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Discovering Computers Fundamentals Fifth Edition Chapter 11 Information System Development and Programming Languages Specially Modified By S. Linkin HCCS.

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Presentation on theme: "Discovering Computers Fundamentals Fifth Edition Chapter 11 Information System Development and Programming Languages Specially Modified By S. Linkin HCCS."— Presentation transcript:

1 Discovering Computers Fundamentals Fifth Edition Chapter 11 Information System Development and Programming Languages Specially Modified By S. Linkin HCCS 2009

2 Chapter 11 Objectives Next Discuss the importance of project management, feasibility assessment, documentation, data and information gathering techniques, and information systems security during system development Discuss the purpose of each phase in the system development cycle Differentiate between low-level languages and procedural languages Identify the benefits of object-oriented programming languages and program development tools List other programming languages and other program development tools Describe various ways to develop Web pages List the six steps in the program development cycle Explain the basic control structures used in designing solutions to programming problems

3 The System Development Life Cycle What is an information system (IS)? p. 406 Next Hardware, software, data, people, and procedures that work together to produce quality information System—Set of components that interact to achieve common goal Businesses use many types of systems

4 The System Development Life Cycle What are the phases of the system development cycle? p. 406 Fig Next Phase 1. Planning Phase 2. Analysis Phase 3. Design Phase 4. Implementation Phase 5. Operating, Support, and Security  Review project requests  Prioritize project requests  Allocate resources  Form project development team  Conduct preliminary investigation  Perform detailed analysis activities: Study current system Determine user requirements Recommend solution  Acquire hardware and software, if necessary  Develop details of system  Develop programs, if necessary  Install and test new system  Train users  Convert to new system  Perform maintenance activities  Monitor system performance  Assess system security

5 phases Arrange tasks into phases (groups of activities) The System Development Life Cycle What are guidelines for system development? p. 407 Next users Involve users (anyone for whom system is being built) standards Develop clearly defined standards (procedures company expects employees to follow)

6 The System Development Life Cycle Who participates in the system development life cycle? p. 407 Fig Next

7 The System Development Life Cycle What is a systems analyst? p. 407 Next Responsible for designing and developing information system Users’ primary contact person

8 The System Development Life Cycle What is the project team? p. 408 Next Consists of users, systems analyst, and other IT professionals Formed to work on project from beginning to end Project leader Project leader—one member of the team who manages and controls project budget and schedule

9 The System Development Life Cycle What is project management? p. 408 Next  Process of planning, scheduling, and controlling activities during system development cycle  Project leader identifies elements for project Required activities Goal, objectives, and expectations, collectively called scope Time estimates for each activity Cost estimates for each activity Activities that can take place at same time Order of activities

10 The System Development Life Cycle What is a Gantt chart? p. 409 Fig Next  Popular tool used to plan and schedule time relationships among project activities Click to view Web Link, click Chapter 11, Click Web Link from left navigation, then click PERT Charts below Chapter 11

11 The System Development Life Cycle What is feasibility? p. 409 Next Measure of how suitable system development will be to the company Operational feasibility Schedule feasibility Four feasibility tests: Technical feasibility Economic feasibility (also called cost/benefit feasibility)

12 The System Development Life Cycle What is documentation? p. 409 Next Includes reports, diagrams, programs, and other deliverables Collection and summarization of data and information

13 The System Development Life Cycle What are six data and information gathering techniques? p. 410 Fig Next  Review documentation  Observe  Survey  Interview  Joint-application design (JAD) session  Research

14 The System Development Life Cycle What are some reasons to create or modify an information system? p. 410 Next Competition can lead to change To improve existing system Outside group may mandate change To correct problem in existing system

15 The System Development Life Cycle What is a request for system services? p. 411 Fig Next  Formal request for new or modified information system  Also called project request

16 The System Development Life Cycle What is the planning phase? p. 413 Next Begins when steering committee receives project request Steering committee— decision-making body for the company Function of committee: Review and approve project requests Allocate resources Form project development team for each approved project Prioritize project requests

