Presentation on theme: "By Liz Leathers. 1920 Prohibition starts League of women voters formed Women can vote Presidentional election returns are broadcasted on radio for the."— Presentation transcript:
1920 Prohibition starts League of women voters formed Women can vote Presidentional election returns are broadcasted on radio for the first time. Harding wins Presidency 1921 The first miss America contest takes place in Atlantic City, New Jersey. Jack Dempsey defends his heavyweight title against George Carpentier (first boxing match broadcasted on radio) 1922 Florida land rush begins F. Scott Fitzgerald Tales of the Jazz Age. Sinclair Lewis publishes Babbit Timeline
1923 Calvin Coolidge becomes president after Harding dies in office. Yankee stadium opens in New York 1924 Congress passes the National Origins Act. Coolidge is elected President. 1925 25000 Ku Klux Klan members parade down Pennsylvania Avenue in Washington DC. Timeline
1926 The national Broadcastin g Company it Founded. 1927 Babe Ruth hits a record of 60 home runs in a season. 1928 Hoover wins Presidency. The United States signs the Kellogg- Briand Pact (an international treaty condemning war) 1929 Saint Valentine’s Day Massacre in Chicago. Stock Market crashes beginning the Great Depresion Timeline
PhraseTranslation Banks Closed What you tell someone to stop making out Bimbo Macho man Butt me I would like a cigarette Cake eater Ladies man Don’t take any wooden nickels Don’t do anything stupid Giggle water alcohol Go chase yourself Get out of here Handcuff Engagement ring Hotsy-totsy attractive Oliver Twist Extremely good dancer Ossified Drunk Panther Piss Whisky Popular Phrases
1920s2000s Average U.S workers income$1,400$35,000 Typical Prices Chocolate Bars$0.05$0.75 Bottle of soda pop$0.05$1.39 Loaf of bread$0.10$2.79 Adult movie ticket$0.25$9.00 Pair of men’s shoes$7.00$79.99 Child’s bicycle$30.00$139.99 Washing Machine$112.00$809.99 Passenger car$1,500$22,000 Three-bedroom house$3,000$300,000 How far would a dollar go in the 1920’s
30 th president Became president when Harding died in 1923. Elected President in 1924. Chose to not reelect in 1928. Told the press by only saying “I do not choose to run”. Coolidge "It is more important to kill bad bills than to pass good ones." Nicknamed: " Silent Cal " Once, when asked why he said so little in public, he replied, "I never felt sorry about something I didn't say."
The country was prosperous, and people associated the good times with Coolidge. During the profligate Jazz Age of the 1920s, he championed the traditional values of diligence and thrift. He reduced taxes and managed to reduce the $20 billion national debt by a billion dollars a year, but he failed to control the speculation in business that would lead to the great stock market crash only months after he left office. Coolidge Continued
Adored by all. Symbol of the American Dream. Hated by all. Still referenced in modern times as something bad. Hoover Through the years
Hoover was loved my the public. Most of the public agreed that Hoover was the perfect man for the Presidency. He was an engineer, a businessman, a “nonpolitician”, a humanitarian. He was the symbol of the “new” that people loved in the twenties, but he also embodied the old ways. Modern and traditional themes. Hoover before 1929 Similar to Henry Ford, Hoover embodied the American Dream. “The exaggerated idea the people have conceived of me. They have convictions that I am a sort of superman, that no problem is beyond my capacity, if some unprecedented calamity should come upon the nation… I would be sacrificed to the unreasoning disappointment of a people who expected too much.” –Herbert Hoover
Hoover was orphaned and very poor at the age of 9, he was a self-made millionaire thirty years later. This was a desirable for his image in the twenties but when the dream became a nightmare, no one wanted to be reminded of it. The switch from liked to hated Example of a Poor leader Weak president Awful politician “people were starving because of Herbert hoover” “My mother was out of work because of Herbert hoover” “men were killing themselves because of Herbert hoover and their fatherless children were being packed away to orphanages… because of Herbert hoover.”
