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COS 461 Fall 1997 COS 461: Networks and Distributed Computing u Prof. Ed Felten u u requirements –programs (in Java) –course project –midterm, final exams u now … on to business

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COS 461 Fall 1997 Networking on a Shoestring u have two wires between points A and B u need to communicate (in both directions) –use one wire in each direction u how to do it?

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COS 461 Fall 1997 Signaling u use voltage to represent ones and zeroes u two problems –no common ground level –timing

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COS 461 Fall 1997 Ground u take average of recent voltage level –0 if much below average –1 if much above average

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COS 461 Fall 1997 Timing u ideal: synchronized clocks u reality: can’t synchronize; clocks drift

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COS 461 Fall 1997 Timing –strategy: run at approximately same speed »How close do we have to be? (Answer later.) –on seeing a transition, receiver re-adjusts its clock to the nearest half-tick –adjust clock forward or backward, whichever is shorter

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COS 461 Fall 1997 Choosing Clock Speed u electrical effects flatten and spread waveform as it travels down wire u run as fast as possible without missing any transitions

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COS 461 Fall 1997 Coping with Clock Drift u for correctness, receiver must not drift by more than half a cycle between transitions. u if max time between transitions is K cycles, clock speed must be within factor of 1+1/2K. u if no limit on K, no tolerance for drift

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COS 461 Fall 1997 Forcing Transitions u idea: encode data before transmitting –code forces frequent transitions u example: Manchester encoding u tolerates 25% clock drift, but “wastes” half of bandwidth 01

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COS 461 Fall 1997 Other Encodings u waste less bandwidth, but tolerate less drift –5/4 encoding in book –generally a good trade u other advantages of forcing transitions –keeps baseline voltage from drifting –detects broken wires

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COS 461 Fall 1997 Framing u need to divide data stream into packets –variable length better than constant length »avoid wasting bandwidth »doesn’t add much complexity –two approaches »length field »end marker

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COS 461 Fall 1997 Length Field Approach u first 16 bits of packet give the length u problem: error recovery

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COS 461 Fall 1997 End-Marker Approach u special value marks end of packet –say it’s u solves synchronization problems u but what if occurs in data? u solution: bit stuffing –if sender sees seven 1’s in a row, insert a 0 –receiver deletes a 0 that follows seven 1’s

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COS 461 Fall 1997 Error Control u real wires don’t always transmit data correctly –electrical glitches –physical stresses and damage u dealing with errors –detection –recovery

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COS 461 Fall 1997 Error Detection u sender computes checksum, appends to packet u receiver verifies checksum u properties of a good checksum –always signal error if only a few bits corrupted –low probability of coincidental match if many bits corrupted –signals error if signal stuck on 0 or 1

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COS 461 Fall 1997 Checksums in Practice u internet scheme –(roughly) take sum of 16-bit words in message –not very good, but fast to compute in software u CRC (cyclic redundancy code) –based on polynomial arithmetic in finite fields –implement in hardware with shift register and a few XOR gates

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COS 461 Fall 1997 Error Correcting Codes u code message redundantly u detect/correct errors that affect a few bits u seldom used in practice –good at correcting a few bad bits, but errors tend to come in bunches –must be ready to recover from uncorrectable errors anyway –if errors are rare, better to handle other ways

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COS 461 Fall 1997 Recovering from Errors u first try: ask sender to retransmit message –but: if wire breaks, sender thinks things are OK u second try: acknowledgements –receiver tells sender packet arrived safely –if no acknowledgement within a timeout period, sender retransmits packet

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COS 461 Fall 1997 Retransmission Scenario 1 senderreceiver data ack

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COS 461 Fall 1997 Retransmission Scenario 2 senderreceiver ack data

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COS 461 Fall 1997 Retransmission Scenario 3 senderreceiver ack data ack data

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COS 461 Fall 1997 Details u sequence number to identify packets –how big are sequence numbers? –one bit is enough (alternating bit protocol) u sender remembers packet until ack u packet type distinguishes ack from data –or piggyback ack on data packet u fancier schemes in another lecture

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COS 461 Fall 1997 Review u speed limited by wire physics u approximately synchronized clocks u encoding to force frequent transitions u sentinel value marks end of packet –bit stuffing if sentinel occurs in data u checksum to detect errors u timeout and retransmission to recover from errors

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