17 The System Development Life Cycle What is the analysis phase? p. 413 Next Conduct preliminary investigation, also called feasibility study Perform detailed analysis

18 The System Development Life Cycle What is the preliminary investigation? p Fig Next  Determine exact nature of problem or improvement and whether it is worth pursuing  Findings are presented in feasibility report

19 The System Development Life Cycle What is detailed analysis? p. 415 Next Sometimes called logical design 2. Determine user’s wants, needs, and requirements 3. Recommend solution 1. Study how current system works

20 Presented to steering committee, which decides how to develop system The System Development Life Cycle What is the system proposal? p. 415 Next Assesses feasibility of each alternative solution Recommends the most feasible solution for the project

21 The System Development Life Cycle What are possible solutions? p. 415 Next packaged software Buy packaged software—prewritten software available for purchase Outsource Outsource—have outside source develop software custom software Write own custom software—software developed at user’s request Vertical market software—designed for particular industry Horizontal market software—meets needs of many companies Click to view Web Link, click Chapter 11, Click Web Link from left navigation, then click Outsourcing below Chapter 11

22 The System Development Life Cycle What is the design phase? p. 416 Next Acquire hardware and software Develop all details of new or modified information system

23 Test and evaluate vendor proposals The System Development Life Cycle What is needed to acquire new hardware and software? p. 416 Next  Identify all hardware and software requirements of new or modified system Solicit vendor proposals Make a decision Identify technical specifications

24 The System Development Life Cycle What are three basic documents used to summarize technical specifications? p. 416 Next Less formal method that uses standard form to request information about product or service Vendor quotes price(s) for listed product(s) Vendor selects product(s) that meet(s) your requirements and then quotes price(s) Identifies product(s) you want Request for information (RFI) Request for proposal (RFP) Request for quotation (RFQ)

25 The System Development Life Cycle What is a value-added reseller (VAR)? p. 417 Fig Next  Complete system provided by value-added reseller  Value-added reseller (VAR) purchases products from manufacturer and then resells them, offering additional services with product Click to view Web Link, click Chapter 11, Click Web Link from left navigation, then click Value-Added Reseller below Chapter 11

26 The System Development Life Cycle How do systems analysts test software products? p. 417 Next  References from vendor  Talk to current users of product  Product demonstrations  Trial version of software  Benchmark test measures performance

27 The System Development Life Cycle What is a detailed design? p. 418 Next Includes several activities Database design Input and output design Program design Detailed design specifications for components in proposed solution

28 The System Development Life Cycle What is a mockup? p. 418 Fig Next  Sample of input or output that contains actual data

29 The System Development Life Cycle What is a layout chart? p. 419 Fig Next  Input or output that contains programming- like notations for data items

30 The System Development Life Cycle What is a prototype? p. 419 Next Working model of proposed system Beginning a prototype too early may lead to problems

31 The System Development Life Cycle What is computer-aided software engineering (CASE)? p. 419 Fig Next  Software tools designed to support activities of system development cycle

32 Convert to new system The System Development Life Cycle What is the implementation phase? p Next  Purpose is to construct, or build, new or modified system and then deliver it to users Train users Install and test new system Develop programs

33 The System Development Life Cycle What are the four types of tests performed by system developers? p. 420 Next Verifies application works with other applications Systems test Integration Test Unit Test Verifies each individual program works by itself Verifies all programs in application work together Verifies the new system works with actual data Acceptance Test

34 The System Development Life Cycle What is training? p Fig Next  Showing users exactly how they will use new hardware and software in system

35 The System Development Life Cycle What are conversion strategies? p. 421 Next  Used to change from old system to new system

36 The System Development Life Cycle What is the operation, support, and security phase? p. 422 Next Perform maintenance activities Monitor system performance Assess system security  Provides ongoing assistance after system is implemented

