2 L E A R N I N G O U T L I N E Follow this Learning Outline as you read and study this chapter. What Is Planning?Define planning.Differentiate between formal and informal planning.Why Do Managers Plan?Describe the purposes of planning.Discussl the conclusions from studies of the relationship between planning and performance.How Do Managers Plan?Define goals and plans.Describe the types of goals organizations might have.Explain why it’s important to know an organization’s stated and real goals.
3 L E A R N I N G O U T L I N E (cont’d) Follow this Learning Outline as you read and study this chapter.How Do Managers Plan? (cont’d)Describe each of the different types of plans.Establishing Goals and Developing PlansDiscuss how traditional goal setting works.Explain the concept of the means–end chain.Describe the management by objective (MBO) approach.Describe the characteristics of well-designed goals.Explain the steps in setting goals.Discuss the contingency factors that affect planning.Describe the approaches to planning.
4 L E A R N I N G O U T L I N E (cont’d) Follow this Learning Outline as you read and study this chapter.Contemporary Issues in PlanningExplain the criticisms of planning and whether or not they’re valid.Describe how managers can effectively plan in today’s dynamic environment.
5 What Is Planning? Planning A primary functional managerial activity that involves:Defining the organization’s goalsEstablishing an overall strategy for achieving those goalsDeveloping a comprehensive set of plans to integrate and coordinate organizational work.Types of planningInformal: not written down, short-term focus; specific to an organizational unit.Formal: written, specific, and long-term focus, involves shared goals for the organization.
6 Why Do Managers Plan? Purposes of Planning Provides direction Reduces uncertaintyMinimizes waste and redundancySets the standards for controlling
7 Planning and Performance The Relationship Between Planning And PerformanceFormal planning is associated with:Higher profits and returns of assets.Positive financial results.The quality of planning and implementation affects performance more than the extent of planning.The external environment can reduce the impact of planning on performance,Formal planning must be used for several years before planning begins to affect performance.
8 How Do Managers Plan? Elements of Planning Goals (also Objectives) Desired outcomes for individuals, groups, or entire organizationsProvide direction and evaluation performance criteriaPlansDocuments that outline how goals are to be accomplishedDescribe how resources are to be allocated and establish activity schedules
9 Types of Goals Financial Goals Strategic Goals Are related to the expected internal financial performance of the organization.Strategic GoalsAre related to the performance of the firm relative to factors in its external environment (e.g., competitors).Stated Goals versus Real GoalsBroadly-worded official statements of the organization (intended for public consumption) that may be irrelevant to its real goals (what actually goes on in the organization).Can be found in an ogzn’s charter, annual report, public relations announcements, often conflicting & excessively influenced by what society believes ogzn should do.
10 Stated Objectives from Large U.S. Companies Financial ObjectivesFaster revenue growthFaster earnings growthHigher dividendsWider profit marginsHigher returns on invested capitalStronger bond and credit ratingsBigger cash flowsA rising stock priceRecognition as a “blue chip” companyA more diversified revenue baseStable earnings during recessionary periodsStrategic ObjectivesA bigger market shareA higher more secure industry rankHigher product qualityLower costs relative to key competitorsBroader or more attractive product lineA stronger reputation with customersSuperior customer serviceRecognition as a leader in technology and/or product innovationIncreased ability to compete in international marketsExpanded growth opportunitiesSource: A.A. Thompson Jr. and A.J. Strickland III. Strategic Management 12th ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill/Irwin, 2001), p. 43.Exhibit 7.1
12 Types of Plans Strategic Plans Operational Plans Apply to the entire organization.Establish the organization’s overall goals.Seek to position the organization in terms of its environment.Cover extended periods of time.Operational PlansSpecify the details of how the overall goals are to be achieved.Cover short time period
13 Types of Plans (cont’d) Long-Term PlansPlans with time frames extending beyond three yearsShort-Term PlansPlans with time frames on one year or lessSpecific PlansPlans that are clearly defined and leave no room for interpretation- they have specifically stated objectives, and there’s no ambiguity and problem with misunderstandingDirectional PlansFlexible plans that set out general guidelines, provide focus, yet allow discretion in implementation- which means that it does not lock managers into goals or courses of action.
15 Types of Plans (cont’d) Single-Use PlanA one-time plan specifically designed to meet the need of a unique situation.Some plans that managers develop are ongoing while others are used only once.Standing PlansOngoing plans that provide guidance for activities performed repeatedly.Include policies, rules and procedures.
