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The Vertebral Column Flexible curved structure Extends from Skull to Pelvis 26 irregular bones in adults 33 separate bones in the fetus and infants.

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Presentation on theme: "The Vertebral Column Flexible curved structure Extends from Skull to Pelvis 26 irregular bones in adults 33 separate bones in the fetus and infants."— Presentation transcript:

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3 The Vertebral Column Flexible curved structure Extends from Skull to Pelvis 26 irregular bones in adults 33 separate bones in the fetus and infants 9 of the 33 fuse to form the sacrum and coccyx

4 The Vertebral Column Transmits weight from trunk to lower limbs Surrounds and protects the spinal cord Provides attachment points for ribs and muscles of the back and neck

5 The Vertebral Column Vertebrae separated by intervertebral discs (fibrocartilage) Each vertebrae is given a name according to its location

6 The Vertebral Column Has five major divisions –Cervical vertebrae 7 bones in neck –Thoracic vertebrae 12 bones in torso –Lumbar vertebrae 5 bones in lower back

7 The Vertebral Column Has five major divisions –Sacrum Bone inferior to the lumbar Articulates with hip bones

8 The Vertebral Column Has five major divisions –Coccyx 4 (sometimes 3 to 5) fused bones –Everyone has same number of cervical vertebrae, but other areas vary in number in 5% of people

9 All mammals have 7 cervical vertebrae

10 The Vertebral Column Vertebrae has four curvatures –Sinusoid shaped (S- shaped) Cervical and lumbar curvatures are Concave Thoracic and Sacral curvatures are Convex

11 The Vertebral Column Abnormal spine curvatures

12 Scoliosis –Abnormal lateral curve

13 Abnormal spine curvatures Kyphosis –hunchback

14 Abnormal spine curvatures Lordosis –swayback

15 Vertebral Column Major Supporting Ligaments Anterior and posterior longitudinal ligaments –continuous bands down the front and back of the spine from the neck to the sacrum Short ligaments connect adjoining vertebrae together

16 Vertebral Column: Ligaments Figure 714a

17 Intervertebral Discs Cushionlike pad composed of two parts –Nucleus pulposus – inner gelatinous nucleus that gives the disc its elasticity and compressibility –Annulus fibrosus – surrounds the nucleus pulposus with a collar composed of collagen and fibrocartilage

18 Vertebral Column: Intervertebral Discs Nucleus pulposus Figure 7.14b

19 Vertebral Column: Intervertebral Discs Annulus fibrosus Figure 7.14b

20 Intervertebral Discs Acts as shock absobers Thickest in the lumbar and cervical regions –Enhances the flexibility of these regions

21 Intervertebral Discs Account for about 25% of the height of the vertebral column Flatten some during the day –We are always a few centimeters shorter at night

22 Intervertebral Discs Herniated (prolapsed) disc Commonly called ‘slipped disc’

23 Intervertebral Discs Slipped discs Usually involves rupture of the annulus fibrousus followed by protrusions of the spongy nucleus pulposus If protrusion presses on spinal cord or on spinal nerves, numbness or excruciating pain may result

24 General Structure of Vertebrae Spinous processes project posteriorly, and transverse processes project laterally Superior and inferior articular processes – protrude superiorly and inferiorly from the pedicle-lamina junctions Intervertebral foramina – lateral openings formed from notched areas on the superior and inferior borders of adjacent pedicles

25 General Structure of Vertebrae Body or centrum – disc-shaped, weight-bearing region Figure 7.15

26 General Structure of Vertebrae Vertebral arch – composed of pedicles and laminae that, along with the centrum, enclose the vertebral foramen Figure 7.15

27 General Structure of Vertebrae Vertebral foramina – make up the vertebral canal through which the spinal cord passes Figure 7.15

28 General Structure of Vertebrae Spinous processes project posteriorly Figure 7.15 Attachment sites for muscles that move the vertebral column and for ligaments that stabilize it

29 General Structure of Vertebrae Transverse processes project laterally Figure 7.15

30 General Structure of Vertebrae Spinous and transverse processes are attachment sites for muscles that move the vertebral column and for ligaments that stabilize it

31 General Structure of Vertebrae Superior and inferior articular processes –Protrude superiorly and inferiorly from the pedicle- lamina junctions

32 General Structure of Vertebrae Intervertebral foramina –Lateral openings formed from notches areas on the superior and inferior borders of adjacent pedicles –Spinal nerves from spinal cord pass through

33 Structure of a Typical Vertebrae Slide 5.29 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 5.16

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35 Regional Characteristics of Vertebrae Slide 5.30a Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 5.17a, b

