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**PROGRAMMING IN HASKELL**

Chapter 10 - Declaring Types and Classes

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**String is a synonym for the type [Char].**

Type Declarations In Haskell, a new name for an existing type can be defined using a type declaration. type String = [Char] String is a synonym for the type [Char].

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**Type declarations can be used to make other types easier to read**

Type declarations can be used to make other types easier to read. For example, given type Pos = (Int,Int) we can define: origin :: Pos origin = (0,0) left :: Pos Pos left (x,y) = (x-1,y)

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**Like function definitions, type declarations can also have parameters**

Like function definitions, type declarations can also have parameters. For example, given type Pair a = (a,a) we can define: mult :: Pair Int Int mult (m,n) = m*n copy :: a Pair a copy x = (x,x)

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**Type declarations can be nested:**

type Pos = (Int,Int) type Trans = Pos Pos Trans is intended to represent a graphics translation: move by (x, y) However, they cannot be recursive: type Tree = (Int,[Tree])

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**Bool is a new type, with two new values False and True.**

Data Declarations A completely new type can be defined by specifying its values using a data declaration. Data declarations are tree structures with named nodes. A Data declaration creates one or more node names. We’ll see examples below. Until now, the only data structures we’ve had were built in: lists and tuples. data Bool = False | True Bool is a new type, with two new values False and True.

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Note: The two values False and True are called the constructors for the type Bool. Type and constructor names must begin with an upper-case letter. Data declarations are similar to context free grammars. The former specifies the values of a type, the latter the sentences of a language.

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**Values of new types can be used in the same ways as those of built in types. For example, given**

data Answer = Yes | No | Unknown we can define: answers :: [Answer] answers = [Yes,No,Unknown] flip :: Answer Answer flip Yes = No flip No = Yes flip Unknown = Unknown

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**The constructors in a data declaration can also have parameters**

The constructors in a data declaration can also have parameters. For example, given data Shape = Circle Float | Rect Float Float we can define: square :: Float Shape square n = Rect n n area :: Shape Float area (Circle r) = pi * r^2 area (Rect x y) = x * y

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Note: Shape has values of the form Circle r where r is a float, and Rect x y where x and y are floats. Circle and Rect can be viewed as functions that construct values of type Shape: Circle :: Float Shape Rect :: Float Float Shape

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**An attempt to be clever with error values.**

Not surprisingly, data declarations themselves can also have parameters. For example, given data Maybe a = Nothing | Just a we can define: safediv :: Int Int Maybe Int safediv _ 0 = Nothing safediv m n = Just (m `div` n) safehead :: [a] Maybe a safehead [] = Nothing safehead xs = Just (head xs) An attempt to be clever with error values.

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Recursive Types In Haskell, new types can be declared in terms of themselves. That is, types can be recursive. It wouldn’t be a symbolic programming language course without the Natural numbers. data Nat = Zero | Succ Nat Nat is a new type, with constructors Zero :: Nat and Succ :: Nat Nat.

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Note: A value of type Nat is either Zero, or of the form Succ n where n :: Nat. That is, Nat contains the following infinite sequence of values: Zero Succ \ Zero Succ Zero Succ (Succ Zero) Succ (Succ (Succ Zero))

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**represents the natural number**

We can think of values of type Nat as natural numbers, where Zero represents 0, and Succ represents the successor function 1+. For example, the value Succ (Succ (Succ Zero)) represents the natural number 1 + (1 + (1 + 0)) 3 =

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**Using recursion, it is easy to define functions that convert between values of type Nat and Int:**

nat2int :: Nat Int nat2int Zero = 0 nat2int (Succ n) = 1 + nat2int n int2nat :: Int Nat int2nat = Zero int2nat (n+1) = Succ (int2nat n)

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**Two naturals can be added by converting them to integers, adding, and then converting back:**

add :: Nat Nat Nat add m n = int2nat (nat2int m + nat2int n) However, using recursion the function add can be defined without the need for conversions: add Zero n = n add (Succ m) n = Succ (add m n)

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For example: add (Succ (Succ Zero)) (Succ Zero) Succ (add (Succ Zero) (Succ Zero)) = Succ (Succ (add Zero (Succ Zero)) = Succ (Succ (Succ Zero)) = Note: The recursive definition for add corresponds to the laws 0+n = n and (1+m)+n = 1+(m+n).