Implying and saying that he was a man who would provide relief for the banks but people, a president who would feed foreigners but would let his own people starve. Useful reminders that the republican party was the party with little compassion. Hoover continued
Working women became consumers of popular products and fashions. Women who would never tolerate the strong smells and stains of chewing tobacco or cigars began to smoke the new, and relatively clean, mild cigarettes. Cigarettes were advertised to women as a sign of modern sophistication, and the 1920s “flapper” is usually pictured with a cigarette in her hand. Millions of women worked in white-collar jobs (as stenographers, for example) and could afford to participate in the burgeoning consumer economy. The “New Woman”
The increased availability of birth- control devices such as the diaphragm made it possible for women to have fewer children. And new machines and technologies like the washing machine and the vacuum cleaner eliminated some of the drudgery of household work. The most far-reaching change was political. Many women believed that it was their right and duty to take a serious part in politics. They recognized, too, that political decisions affected their daily lives. The “New Woman”
Ratified in 1920 Allowed women to vote. The 19 th Amendment
Some women didn’t want the vote. A widespread attitude was that women’s roles and men’s roles did not overlap. This idea of “separate spheres” held that women should concern themselves with home, children, and religion, while men took care of business and politics. North Carolina opponents of woman suffrage, or voting, claimed that “women are not the equal of men mentally” and being able to vote “would take them out of their proper sphere of life.” The outcomes of the 19 th amendment
The League of Women Voters (LWV) was founded in 1919 It was formed by a group of women who wanted all voters, male and female, to understand issues sufficiently well to vote wisely. League of woman voters
Flapper: a young woman with bobbed hair and short skirts who drank, smoked and said what might be termed “unladylike” things, in addition to being more sexually “free” than previous generations. College girls, unmarried girls living at home, and independent office workers most frequently presented themselves as flappers. This look, called "garconne" ("little boy"), was instigated by Coco Chanel. To look more like a boy, women tightly wound their chest with strips of cloth in order to flatten it. The waists of flapper clothes were dropped to the hipline. She wore stockings - made of rayon ("artificial silk") starting in 1923 - which the flapper often wore rolled over a garter belt. It is said that girls "parked" their corsets when they were to go dancing.7 The new, energetic dances of the Jazz Age, required women to be able to move freely, something the "ironsides" didn't allow. Replacing the pantaloons and corsets were underwear called "step-ins." Flapper: a young woman with bobbed hair and short skirts who drank, smoked and said what might be termed “unladylike” things, in addition to being more sexually “free” than previous generations. College girls, unmarried girls living at home, and independent office workers most frequently presented themselves as flappers. This look, called "garconne" ("little boy"), was instigated by Coco Chanel. To look more like a boy, women tightly wound their chest with strips of cloth in order to flatten it. The waists of flapper clothes were dropped to the hipline. She wore stockings - made of rayon ("artificial silk") starting in 1923 - which the flapper often wore rolled over a garter belt. It is said that girls "parked" their corsets when they were to go dancing.7 The new, energetic dances of the Jazz Age, required women to be able to move freely, something the "ironsides" didn't allow. Replacing the pantaloons and corsets were underwear called "step-ins."
A rakish young man who drove a fast car, parted his hair down the middle, and slicked it back with pomade Males in the 1920’s
In reality, most young women in the 1920s did none of these things (though many did adopt a fashionable flapper wardrobe), but even those women who were not flappers gained some unprecedented freedoms. Most industrial laborers worked at least a ten-hour day, yet earned 20 to 40 percent less than the minimum wage necessary for a decent life. Health and safety conditions in the workplace were poor and workers had limited recourse The not so glamorous
The company could increase prices at the local grocery store and give laborers easy credit, keeping workers in debt and stuck working at the same low- paying job. The crowded, dirty tenements in these towns led to high disease and death rates. The not so glamorous
Prohibition Volstead Act: outlawed the sale, manufacture and transportation of alcoholic beverages, however it did not outlaw the actual drinking of alcohol. Enforcement fell to justice department. Volstead Act: outlawed the sale, manufacture and transportation of alcoholic beverages, however it did not outlaw the actual drinking of alcohol. Enforcement fell to justice department. “when prohibition came… among those who could afford it, there was more drinking then ever before” the beautiful and damned
Bootleggers began to get organized. Booze came from Canada, Caribbean sea an Europe. In new York: mobsters such as lucky Luciano, Dutch Schultz and Meyer Lansky controlled liquor trade. Chicago: Al Capone was the kingpin. Sold booze to speakeasies or often ran their own. Bootleggers Bathtub gin: a mixture of ethanol, glycerin, juniper berry juice, and water Some people set up fake churches and synagogues to get supplies of sacramental wine. Bootleggers paid of cops sheriffs and judges. In Cincinnati nearly the entire police force was on the payroll of bootlegger George Remus. In Chicago nearly 800 gangsters died in shootouts with other gangsters during the 13 years of prohibition. New York had about 5000 speakeasies in 1922 and 30,000 in 1927.
