Presentation on theme: "Literature Survey, Literature Comprehension, & Literature Review"— Presentation transcript:
1 Literature Survey, Literature Comprehension, & Literature Review
2 Literature Review Process Literature ComprehensionLiterature ReviewLiterature SearchIdentifyingExploringContextualisingFormulatingStructuringDraftingDevelopingClarifyingJustifyingNotingSummarisingCommenting
3 Reading Critically Comprehension Critical Review Focus on understanding as reader intendedWhat it saysCritical ReviewFocus on interpretingWhat it doesRecognition that text is one way of viewing subject
4 Reading Critically – Initial Steps Recognise a text as a presentation of a subject by the Author(s)Structured and presented in a particular waycontains a beginning, middle, and enduses illustrations to explain, clarify or expand on remarksuses evidence to support remarks e.g. cites other sources, presents resultsuses particular language to portray topicsorganises remarks in a logical sequence
5 Reading Critically – Description Describe the text from each of the perspectives on previous slideStructurewhat is included in the beginning, middle and endwhyExampleswhat the examples are examples ofwhere are they fromEvidencenature of the evidence – sources used and how, types of resultLanguage and Stylechoice of language or terms– what types of terms are applied to what topicsWhat type of sequence is used
6 Reading Critically – Description What is achieved by the text?What is achieved by describing topics a certain wayWhat is assumed by selecting certain types of evidenceIs there a particular perspective
7 Reading Critically – Assessment Think criticallyHow well does the text do what it does?All texts shouldAddress a specific topicClearly define termsPresent evidenceExplain exceptionsDemonstrate clearly cause and effectPresent conclusions shown to follow logically from earlier arguments and evidence
8 Reading Critically – Assessment Evaluate the textDoes it make sense?How does it fit into the area?Does it agree/disagree with other texts?Does it offer new evidence? Or types of evidence?Does the evidence support the arguments?Are the conclusions logical?
9 Inference Readers construct meaning from a text by what they take the words to meanhow they process sentences to find meaningdrawing on their knowledge of the language andof conventions of social communication.
10 Inference Other Factors knowledge of the Author(s)occasion or publicationthe audienceReaders infer unstated meanings based on social conventions, shared knowledge, shared experience, or shared values.make sense of remarks by recognizing implications and drawing conclusions.Readers read ideas more than wordsReaders infer, rather than find, meaning.
11 Inference Consider the following statement: The Senator admitted owning the gun that killed his wife.What can you infer from this statement?
12 InferenceConsider the following statement from Robert Skoglund, The Humble Farmer of Public Radio in Maine (http//www.TheHumbleFarmer.com), as follows:We had visitors a week or so ago. Houseguests. Six of them. One of them was Oscar who teaches geology at the University in Utrecht. Now I love houseguests. Usually. But when they arrived I discovered that two of them couldn't even walk into the house. Had to be carried in. And then I found out they couldn't talk, either. What would you have done if you'd been in my place? How do you handle a situation like that?What can you infer from this statement?
13 The Literature ReviewProcess of consolidating the various strands of past research into a single narrative contextualizing your research.Combining separate elements to create a cohesive, coherent wholeSTART WRITING NOW!
14 Literature Review Identify your themes Create a map of based on your themesHow do they link together ?Where do they contribute to your work ?What papers link to each theme?Construct in the order the most clearly supports your thinking.
15 Literature Review – How to? Consider each article that you have reviewedWhat does it do for you ?Is it significant enough to go into the review ?Does it provide context or background ?Is it a quality source?Does it identify issues or problems?Does it help build towards the ‘gap’ in the research you are identifying ?Could you take this article out and it wouldn’t make any difference ?Does it simply repeat something from another source?Am I only including it to show how many papers I’ve read?
16 Literature Review Planning Common Points Grid One planning technique – common points gridDuring your comprehension you will havenoted of words or ideas that repeat themselves.noted of conflicts or contradictions in the informationFrom this you can derive the main research questions texts answerAnd the way the research answers the question - Incorporating your noted contradictionsTurn these answers into “categories.”Create a grid using Author(s)’ names and categories as organizing features.Fill in the grid with details from source material.