36 Cervical Vertebrae Seven vertebrae (C 1 -C 7 ) are the smallest, lightest vertebrae C 3 -C 7 are distinguished with an oval body, short spinous processes, and large, triangular vertebral foramina Each transverse process contains a transverse foramen

37 Regional Characteristics of Vertebrae Slide 5.30a Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 5.17a, b

38 Cervical Vertebrae: The Atlas (C 1 ) The atlas has no body and no spinous process It consists of anterior and posterior arches, and two lateral masses The superior surfaces of lateral masses articulate with the occipital condyles

39 Cervical Vertebrae: The Atlas (C 1 ) Figure 7.16a, b

40 Cervical Vertebrae: The Atlas (C 1 ) Figure 7.17a

41 Cervical Vertebrae: The Axis (C 2 ) The axis has a body, spine, and vertebral arches as do other cervical vertebrae Unique to the axis is the dens The dens is a pivot for the rotation of the atlas

42 The Axis (C 2 ) The dens projects superiorly from the body and is cradled in the anterior arch of the atlas

43 Cervical Vertebrae: The Axis (C 2 ) Figure 7.17a Dens

44 Cervical Vertebrae C 3 through C 7 Table 7.2

45 Regional Characteristics of Vertebrae Thoracic Slide 5.30b Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 5.17c, d

46 Thoracic Vertebrae There are twelve vertebrae (T 1 -T 12 ) all of which articulate with ribs Figure 7.17b

47 Thoracic Vertebrae Major markings include two facets and two demifacets on the heart-shaped body, the circular vertebral foramen, transverse processes, and a long spinous process Figure 7.17b

48 Thoracic Vertebrae The location of the articulate facets prevents flexion and extension, but allows rotation of this area of the spine Figure 7.17b

49 Regional Characteristics of Vertebrae Lumbar Slide 5.30b Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 5.17c, d

50 Lumbar Vertebrae The five lumbar vertebrae (L 1 -L 5 ) are located in the small of the back and have an enhanced weight- bearing function Figure 7.17c

51 Lumbar Vertebrae They have short, thick pedicles and laminae, flat hatchet-shaped spinous processes, and a triangular- shaped vertebral foramen Figure 7.17c

52 Lumbar Vertebrae Orientation of articular facets locks the lumbar vertebrae together to provide stability Figure 7.17c

53 Sacrum Consists of five fused vertebrae (S 1 - S 5 ), which shape the posterior wall of the pelvis Figure 7.18a

54 Sacrum –It articulates with L 5 superiorly, and with the auricular surfaces of the hip bones Figure 7.18a

55 Sacrum –Major markings include the sacral promontory, transverse lines, alae, dorsal sacral foramina, sacral canal, and sacral hiatus Figure 7.18a

56 Coccyx - Tailbone –The coccyx is made up of four (in some cases three to five) fused vertebrae that articulate superiorly with the sacrum Figure 7.18a

57 Sacrum and Coccyx Anterior view

58 Sacrum and Coccyx Posterior View Figure 7.18b

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60 The Bony Thorax Made up of three parts –Sternum –Ribs –Thoracic vertebrae

61 The Bony Thorax The thoracic cage is composed of the thoracic vertebrae dorsally, the ribs laterally, and the sternum and costal cartilages anteriorly

62 Bony Thorax (Thoracic Cage) Functions –Forms a protective cage around the heart, lungs, and great blood vessels –Supports the shoulder girdles and upper limbs –Provides attachment for many neck, back, chest, and shoulder muscles –Uses intercostal muscles to lift and depress the thorax during breathing

63 Bony Thorax (Thoracic Cage) Figure 7.19a

64 Bony Thorax (Thoracic Cage) Figure 7.19b

65 Sternum (Breastbone) A dagger-shaped, flat bone that lies in the anterior midline of the thorax Results from the fusion of three bones – the superior manubrium, the body, and the inferior xiphoid process Anatomical landmarks include the jugular (suprasternal) notch, the sternal angle, and the xiphisternal joint

66 Ribs There are twelve pair of ribs forming the flaring sides of the thoracic cage All ribs attach posteriorly to the thoracic vertebrae

67 Ribs The superior 7 pair (true, or vertebrosternal ribs) attach directly to the sternum via costal cartilages

68 Ribs Ribs 8-10 (false, or vertebrocondral ribs) attach indirectly to the sternum via costal cartilage

69 Ribs Ribs (floating, or vertebral ribs) have no anterior attachment

70 Ribs Figure 7.19a

71 Structure of a Typical True Rib Bowed, flat bone consisting of a head, neck, tubercle, and shaft Figure 7.20

72 Quiz – Next Time! Study guide


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