16 Approaches to Establishing Goals Traditional Goal SettingBroad goals are set at the top of the organization.broke down into subgoals for each level of the ogzn.Goals are then broken into subgoals for each organizational level.Assumes that top management knows best because they can see the “big picture.”Goals are intended to direct, guide, and constrain from above.Goals lose clarity and focus as lower-level managers attempt to interpret and define the goals for their areas of responsibility.Employees work effort at the various levels and in the various work areas are geared to meet the goals that have been assigned in their areas of responsibility.At each level, managers define goals, applying their own interpretations
18 Approaches to Establishing Goals (cont’d) Maintaining the Hierarchy of GoalsMeans–Ends ChainThe integrated network of goals that results from a establishing a clearly-defined hierarchy of organizational goals.Achievement of lower-level goals is the means by which to reach higher-level goals (ends).Which means that the achievement of goals at a low level becomes the means to reach the goals at the next level (ends)
19 Approaches to Establishing Goals (cont’d) Management By Objectives (MBO), being used by many ogzn:-Specific performance goals are jointly determined by employees and managers- teamwork.Progress toward accomplishing goals is periodically reviewed- from time to time.Rewards are allocated on the basis of progress towards the goals. Not only using goals as controls, it is also being used to motivate employees.Key elements of MBO: consists of 4 elements:-Goal specificity, participative decision making, an explicit performance/evaluation period, feedback
20 Steps in a Typical MBO Program The organization’s overall objectives and strategies are formulated.Major objectives are allocated among divisional and departmental units.Unit managers collaboratively set specific objectives for their units with their managers.Specific objectives are collaboratively set with all department members.Action plans, defining how objectives are to be achieved, are specified and agreed upon by managers and employees.The action plans are implemented.Progress toward objectives is periodically reviewed, and feedback is provided.Successful achievement of objectives is reinforced by performance-based rewards.Exhibit 7.5
21 Does MBO Work?Reason for MBO Success- increases employees performance & organizational productivityTop management commitment and involvementPotential Problems with MBO ProgramsNot as effective in dynamic environments that require constant resetting of goals- the programme needs stability, if goals have to be set out every few weeks, there’s no time for employees to work and accomplish goals.Overemphasis on individual accomplishment may create problems with teamwork.Allowing the MBO program to become an annual paperwork shuffle.
22 Characteristics of Well-Designed Goals Written in terms of outcomes, not actionsFocuses on the ends, not the means.Measurable and quantifiableSpecifically defines how the outcome is to be measured and how much is expected.Clear as to time frameHow long before measuring accomplishment.Goals without time frame make an ogzn less flexible.Challenging yet attainableLow goals do not motivate.High goals motivate if they can be achieved.Written downFocuses, defines, and makes goal visible.Tangible evidence of the importance of working toward something.Communicated to allPuts everybody “on the same page.”Exhibit 7.6
23 Steps in Goal Setting Review the organization’s mission statement. Do goals reflect the mission?Provide an overall guide to what organizational members think is important; and goals should reflect what the mission statement says.Evaluate available resources.Are resources sufficient to accomplish the mission?Goals should be challenging and at the same time realisticDetermine goals individually or with others.Are goals specific, measurable, and timely?These goals reflect desired outcome and should be matched with the organizational mission and goals in other organizational area.Write down the goals and communicate them.Is everybody on the same page?Review results and whether goals are being met.What changes are needed in mission, resources, or goals?Once the goals have been
24 Developing PlansContingency Factors (possibility/unforeseen events) in A Manager’s Planning, 3 contingencyfactors affect planning:Manager’s level in the organizationHigher levels- the planning becomes more strategicOperational planning dominates manager’s planning efforts at lower levelsDegree of environmental uncertaintyStable environment: specific plansDynamic environment: specific but flexible plansLength of future commitmentsCurrent plans affecting future commitments must be sufficiently long-term to meet the commitments.
25 Planning in the Hierarchy of Organizations Exhibit 7.7
26 Approaches to Planning Establishing a formal planning departmentA group of planning specialists who help managers write organizational plans.Planning is a function of management; it should never become the sole responsibility of planners.Involving organizational members in the processPlans are developed by members of organizational units at various levels and then coordinated with other units across the organization.
27 Contemporary Issues in Planning Criticisms of PlanningPlanning may create rigidity.Plans cannot be developed for dynamic environments.Formal plans cannot replace intuition and creativity.Planning focuses managers’ attention on today’s competition not tomorrow’s survival.Formal planning reinforces today’s success, which may lead to tomorrow’s failure.
28 Contemporary Issues in Planning (cont’d) Effective Planning in Dynamic EnvironmentsDevelop plans that are specific but flexible.Understand that planning is an ongoing process.Change plans when conditions warrant.Persistence in planning eventually pay off.Flatten the organizational hierarchy to foster the development of planning skills at all organizational levels.