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Literature Survey, Literature Comprehension, & Literature Review.

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1 Literature Survey, Literature Comprehension, & Literature Review

2 Literature Review Process Literature Comprehension Literature Review Literature Search Identifying Exploring Contextualising Formulating JustifyingNoting SummarisingCommenting Structuring Drafting Developing Clarifying

3 Reading Critically  Comprehension  Focus on understanding as reader intended  What it says  Critical Review  Focus on interpreting  What it does  Recognition that text is one way of viewing subject

4 Reading Critically – Initial Steps  Recognise a text as a presentation of a subject by the Author(s)  Structured and presented in a particular way  contains a beginning, middle, and end  uses illustrations to explain, clarify or expand on remarks  uses evidence to support remarks e.g. cites other sources, presents results  uses particular language to portray topics  organises remarks in a logical sequence

5 Reading Critically – Description  Describe the text from each of the perspectives on previous slide  Structure  what is included in the beginning, middle and end  why  Examples  what the examples are examples of  where are they from  Evidence  nature of the evidence – sources used and how, types of result  Language and Style  choice of language or terms– what types of terms are applied to what topics  What type of sequence is used

6 Reading Critically – Description  What is achieved by the text?  What is achieved by describing topics a certain way  What is assumed by selecting certain types of evidence  Is there a particular perspective

7 Reading Critically – Assessment  Think critically  How well does the text do what it does?  All texts should  Address a specific topic  Clearly define terms  Present evidence  Explain exceptions  Demonstrate clearly cause and effect  Present conclusions shown to follow logically from earlier arguments and evidence

8 Reading Critically – Assessment  Evaluate the text  Does it make sense?  How does it fit into the area?  Does it agree/disagree with other texts?  Does it offer new evidence? Or types of evidence?  Does the evidence support the arguments?  Are the conclusions logical?

9 Inference  Readers construct meaning from a text by  what they take the words to mean  how they process sentences to find meaning  drawing on their knowledge of the language and  of conventions of social communication.

10 Inference  Other Factors  knowledge of the Author(s)  occasion or publication  the audience  Readers infer unstated meanings based on social conventions, shared knowledge, shared experience, or shared values.  make sense of remarks by recognizing implications and drawing conclusions.  Readers read ideas more than words  Readers infer, rather than find, meaning.

11 Inference  Consider the following statement: The Senator admitted owning the gun that killed his wife.  What can you infer from this statement?

12 Inference  Consider the following statement from Robert Skoglund, The Humble Farmer of Public Radio in Maine (http//www.TheHumbleFarmer.com), as follows: We had visitors a week or so ago. Houseguests. Six of them. One of them was Oscar who teaches geology at the University in Utrecht. Now I love houseguests. Usually. But when they arrived I discovered that two of them couldn't even walk into the house. Had to be carried in. And then I found out they couldn't talk, either. What would you have done if you'd been in my place? How do you handle a situation like that?  What can you infer from this statement?

13 The Literature Review  Process of consolidating the various strands of past research into a single narrative contextualizing your research.  Combining separate elements to create a cohesive, coherent whole  START WRITING NOW!

14 Literature Review  Identify your themes  Create a map of based on your themes  How do they link together ?  Where do they contribute to your work ?  What papers link to each theme?  Construct in the order the most clearly supports your thinking.

15 Literature Review – How to?  Consider each article that you have reviewed  What does it do for you ?  Is it significant enough to go into the review ?  Does it provide context or background ?  Is it a quality source?  Does it identify issues or problems?  Does it help build towards the ‘gap’ in the research you are identifying ?  Could you take this article out and it wouldn’t make any difference ?  Does it simply repeat something from another source?  Am I only including it to show how many papers I’ve read?

16 Literature Review Planning Common Points Grid  One planning technique – common points grid  During your comprehension you will have  noted of words or ideas that repeat themselves.  noted of conflicts or contradictions in the information  From this you can derive the main research questions texts answer  And the way the research answers the question - Incorporating your noted contradictions  Turn these answers into “categories.”  Create a grid using Author(s)’ names and categories as organizing features.  Fill in the grid with details from source material.

17 Common Points Grid - example Author(s)MaintenanceWrappingMigrationRedevelopme nt Author(s) AOutlines a case study of maintenance over years – signals key challenges for redevelopment Author(s) BOutlines key problems experience by ongoing maintenance Leading researcher in DB area – proposes approach most adopted in area Argues redevelopment not viable for 24/7 systems – provides examples Author(s) CProposes new approach – challenges that proposed by Author(s) B Argues redevelopment not viable for 24/7 systems – provides examples Research Question: What coping strategies exist for legacy systems? Possible Answers: A range of solutions are adopted which have a range of impacts on the system being considered Initial Grid

18 Literature Review  You don’t have to do it all in one go  Write sections about what you know  when you know it  If you are building summaries and commentaries as you go you should be able to compile and edit these  You will have to draft and edit  For the first draft include as much content as you want then edit it down to be coherent and concise