17 Common Points Grid - example Research Question: What coping strategies exist for legacy systems?Possible Answers: A range of solutions are adopted which have a range of impacts on the system being consideredInitial GridAuthor(s)MaintenanceWrappingMigrationRedevelopmentAuthor(s) AOutlines a case study of maintenance over years – signals key challenges for redevelopmentAuthor(s) BOutlines key problems experience by ongoing maintenanceLeading researcher in DB area – proposes approach most adopted in areaArgues redevelopment not viable for 24/7 systems – provides examplesAuthor(s) CProposes new approach – challenges that proposed by Author(s) B
18 Literature Review You don’t have to do it all in one go Write sections about what you knowwhen you know itIf you are building summaries and commentaries as you go you should be able to compile and edit theseYou will have to draft and editFor the first draft include as much content as you want then edit it down to be coherent and concise
19 Literature Review - Structure The beginning or introduction sectionIntroduce the chapter or paperExplain what you will be talking about and why
20 Literature Review - Structure The middle sectionHeadings and sub-headings = map of your thinkingIntroduce the main research topics and provide definitions for key concepts that are important to your researchDiscuss related researchIdentify key researchersShow gaps, issues or problems
21 Literature Review - Structure The end or conclusion sectionwill be a summary of your critical thinkingReiterate your arguments in a concise way
22 Using Sources in your work Provides evidence and examples to support your arguments, propositions, opinions or findingsEstablishes credibilityProviding a map to reader of where your work fitsAnd what its based onAllows reader to locate, review and test evidence and examples usedOr to use it for their own purposesGives recognition to work which you’ve benefited fromDemonstrates that you have considered relevant work in the area
23 Using Sources in Your Work To support what you are sayingIntroduce someone’s work or opinion in order to discussShow differences between other peoples’ work or opinionsShow differences between your own work and that of others
24 Two Things You Need To Know CitingAcknowledging within the text/content of your work the source or sources you are using to build an argument or support an opinion. It is ok to use someone else’s work in this way.Do this whenYou want to take an section of a source.Make it clear why you are using it, put it in quotations and acknowledge the sourceYou want to paraphrase or present a summary of information taken from a source(s).Be careful! It is not ok simply to rewrite. You must also cite and reference.You want to support your argument or opinion.Here you are simply saying ‘I have read respected sources in the area and these guys agree with me’
25 Two Things You Need To Know ReferencingWhen you cite someone’s work you must include the full detail of where to find the original text.You do this by including a reference list, usually at the end of your submission.Each reference detailsThe Author(s) NameThe Year of PublicationThe Correct TitleWhere the source can be located – Details of PublicationThis enables the reader of your work to locate any sources and read them for themselves.
26 Citing and Referencing Performed as a pairIf you citeYou must include the full detail in your reference list
27 Handling Common Knowledge Any knowledge that is so well known that it can be found in numerous sources does not have to be cited.E.g.A large number of programming languages use compilers to translate source code to machine executable code. However, some are translated into a form which can be interpreted when needed to form machine code.If however you want to state something about what the efficiency or effectiveness of this you will need to cite a source to support your argument:
28 Using Sources in Your Work To reportFacts, figures, definitions etcE.gCitation:2009 showed that only 32% of all software projects were deemed successful (Standish 2009).Reference:Standish (2009), Standish Chaos Report Available: [Date Accessed: 1st October 2011]Format for Website:Author(s) (Year), Title of site in italics. Available: URI, [Accessed: date]
29 Using Sources in Your Work To acknowledgeYou are using some particular approachE.g.Citation:The process of developing a literature review used in this lecture is that by Diana Ridley (Ridley 2008).Reference:Ridley D (2008), The Literature Review: A Step-by-Step Guide for Students, Sage Publications Ltd.Format for Book:Author(s) (Year), Name of Book in italics, edition if relevant, Publisher.
30 Using Sources in Your Work Support for your opinion - Quotation:Citation:The Waterfall model is still one of the most recognised models of software development. However, as Boehm states, “by the end of the 1970’s, problems were cropping up with formality and sequential waterfall processes” (2006).Reference:Boehm, B (2006), ‘A View of 20th and 21st Century Software Engineering’, In the Proceedings of the 28th international conference on Software engineering (ICSE’06), Shanghai International Convention Center, Shanghai, China May , ACM New York.Format for conference paper:Author(s) (Year), ‘Title of Paper in single quotation marks’, Title of Conference in italics, edition if relevant, Location and date of conference, if known, Place of Publication if known, page numbers if known.
31 Quoting Use if Use sparingly Short quotes Long quotes Author(s) is key researcher or AuthoritativeYou can’t think how you would paraphrase and retain the meaningUse sparinglyLiterature review is about your thinkingShort quotesRun into your text with quotation marks and citationLong quotesStart on separate lineIndentGive citationYou can leave out words and replace with …
