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This PowerPoint reviews middle school chemistry so that you will be able to get a jumpstart on chemistry next year.

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Presentation on theme: "This PowerPoint reviews middle school chemistry so that you will be able to get a jumpstart on chemistry next year."— Presentation transcript:

1 This PowerPoint reviews middle school chemistry so that you will be able to get a jumpstart on chemistry next year.

2  When an animal dies, what happens to its cells? Image

3  Periods {Rows}  Increase in atomic # as move across row  Do not have similar properties  Groups {Columns}  AKA Families  Similar properties due to the same valence #

4  Metals {Pink, Red, and Yellow on our colored PT}  Conduct electricity, ductile [draw into wire], malleable [flatten], luster [shine] Image

5

6  Non-Metals {Green on our colored PT}  Opposite of metals Image

7  Metalloids {Orange on our colored PT}  These elements, on either side of the zig-zag line, have characteristics of both metals and non-metals. Image

8  Can atoms die?  Can atoms be created?  As a human grows, it is adding new cells and the cells are made of atoms. Where do those atoms come from?

9  Sketch the three basic parts to an atom and the three descriptors. Image

10  Sketch the three basic parts to an atom and the three descriptors. A. Proton B. Neutron C. Nucleus D. Electron shell/cloud E. Valence electrons Image

11 + C 6 carbon S How many protons? atomic # How many neutrons? + 6 atomic mass =} How many energy levels? How many electrons? 6

12 + C 6 carbon S How many valence electrons? 4 Valence electrons are those found in the outer energy level. They determine how reactive an atom is.

13 H G hydrogen How many electrons? How many protons? 1 atomic # How many neutrons?0 atomic mass How many energy levels? 1 How many valence electrons? 1 =}

14 O G oxygen How many electrons? How many neutrons? How many protons?8atomic # atomic mass How many energy levels? 2 How many valence electrons? 6 =}

15 N G nitrogen How many electrons? How many neutrons? How many protons?7atomic # atomic mass How many energy levels? 2 N N How many valence electrons? 5 =}

16  Draw a diagram of:  Lithium  Aluminum or  Argon Image

17  The chemical and physical properties of a substance are important because they determine the application(s) of the substance.  When setting a bone you have to make sure to use a metal that will not change once inside your body.  These titanium pins are used because they will stay the same even after many years in the body. Image

18  Examples of physical properties: Color, mass, volume, density, state of matter Image

19  Definition: A change in the physical form or properties of a substance that occurs without a change in composition; the atoms that make up the substance are not changed or rearranged.  Water is still H 2 O. If you freeze it, or boil it will change state and have different physical properties; it is still 2 hydrogen atoms and 1 oxygen atom.

20 Examples  Melting  Freezing  Evaporating  Separating  Breaking  Cutting  Crushing  Boiling  Dissolving Image

21  How much material (mass) is packed in an amount of space (volume); can be used to identify what a item is made of Density = Mass/Volume g/ml or g/cm 3 Image

22  Definition: how a substance reacts with other substances  Examples of chemical properties: heat of combustion, reactivity with water, PH, electromotive force Image

23  Definition: A change that occurs when a substance changes composition by forming one or more new substances; substances after the chemical change are different from the substances at the beginning.  If you burn paper it creates smoke and ash. Smoke and ash have different physical and chemical properties than paper.

24  Indicators for a chemical change:  a gas is produced a chemical reaction has occurred; EX bubbles begin to appear  a change in color  a change in temperature changes; includes both a rise or a decrease in temperature

25 Examples:  Burn  Combust  Rust  Corrode  Spoil  Ferment  Oxidize  Rot  Tarnish Image

26  Match the terms at your table to the correct chemical explanation.

27 Atom smallest unit of matter that retains its chemical properties Element a substance made up of only one type of atom (PT of elements) Molecule bonding between atoms of 1 or more elements; smallest unit of a compound Compound chemical combination of two or more elements in definite proportions Cell collection of compounds forming a living unit; smallest unit of an organism that can be considered living

28  blend of 2 or more types of matter; each component keeps its own identity and properties  the components are only physically mixed and can be physically separated  Types of mixtures:  Heterogeneous  Homogeneous The components of human blood are not uniform; therefore it would be considered a heterogeneous mixture. © Dennis Kunkel

29  Visible, distinct parts; not uniform in composition  All parts to not look the same Image

30  soil  concrete  blood  chocolate chip cookies  iced tea with ice

31  Uniform in composition; No visible parts  It looks the same throughout  Can also be called solutions (liquids)  Can also be called an alloy (two metals) The salt in ocean water is dissolved, but can be collected if the water evaporates. The ocean is therefore a homogenous mixture. Image

32  vinegar  clear air  salt water  brass

33 C 6 H 12 O 6  The subscript indicates the # of atoms in the molecule. So therefore there are:  6 carbon atoms,  12 hydrogen atoms,  and 6 oxygen atoms  = 1 molecule of glucose

34 2C 6 H 12 O 6  The coefficient indicates the # of molecules [multiply each element]. So therefore there are:  12 carbon atoms,  24 hydrogen atoms,  and 12 oxygen atoms  = 2 molecules of glucose

35  How many types of elements, total number of atoms, and number of molecules are indicated by each of the following formulas? H 2 SO 4 [Sulfuric acid] 4CaCl 3 [Calcium carbonate]

36  Atoms are neither created, nor destroyed in a chemical reaction.  The reactants will match the products. Image

37 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O  C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2  6 – C - 6  18 - O - 18  12 - H - 12

38 Photosynthesis: (Reactants)(Products) 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + Energy  C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 (Carbon Dioxide) (Water) (Glucose) (Oxygen) # of C = _____ # of H = _____ # of O = _____ Cellular Respiration: (Reactants)(Products) C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2  6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + Energy (ATP) (Glucose) (Oxygen) (Carbon Dioxide) (Water) # of C = _____ # of H = _____ # of O = _____

39 ___Al 2 O 3  ___ Al + ___ O 2  Try balancing this equation on your own.  Count the atoms per element on the left and right side of the equations as is; then add coefficients and continue until the equation is balanced

40 2Al 2 O 3  4Al + 3O 2  The correct answer adds 3 coefficients to balance the equation.  4 – Al - 4  18 - O – 18


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