2Additional Planets ect… Jupiter was the king of the gods in Roman mythology — a fitting name for the largest of the planets. In a similar manner, the ancient Greeks named the planet after Zeus, the king of the Greek Pantheon.Jupiter helped revolutionize the way we saw the universe and ourselves in 1610, whenGalileo discovered Jupiter’s four large moons, Lo, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto, now known as the Galilean moons.This was the first time celestial bodies were not seen circling the Earth, major support of the Copernican (Heliocentric) view that the Earth was not the center of the universe.
3Jupiter is the most massive planet in our solar system, more than twice as massive as all the other planets combined, and had it been about 80 times more massive, it would have actually become a star instead of a planet.Its atmosphere resembles that of the sun, made up mostly of hydrogen and helium, and with four large moons and many smaller moons in orbit around it, Jupiter by itself forms a kind of miniature solar system. All told, the immense volume of Jupiter could hold more than 1,300 Earths.The colorful bands of Jupiter are arranged:In dark belts and light zones created by strong east-west winds in the planet’s upper atmosphere of 640 Km per hour.The white clouds in the zones are made of crystals of frozen ammonia, while darker clouds ofOther chemicals are found in the belts.At the deepest visible levels are blue clouds, atmosphere traveling more than 400 miles.
4The most extraordinary feature on Jupiter is undoubtedly the Great Red Spot, a giant hurricane-like storm seen for more than 300 years.At its widest, the Great Red Spot is three times the diameter of the Earth, and its edge spins counter-clockwise around the center at a speed of about 225 miles (360 Km) per hour.The color of the storm, which usually varies from brick red to slightly brown, may come from small amounts of Sulfur and Phosphorus in the ammonia crystals of Jupiter’s clouds.The magnetosphere of Jupiter, which is comprised of these fields and particles, swells out some 600,000 to 2 million miles (1 million to 3 million kilometers) toward the sun and tapers to a tail extending more than 600 million miles (1 billion kilometers) behind Jupiter.
5Jupiter spins faster than any other planet, taking a little under 10 hours to complete a turn on Its axis, compared with 24 hours for Earth. This rapid spin actually makes Jupiter bulge at theEquator and flatten at the poles, making the planet about 7 percent wider at the equator than at the poles.Jupiter’s Orbital Characteristics Composition and StructureAtmospheric composition (by volume) 89.9% molecular hydrogen, 10.2% helium, minor amounts of methane, ammonia, hydrogen deuteride, ethane, water, ammonia ice aerosols, water ice aerosols, and ammonia hydrosulfide aerosols.Magnetic Field nearly 20,000 times stronger than Earth’s chemical composition. A dense core of uncertain composition, surround by a helium-rich layer of fluid metallic hydrogen, wrapped up in an atmosphere primarily made of molecular hydrogen.Internal structure a core of less than 10 times Earth’s mass (Tristan Guillot, “Interiors of Giant Planets Inside and Outside the Solar Science) surrounded by a layer of fluid metallic hydrogen extending out to percent of the diameter of the planet, enclosed in an atmosphere mostly made of gaseous and liquid hydrogen.
7Saturn was the Roman name for Cronus, the Lord of the Titans in Greek mythology. Saturn happens to be the root of the English word "Saturday”."Physical Characteristics of the Planet SaturnSaturn is a gas giant made up mostly of hydrogen and helium. Saturn is the second largest planet, big enough to hold more than 760 Earths, and is more massive than any other planet except Jupiter, roughly 95 times Earth’s mass.However, Saturn has the lowest density of all the planets, and is the only one less dense than water — if there were a bathtub big enough to hold it, Saturn would float on top.Although the other gas giants in the solar system — Jupiter, Uranus and Neptune — also have rings, those of Saturn are without a doubt the most extraordinary. The largest one to date is up to 200 times the diameter of the planet. Saturn is the farthest planet from Earth visible to the naked eye.The yellow and gold bands seen in the planets atmosphere are the result of super-fast winds in the upper atmosphere, which can reach up to miles per hour (1,800 Km per hour) around its equator combined with heat rising from the planets interior.
8Saturn spins faster than any other planet except Jupiter, completing a rotation roughly every10-and-a-half hours. This rapid spinning causes Saturn to bulge at the equator and flatten at its poles. The planet is 8,000 miles (13,000 Km) wider at its equator than between the poles.Orbital Characteristics of the Planet Saturn Composition and StructureAtmospheric composition (by volume) 96.3% molecular hydrogen, 3.25% helium, minor amounts of methane, ammonia, hydrogen deuteride, ethane, ammonia ice aerosols, water ice aerosols, ammonia hydrosulfide aerosols.Magnetic Field:Saturn has a magnetic field about 578 times more powerful than Earth’s.Chemical Composition:Saturn seems to have a hot solid inner core of iron and rocky material surrounded by an outer core probably composed of ammonia, methane, and water. Next a layer of highly compressed, liquid metallic hydrogen followed by a region of viscous hydrogen and helium. This hydrogen and helium becomes gaseous near the planet’s surface and merges with its atmosphere.Internal Structure:Saturn seems to have a core between about times as massive as the Earth.
10UranusUranus is the seventh planet from the sun and is named after the Greek God of the sky in Latin. It is the only planet whose name came from a figure in Greek mythology as opposed to Roman mythology.Because of the strange way it spins, nights on some parts of Uranus can last for more than 40 years.The planet's most extraordinary feature is the tilt of its rotational axis, which is almost perpendicular to the plane of the ecliptic, which means that it alternately has its north pole and its south pole turned towards the sun.Even though Neptune is further from the sun, Uranus is the coldest planet in the solar system.Uranus has 27 known satellites.In many Asian languages, Uranus' name is translated into “Sky king star”.Uranus mass is more than 14 times larger than Earth.Uranus and Neptune are both known as Ice Giants.It is the second least dense planet after Saturn.
12NeptuneAfter Pluto was declassified as a planet, Neptune became the farthest planet from the sun. Neptune's diameter is about 30,200 miles or almost 4 times the Earth's diameter.The planet was named after the Roman sea God.Neptune is the stormiest planet. The winds there can blow up to 1,240 miles per hour, that is three times as fast as Earth's Hurricanes.The planet has has a system of thin dark rings but they are incomplete rings and are best described as arcs. Neptune is a sea blue color due to the methane gas in its atmosphere.Neptune once had a great dark spot similar to Jupiter.Neptune only receives 1/900 of the solar energy that reaches Earth.Neptune has its own heat source, it emits a quantity of energy 2.7 times greater than it receives.Neptune has 8 known moons.Neptune is 30 times farther from the sun as is the Earth.It goes around the sun once every 165 Earth Years.The atmosphere is made up of Hydrogen, Helium and Methane.Neptune has a rocky core.