Animal behavior is actually the product of genes modified by the environment
If an organism is to survive to reproduce, its behavior must be adaptive to new situations
Adaptation is a combination of inherited and learned characteristics that improve an organism’s chances to survive and reproduce
Poorly adapted organisms do not usually survive, and their species may even become extinct
Innate behavior Sometimes known as inborn behavior Not dependent on experience Ready to go as soon as the organism is born or hatched! –Such as sucking or crying
Innate behavior Some animals may have certain established behaviors –Dogs who have been trained for life indoors may scratch the carpet or couch in order to get at buried items –They may turn in circles before laying down to flatten the grass or chase out insects.
Innate behavior Environmental influences may trigger innate behavior, but does not explain it Although the kitten has never fallen, she is still hesitant to step out onto the glass
Innate behavior A complex innate behavior is referred to as an instinct
Consists of all of the responses developed by an organism as a result of environmental experiences Range from –simple adjustments to innate behavior (ie. Our dog urinating out side) –to complex (ie. Playing a violin)
Learned Behavior Here, a toad is stung by a bee When a robber fly comes by, the toad is does not attempt to eat it!
Learned Behavior 1. Imprinting: some organisms will follow the first moving object. Some times to the point where it will never return to its true mother!
Learned Behavior 2. Habituation: when an animal is exposed to a stimulus over and over again. Example: You ignore the sound of the aquarium while in class … –Or your mother while she is gripping about anything
Learned Behavior 3. Conditioning: occurs when patterns of innate behavior are changed Training to salivate at the sight of a light Or The sound of a bell! Pavlov’s dog
Learned Behavior 4. Trial and Error: using either pleasure or pain, many organisms learn after many trials in order to make the correct response!
Mimicry is a developmental answer some organisms have in order to survive in their environment Example: –Robber fly and a Bumble bee –Viceroy butter fly and a Monarch