32 Quoting If you quote Don’t quote too much You need to comment Are you really presenting your thoughts and opinions?
33 Summarise and Paraphrase Extract meaning of a short section or paragraphKeep it shortUse your own wordsMake it shorter than the originalInclude the citationSummariseState in shortMake sure you cover key points – leaves out detail
34 Using Sources in Your Work Support for your opinion – ParaphraseCitation (multiple sources)It is recognised that there are problems in using rigid, formal approaches to software development such as the Waterfall model (Boehm 2006; Green and DiCaterino 1998).Reference:Boehm, B (2006), ‘A View of 20th and 21st Century Software Engineering’, In the Proceedings of the 28th international conference on Software engineering (ICSE’06), Shanghai International Convention Center, Shanghai, China May 20-28, ACM New York.Green, D. and DiCaterino A. (1998), A Survey of System Development Process Models, Center for Technology in Government, University at Albany, Available: df, [Accessed: 24th February 2011]
35 Paraphrasing Good Paraphrasing: Citation: Extract from Boehm 2006:“The most widely adopted agile method has been XP, whose major technical premise in  was that its combination of customer collocation, short development increments, simple design, pair programming, refactoring, and continuous integration would flatten the cost-of change-vs.- time curve in Figure 4. However, data reported so far indicate that this flattening does not take place for larger projects. A good example was provided by a large Thought Works Lease Management system presented at ICSE 2002 . When the size of the project reached over stories, 500,000 lines of code, and 50 people, with some changes touching over 100 objects, the cost of change inevitably increased. This required the project to add some more explicit plans, controls, and high-level architecture representations.” Beck, K. Extreme Programming Explained, Addison-Wesley, 2000 Ehn, P. (ed.): Work-Oriented Design of Computer Artifacts, Lawrence Earlbaum Assoc. (1990)Good Paraphrasing:Citation:As Boehm points out the size of a project appears to have a significant impact on the effectiveness of XP as a methodology (Boehm 2006).Reference List:Boehm, B (2006), ‘A View of 20th and 21st Century Software Engineering’, In the Proceedings of the 28th international conference on Software engineering (ICSE’06), Shanghai International Convention Center, Shanghai, China May 20-28, ACM New York.
36 Bad Paraphrasing Paraphrasing Citation: XP does not appear to flatten the cost-of-change-vs- time curve for large projects (Boehm 2006).Reference List:Boehm, B (2006), ‘A View of 20th and 21st Century Software Engineering’, In the Proceedings of the 28th international conference on Software engineering (ICSE’06), Shanghai International Convention Center, Shanghai, China May 20-28, ACM New York.Bad Paraphrasing
38 How to cite The correct way to cite Please note: Work by one Author is (Smith, 2005)Work by two Author(s) is (Smith and Jones, 2005)Work by multiple Author(s) is (Smith et al., 2005)Sometimes if there are three Author(s) – they can all be listedWorks by the same Author(s) in the same yearDistinguish by adding a, b, c etc after the yearE.g. (Boehm 2006a; Boehm 2006b)Please note:Since “et al.” is an abbreviation of the phrase “et alia” the full stop is necessary.Additionally as it is a foreign phrase it must always be in italics.
39 How to reference A Book A chapter in a book Author(s) (Year), Name of Book in italics, edition if relevant, Publisher.Include the edition if there are multiple editions – you must indicate the one you usedRidley D (2008), The Literature Review: A Step-by-Step Guide for Students, Sage Publications Ltd.A chapter in a bookAuthor(s) (year), ‘Title of chapter in single quotes’, In plus Author(s)/editors of book, Title of Book in Italics, Publisher, page numbers if known.McCann, J M (1994), ‘Generating, Managing and Communicating Insights. In Blattberg’, In R C, Glazer, R and Little, J D C (Eds), The Marketing Information Revolution, Harvard Business School Press, Boston.
40 How to cite/reference A Journal Article A Conference Paper Author(s) (year), ‘Title of article in single quotes’, Name of Journal in Italics, Volume, Issue, Page NumbersBisbal J, Lawless D, Wu B and Grimson J (1999), ‘Legacy Information System Migration: A Brief Review of Problems, Solutions and Research Issues’, IEEE Software ,Vol. 16 (5).A Conference PaperAuthor(s) (Year), ‘Title of Paper in single quotation marks’, Title of Conference in italics, edition if relevant, Location and date of conference, if known, Place of Publication if known, page numbers if known.Boehm, B (2006), ‘A View of 20th and 21st Century Software Engineering’, In the Proceedings of the 28th international conference on Software engineering (ICSE’06), Shanghai International Convention Center, Shanghai, China May 20-28, ACM New York.
41 How to cite/referenceA report by a company where no Author(s) is listedUse the name of the companyStandish (2009), Standish Chaos Report Available: [Date Accessed: 1st October 2011]A websiteYou must include the URI and the date accessedGreen, D. and DiCaterino A. (1998), A Survey of System Development Process Models, Center for Technology in Government, University at Albany, Available: [Accessed: 24th February 2011]
42 How to cite/referenceWhat if I read something which cites a source which I haven’t read myself ? And I want to refer to it ?E.g.X’s theory of y (X 1999) as cited in (Z 2000) states that….Do not use this too often