Rumrunners: In speedboats smuggling booze across the Detroit river from Canada and other ships anchored off US waters. Once booze were in the US, bootleggers needed a network of clandestine warehouses garages, trucks and armed men. Rumrunners
Origin Mayor Fiorello La Guardia’s Speech (1926) Purpose To present his views before congress on Prohibition. Value The speech is coming from a person of authority. It shows that not everyone in government thought that prohibition was a benefit to the country. Limitation The speech only focuses on the statistical fact on prohibition. Primary Source http://www.eastconn.org/tah/0910SG2_SpeechesOnProhibition.pdf
There are multiple theories to the lead up to the Great Depression, there is however not one single exact reason for the Great Depression. Common: based more on impressionistic evidence than hard data. They assume their conclusions and then explain the depression on the basis of their assumptions. Initial reaction: sit and wait with folded hands Theories
Milton Friedman and Anna Schwartz : prosperity is dependent upon the size of the money supply contended that the Great Depression was triggered by a “mild decline in the money stock from 1929 to 1930. The collapse they say broadened and deepened when “a wave of bank failures beginning in the 30’s” further contracted the money supply. The problem was not the lack of confidence inhibited business men from borrowing, but that insufficient money was available. It was not that the horse would not drink but that there wasn’t enough watering holes to which he could be led. Monetarist Argument
Paul Samuelson: found the origins of the great depression in a “series of historical accidents” The great depression was the consequence of the unfortunate coincidence of several different types of economic cycles reaching their low points simultaneously. These cycles include the fifty year “super” business wave detected in the 1920’s by Russian economist Nikalai Kondratiev, as well as a “normal” nine year business cycle and a short range inventory cycle. All this may be statistically correct, but it is hardly satisfying to the historical appetite. If there were accidents we need to explore them carefully; if there is anything to the idea of economic cycles, we must nonetheless examine the particulars of what happened in 1929 and subsequent years. Series of Historical Accidents
Say’s law states that the production of goods creates its own demand. This view suggests that the key to economic growth is not increasing demand, but increasing production Say argued it was irrational to hoard money because ‘he is most anxious to sell it immediately, lest its value should diminish in his hands‘ i.e. inflation may reduce the value of cash. This theory assumes that markets clear and that businessmen produce goods that are demanded by the market. Says law
The economy should always be close to full employment. There shouldn’t be demand deficient unemployment. According to classical economists, any unemployment must be due to wages being artificially kept above the equilibrium level or structural factors, such as, lack of skills in specific industries. To increase output, we should concentrate on increasing production rather than demand. Implications of Say’s Law
1.The mass unemployment and prolonged recession of the 1930s, suggested that production does not equal demand. In a recession, there can be insufficient aggregate demand for goods produced. 2.Prices and wages are not flexible. e.g. workers may resist nominal wage cuts 3.Excess savings. There are examples where there is an increase in savings, and businessman and consumers hoard cash. See: (Paradox of thrift) Say himself criticised Ricardo for neglecting the possibility of hoarding if there are insufficient investment opportunities. 4.Liquidity Trap. In a liquidity trap the demand to hold cash is greater than the demand to spend. Banks increase their reserves and the saving rate increases, this leads to a fall in aggregate demand. 5.Confidence. In certain circumstances, people may not have the confidence to spend and invest. They may become risk averse and hoard cash in unproductive savings. 6.It may be very rational to ‘hoard’ money – especially in a period of deflation or anxiety. Flaw to Say’s Law
he was responsible for transforming the automobile from an invention of unknown utility into an innovation that profoundly shaped the 20th century and continues to affect our lives today. In 1903, he established the Ford Motor Company, and five years later the company rolled out the first Model T. In order to meet overwhelming demand for the revolutionary vehicle, Ford introduced revolutionary new mass-production methods, including large production plants, the use of standardized, interchangeable parts and, in 1913, the world's first moving assembly line for cars. Enormously influential in the industrial world. eight-hour day for his workers to $5 (up from $2.34 for nine hours), setting a standard for the industry. Henry Ford
John D. Rockefeller Jr. was the only son and principal heir of John D. Rockefeller, the founder of Standard Oil. Between 1916 and 1922, Junior received gifts of approximately $450 million. By 1920, his net worth hovered around $500 million. This gave him independence in his charitable giving. In all, it is estimated that Junior gave about $45 million to various conservation efforts, leading one expert to call him “the most generous philanthropist in the history of conservation.” Junior also used his philanthropy to promote the cause of international harmony. He gave a library to the League of Nations, and later contributed the Manhattan real estate that allowed the United Nations building to be constructed there rather than abroad. He was a founder and major contributor to the Council on Foreign Relations. John D. Rockefeller Jr.
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