19 Literature Review - Structure  The beginning or introduction section  Introduce the chapter or paper  Explain what you will be talking about and why

20 Literature Review - Structure  The middle section  Headings and sub-headings = map of your thinking  Introduce the main research topics and provide definitions for key concepts that are important to your research  Discuss related research  Identify key researchers  Show gaps, issues or problems

21 Literature Review - Structure  The end or conclusion section  will be a summary of your critical thinking  Reiterate your arguments in a concise way

22 Using Sources in your work  Provides evidence and examples to support your arguments, propositions, opinions or findings  Establishes credibility  Providing a map to reader of where your work fits  And what its based on  Allows reader to locate, review and test evidence and examples used  Or to use it for their own purposes  Gives recognition to work which you’ve benefited from  Demonstrates that you have considered relevant work in the area

23 Using Sources in Your Work  To support what you are saying  Introduce someone’s work or opinion in order to discuss  Show differences between other peoples’ work or opinions  Show differences between your own work and that of others

24 Two Things You Need To Know  Citing  Acknowledging within the text/content of your work the source or sources you are using to build an argument or support an opinion.  It is ok to use someone else’s work in this way.  Do this when  You want to take an section of a source.  Make it clear why you are using it, put it in quotations and acknowledge the source  You want to paraphrase or present a summary of information taken from a source(s).  Be careful! It is not ok simply to rewrite. You must also cite and reference.  You want to support your argument or opinion.  Here you are simply saying ‘I have read respected sources in the area and these guys agree with me’

25 Two Things You Need To Know  Referencing  When you cite someone’s work you must include the full detail of where to find the original text.  You do this by including a reference list, usually at the end of your submission.  Each reference details  The Author(s) Name  The Year of Publication  The Correct Title  Where the source can be located – Details of Publication  This enables the reader of your work to locate any sources and read them for themselves.

26 Citing and Referencing  Performed as a pair  If you cite  You must include the full detail in your reference list

27 Handling Common Knowledge  Any knowledge that is so well known that it can be found in numerous sources does not have to be cited.  E.g.  A large number of programming languages use compilers to translate source code to machine executable code. However, some are translated into a form which can be interpreted when needed to form machine code.  If however you want to state something about what the efficiency or effectiveness of this you will need to cite a source to support your argument: 

28 Using Sources in Your Work  To report  Facts, figures, definitions etc  E.g Citation: 2009 showed that only 32% of all software projects were deemed successful (Standish 2009). Reference: Standish (2009), Standish Chaos Report 2009. Available: http://www.standishgroup.com/, [Date Accessed: 1 st October 2011]www.standishgroup.com/ Format for Website: Author(s) (Year), Title of site in italics. Available: URI, [Accessed: date]

29 Using Sources in Your Work  To acknowledge  You are using some particular approach  E.g. Citation: The process of developing a literature review used in this lecture is that by Diana Ridley (Ridley 2008). Reference: Ridley D (2008), The Literature Review: A Step-by-Step Guide for Students, Sage Publications Ltd. Format for Book: Author(s) (Year), Name of Book in italics, edition if relevant, Publisher.

30 Using Sources in Your Work  Support for your opinion - Quotation: Citation: The Waterfall model is still one of the most recognised models of software development. However, as Boehm states, “by the end of the 1970’s, problems were cropping up with formality and sequential waterfall processes” (2006). Reference: Boehm, B (2006), ‘A View of 20th and 21st Century Software Engineering’, In the Proceedings of the 28th international conference on Software engineering (ICSE’06), Shanghai International Convention Center, Shanghai, China May 20-28, ACM New York. Format for conference paper: Author(s) (Year), ‘Title of Paper in single quotation marks’, Title of Conference in italics, edition if relevant, Location and date of conference, if known, Place of Publication if known, page numbers if known.

31 Quoting  Use if  Author(s) is key researcher or Authoritative  You can’t think how you would paraphrase and retain the meaning  Use sparingly  Literature review is about your thinking  Short quotes  Run into your text with quotation marks and citation  Long quotes  Start on separate line  Indent  Give citation  You can leave out words and replace with …

32 Quoting  If you quote  You need to comment  Don’t quote too much  Are you really presenting your thoughts and opinions?

33 Summarise and Paraphrase  Paraphrase  Extract meaning of a short section or paragraph  Keep it short  Use your own words  Make it shorter than the original  Include the citation  Summarise  State in short  Make sure you cover key points – leaves out detail  Use your own words  Include the citation

34 Using Sources in Your Work  Support for your opinion – Paraphrase  Citation (multiple sources) It is recognised that there are problems in using rigid, formal approaches to software development such as the Waterfall model (Boehm 2006; Green and DiCaterino 1998).  Reference: Boehm, B (2006), ‘A View of 20th and 21st Century Software Engineering’, In the Proceedings of the 28th international conference on Software engineering (ICSE’06), Shanghai International Convention Center, Shanghai, China May 20-28, ACM New York. Green, D. and DiCaterino A. (1998), A Survey of System Development Process Models, Center for Technology in Government, University at Albany, Available: http://www.ctg.albany.edu/publications/reports/survey_of_sysdev/survey_of_sysdev.p df, [Accessed: 24th February 2011] http://www.ctg.albany.edu/publications/reports/survey_of_sysdev/survey_of_sysdev.p df