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**Arithmetic Expressions**

Consider a simple form of expressions built up from integers using addition and multiplication. 1 + 3 2

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**Using recursion, a suitable new type to represent such expressions can be declared by:**

data Expr = Val Int | Add Expr Expr | Mul Expr Expr For example, the expression on the previous slide would be represented as follows: Add / \ Val Mul | / \ 1 Val Val | | 2 3 Add (Val 1) (Mul (Val 2) (Val 3))

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**The number of nodes in the tree.**

Using recursion, it is now easy to define functions that process expressions. For example: size :: Expr Int size (Val n) = 1 size (Add x y) = size x + size y size (Mul x y) = size x + size y eval :: Expr Int eval (Val n) = n eval (Add x y) = eval x + eval y eval (Mul x y) = eval x * eval y The number of nodes in the tree.

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**The three constructors have types:**

Note: The three constructors have types: Val :: Int Expr Add :: Expr Expr Expr Mul :: Expr Expr Expr Many functions on expressions can be defined by replacing the constructors by other functions using a suitable fold function. For example: eval = fold id (+) (*)

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Binary Trees In computing, it is often useful to store data in a two-way branching structure or binary tree. 5 7 9 6 3 4 1

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**Using recursion, a suitable new type to represent such binary trees can be declared by:**

data Tree = Leaf Int | Node Tree Int Tree For example, the tree on the previous slide would be represented as follows: Node (Node (Leaf 1) 3 (Leaf 4)) 5 (Node (Leaf 6) 7 (Leaf 9))

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**We can now define a function that decides if a given integer occurs in a binary tree:**

occurs :: Int Tree Bool occurs m (Leaf n) = m==n occurs m (Node l n r) = m==n || occurs m l || occurs m r But… in the worst case, when the integer does not occur, this function traverses the entire tree.

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**Now consider the function flatten that returns the list of all the integers contained in a tree:**

flatten :: Tree [Int] flatten (Leaf n) = [n] flatten (Node l n r) = flatten l ++ [n] ++ flatten r A tree is a search tree if it flattens to a list that is ordered. Our example tree is a search tree, as it flattens to the ordered list [1,3,4,5,6,7,9].

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Search trees have the important property that when trying to find a value in a tree we can always decide which of the two sub-trees it may occur in: occurs m (Leaf n) = m==n occurs m (Node l n r) | m==n = True | m<n = occurs m l | m>n = occurs m r This new definition is more efficient, because it only traverses one path down the tree.

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data Tree = Leaf Int | Node Tree Int Tree deriving (Show, Eq) foldTree doNode doLeaf (Node left i right) = doNode (foldTree doNode doLeaf left) i (foldTree doNode doLeaf right) foldTree doNode doLeaf (Leaf i) = doLeaf i Use the default Show and Eq. The function to apply when the argument is an internal node. The function to apply when the argument is a leaf node f = (Node (Node (Leaf 1) 3 (Leaf 4)) 5 (Node (Leaf 6) 7 (Leaf 9))) size = foldTree (\left i right -> left + right + 1) (\_ -> 1) postOrder = foldTree (\ls node rs -> ls ++ rs ++ [node]) (\n -> [n]) The node function. The leaf function. Main> f Node (Node (Leaf 1) 3 (Leaf 4)) 5 (Node (Leaf 6) 7 (Leaf 9)) Main> size f 7

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data Tree = Leaf Int | Node Tree Int Tree deriving (Show,Eq) data Expr = Val Int | Add Expr Expr | Mul Expr Expr deriving (Show,Eq) foldExpr doVal doAdd doMul (Val i) = doVal i foldExpr doVal doAdd doMul (Add e1 e2) = doAdd (foldExpr doVal doAdd doMul e1) (foldExpr doVal doAdd doMul e2) foldExpr doVal doAdd doMul (Mul e1 e2) = doMul (foldExpr doVal doAdd doMul e1) -- eval = foldExpr (\a -> a) (\a b -> a + b) (\a b -> a * b) eval = foldExpr id (+) (*)

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Exercises (1) Using recursion and the function add, define a function that multiplies two natural numbers. (2) Define a suitable function fold for expressions, and give a few examples of its use. (3) A binary tree is complete if the two sub-trees of every node are of equal size. Define a function that decides if a binary tree is complete.

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