37 The System Development Life Cycle What is a computer security plan? p. 422 Next  Summarizes in writing all of the safeguards that are in place to protect a company’s information assets For each risk, identify the safeguards that exist to detect, prevent, and recover from a loss Identify all security risks that may cause an information asset loss Identify all information assets of an organization

38 END SECTION I

39 Design Phase Video: A Tour of Lucasfilm Data Center Next CLICK TO START

40 Programming Languages What is a computer program? p. 423 Fig Next  Set of instructions that directs computer to perform tasks  Programming language—used to communicate instructions

41 Programming Languages What are low-level languages and high-level languages? p. 424 Next High-level language Low-level language Machine-dependent runs only on one type of computer Often machine-independent can run on many different types of computers and operating systems Machineassembly languages Machine and assembly languages are low-level

42 Programming Languages What is machine language? p. 424 Fig Next  Only language computer directly recognizes  Uses a series of binary digits (1s and 0s) with a combination of numbers and letters that represent binary digits

43 Programming Languages What is assembly language? p Fig Next  Instructions made up of symbolic instruction codes, meaningful abbreviations and codes  Source program contains code to be converted to machine language

44 third-generation language (3GL) Often called third-generation language (3GL) Programming Languages What is a procedural language? p. 425 Next Uses series of English-like words to write instructions Programmer writes instructions that tell computer what to accomplish and how to do it

45 Programming Languages What is a compiler? p. 425 Fig Next  Program that converts entire source program into machine language before executing it

46 Programming Languages What is an interpreter? p. 426 Fig Next  Program that translates and executes one program code statement at a time  Does not produce object program

47 Programming Languages What is COBOL? p. 426 Fig Next  Designed for business applications  English-like statements make code easy to read, write, and maintain  COmmon Business-Oriented Language Click to view Web Link, click Chapter 11, Click Web Link from left navigation, then click COBOL below Chapter 11

48 Programming Languages What is C? p. 427 Fig Next  Powerful language originally designed to write system software  Runs most often on Unix operating systems

49 Programming Languages What is an object-oriented programming (OOP) language? p. 427 Next Used to implement object-oriented design Major benefit is ability to reuse and modify existing objects Event-driven Event-driven— checks for and responds to set of events Java, C++, and C#, are complete object-oriented languages Object is item that contains data and procedures that act on data Event is action to which program responds

50 Programming Languages What is Java? p Fig Next  Developed by Sun Microsystems  Uses just-in-time (JIT) compiler to convert source code into machine code Click to view Web Link, click Chapter 11, Click Web Link from left navigation, then click Java Platforms below Chapter 11

51 Programming Languages What is C++? p. 428 Next  Includes all elements of C, plus additional features for working with object-oriented concepts  Used to develop database and Web applications What is C#?  Object-oriented programming language based on C++  Accepted as a standard for Web applications and XML-based Web services Click to view Web Link, click Chapter 11, Click Web Link from left navigation, then click C++ and C# below Chapter 11

52 Programming Languages What is Visual Studio? p Fig Next .NET is set of technologies that allows program to run on Internet  Comprised of Visual Basic, Visual C++, and Visual C# Step 1. The developer designs the user interface. Step 2. The developer assigns properties to each object on the form. Step 3. The developer writes code to define the action of each command button. Step 4. The developer tests the program.

53 Programming Languages What is Delphi? p. 429 Next  Powerful visual programming tool  Ideal for large-scale enterprise and Web applications What is PowerBuilder?  Another powerful visual programming tool  Best suited for Web-based and large-scale object-oriented applications

54 Programming Languages What is a visual programming language? p. 429 Next Visual programming environment (VPE) allows developers to drag and drop objects to build programs Examples include Alice, Mindscript and Prograph Provides visual or graphical interface for creating source code

55 Programming Languages What is RPG (Report Program Generator)? p. 430 Fig Next  Used for generating reports, accessing data, and updating data in databases

56 Programming Languages What is a fourth-generation language (4GL)? p. 430 Fig Next  Nonprocedural language that allows access to data in database  Popular 4GL is SQL, query language that allows users to manage data in relational DBMS