35 Paraphrasing Extract from Boehm 2006: “The most widely adopted agile method has been XP, whose major technical premise in [14] was that its combination of customer collocation, short development increments, simple design, pair programming, refactoring, and continuous integration would flatten the cost-of change-vs.- time curve in Figure 4. However, data reported so far indicate that this flattening does not take place for larger projects. A good example was provided by a large Thought Works Lease Management system presented at ICSE 2002 [62]. When the size of the project reached over 1000 stories, 500,000 lines of code, and 50 people, with some changes touching over 100 objects, the cost of change inevitably increased. This required the project to add some more explicit plans, controls, and high-level architecture representations.” [14] Beck, K. Extreme Programming Explained, Addison-Wesley, 2000 [62] Ehn, P. (ed.): Work-Oriented Design of Computer Artifacts, Lawrence Earlbaum Assoc. (1990)  Good Paraphrasing:  Citation: As Boehm points out the size of a project appears to have a significant impact on the effectiveness of XP as a methodology (Boehm 2006). Reference List: Boehm, B (2006), ‘A View of 20th and 21st Century Software Engineering’, In the Proceedings of the 28th international conference on Software engineering (ICSE’06), Shanghai International Convention Center, Shanghai, China May 20-28, ACM New York.

36 Paraphrasing Citation: XP does not appear to flatten the cost-of-change-vs- time curve for large projects (Boehm 2006). Reference List: Boehm, B (2006), ‘A View of 20th and 21st Century Software Engineering’, In the Proceedings of the 28th international conference on Software engineering (ICSE’06), Shanghai International Convention Center, Shanghai, China May 20-28, ACM New York. Bad Paraphrasing

37 HARVARD Referencing  Name/Date system  http://www.dit.ie/study/mature/support/academic/citing/# harvard http://www.dit.ie/study/mature/support/academic/citing/# harvard

38 How to cite  The correct way to cite  Work by one Author is (Smith, 2005)  Work by two Author(s) is (Smith and Jones, 2005)  Work by multiple Author(s) is (Smith et al., 2005)  Sometimes if there are three Author(s) – they can all be listed  Works by the same Author(s) in the same year  Distinguish by adding a, b, c etc after the year  E.g. (Boehm 2006a; Boehm 2006b)  Please note:  Since “et al.” is an abbreviation of the phrase “et alia” the full stop is necessary.  Additionally as it is a foreign phrase it must always be in italics.

39 How to reference  A Book  Author(s) (Year), Name of Book in italics, edition if relevant, Publisher.  Include the edition if there are multiple editions – you must indicate the one you used  Ridley D (2008), The Literature Review: A Step-by-Step Guide for Students, Sage Publications Ltd.  A chapter in a book  Author(s) (year), ‘Title of chapter in single quotes’, In plus Author(s)/editors of book, Title of Book in Italics, Publisher, page numbers if known.  McCann, J M (1994), ‘Generating, Managing and Communicating Insights. In Blattberg’, In R C, Glazer, R and Little, J D C (Eds), The Marketing Information Revolution, Harvard Business School Press, Boston.

40 How to cite/reference  A Journal Article  Author(s) (year), ‘Title of article in single quotes’, Name of Journal in Italics, Volume, Issue, Page Numbers  Bisbal J, Lawless D, Wu B and Grimson J (1999), ‘Legacy Information System Migration: A Brief Review of Problems, Solutions and Research Issues’, IEEE Software,Vol. 16 (5).  A Conference Paper  Author(s) (Year), ‘Title of Paper in single quotation marks’, Title of Conference in italics, edition if relevant, Location and date of conference, if known, Place of Publication if known, page numbers if known.  Boehm, B (2006), ‘A View of 20th and 21st Century Software Engineering’, In the Proceedings of the 28th international conference on Software engineering (ICSE’06), Shanghai International Convention Center, Shanghai, China May 20-28, ACM New York.

41 How to cite/reference  A report by a company where no Author(s) is listed  Use the name of the company Standish (2009), Standish Chaos Report 2009. Available: http://www.standishgroup.com/, [Date Accessed: 1 st October 2011]www.standishgroup.com/  A website  You must include the URI and the date accessed Green, D. and DiCaterino A. (1998), A Survey of System Development Process Models, Center for Technology in Government, University at Albany, Available: http://www.ctg.albany.edu/publications/reports/survey_of_sysdev/survey_of_sysdev.pdf, [Accessed: 24th February 2011] http://www.ctg.albany.edu/publications/reports/survey_of_sysdev/survey_of_sysdev.pdf

42 How to cite/reference  What if I read something which cites a source which I haven’t read myself ? And I want to refer to it ?  E.g.  X’s theory of y (X 1999) as cited in (Z 2000) states that….  Do not use this too often

43 Check this out of the library…


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