ALE Installations ► ALE Base Station with broad band antenna or antenna tuner ► Rapid Deployment Package ► Mobile ALE with whip antenna and tuner 8 foot whip 8 foot whip 16 foot whip 16 foot whip

29 29 Rapid Deployment Package

30 30 Rapid Deployment Package (Continued)

31 31 Rapid Deployment Package (Continued)

32 32 Mobile / Base ALE Radio

33 33 Questions? Always Think Safety!


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