57 Programming Languages What are other available programming languages? p. 431 Next ALGOLALGOLAdaAdaAPLAPL BASICBASICHyperTalkHyperTalkFORTRANFORTRANForthForth LISPLISPModula-2Modula-2LogoLogo PascalPascalPrologPrologPL/1PL/1PILOTPILOT SmalltalkSmalltalk

58 Programming Languages What is an application generator? p Fig Next  Program that creates source code or machine code from specification  Consists of report writer, form, and menu generator  Form provides areas for entering data

59 Programming Languages What is HTML (Hypertext Markup Language)? p. 433 Fig Next  Used to create Web pages

60 Programming Languages What is a scripting language? p Fig Next  Typically easy to learn and use  JavaScript  Perl (Practical Extraction and Report Language)  PHP (PHP: Hypertext Processor)  Rexx (Restructured eXtended eXecutor)  Tcl (Tool Command Language)  VBScript (Visual Basic, Scripting Edition) Click to view Web Link, click Chapter 11, Click Web Link from left navigation, then click PHP below Chapter 11

61 Programming Languages What is dynamic HTML (DHTML)? p. 435 Fig Next  Allows developers to include more graphical interest and interactivity in Web page

62 Programming Languages What are XHTML, XML, and WML? p. 436 Next XHTML (Extensible HTML) XHTML (Extensible HTML) enables Web sites to be displayed more easily on microbrowsers XML (Extensible Markup Language) XML (Extensible Markup Language) allows developers to create customized tags WML (Wireless Markup Language) WML (Wireless Markup Language) allows developers to design pages specifically for microbrowsers Includes features of HTML and XML Many Internet-enabled smart phones and PDAs use WML as their markup language Server sends entire record to client, enabling client to do much of processing without going back to server RSS 2.0 and ATOM

63 Programming Languages What is Ajax? p. 436 Next  Stands for Asynchronous JavaScript and XML  Method of creating interactive Web applications designed to provide immediate response  Combines JavaScript, HTML or XHTML, and XML  Google Maps and Flickr use Ajax

64 Programming Languages What is Ruby on Rails (RoR)? p. 436 Next  Open source framework that provides technologies for developing object-oriented, database-driven Web sites  Designed to make Web developers more productive

65 Programming Languages What is Web page authoring software? p Next  Creates sophisticated Web pages without using HTML  Generates HTML Click to view Web Link, click Chapter 11, Click Web Link from left navigation, then click Silverlight below Chapter 11 DreamweaverExpression WebFlashSilverlight

66 Programming Languages What is multimedia authoring software? p. 437 Fig Next  Combines text, graphics, animation, audio, and video into interactive presentation  Used for computer- based training (CBT) and Web-based training (WBT)  Software includes Toolbook and Director

67 The Program Development Cycle What is the program development cycle? p Fig Next  Steps programmers use to build computer programs  Programming team—Group of programmers working on program

68 The Program Development Cycle What is a sequence control structure? p. 440 Fig Next  Control structure that shows actions following each other in order  Control structure depicts logical order of program instructions

69 The Program Development Cycle What is a selection control structure? p. 440 Fig Next  Tells program which action to take, based on a certain condition  Two types  If-then-else control structure—yields one of two possibilities: true or false  Case control structure

70 The Program Development Cycle What is a case control structure? p Fig Next  Yields one of three or more possibilities

71 The Program Development Cycle What is a repetition control structure? p. 442 Figs –11-34 Next  Enables program to perform one or more actions repeatedly  Do-while control structure—repeats as long as condition is true  Do-until control structure—repeats until condition is true

72 Companies on the Cutting Edge Video: Electronic Arts Going Mobile Next CLICK TO START

73 Summary of Information System Development and Programming Languages Phases in the system development life cycle Guidelines for system development Activities that occur during the entire system development cycle Chapter 11 Complete Various programming languages and program development tools used to create and modify computer programs Web development and multimedia development tools Program development cycle


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