Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

The Shadow of the Hague – Ballistic Problems Past and Present. Peter J. T. Knudsen Institute of Forensic Medicine University of Southern Denmark And Danish.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "The Shadow of the Hague – Ballistic Problems Past and Present. Peter J. T. Knudsen Institute of Forensic Medicine University of Southern Denmark And Danish."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Shadow of the Hague – Ballistic Problems Past and Present. Peter J. T. Knudsen Institute of Forensic Medicine University of Southern Denmark And Danish Defence Health Services First Ballistics and Wound Ballistics International Congress, Lyon, 16-17th June 2014

2 The Contracting Parties agree to abstain from the use of bullets which expand or flatten easily in the human body, such as bullets with a hard envelope which does not entirely cover the core or is pierced with incisions The Hague Declaration of 1899 First Ballistics and Wound Ballistics International Congress, Lyon, 16-17th June 2014

3 Les Puissances contractantes s'interdisent l'emploi de balles qui s'épanouissent ou s'aplatissent facilement dans le corps humain, telles que les balles à enveloppe dure dont l'enveloppe ne couvrirait pas entièrement le noyau ou serait pourvue d'incisions. Dèclaration de la Haye 1899 First Ballistics and Wound Ballistics International Congress, Lyon, 16-17th June 2014

4 Interpretation The Contracting Parties agree to abstain from the use of bullets which expand or flatten easily in the human body, vs. such as bullets with a hard envelope which does not entirely cover the core or is pierced with incisions First Ballistics and Wound Ballistics International Congress, Lyon, 16-17th June 2014

5 The effect on the bullet The Contracting Parties agree to abstain from the use of bullets which expand or flatten easily in the human body, First Ballistics and Wound Ballistics International Congress, Lyon, 16-17th June 2014

6 The design of the bullet such as bullets with a hard envelope which does not entirely cover the core or is pierced with incisions First Ballistics and Wound Ballistics International Congress, Lyon, 16-17th June 2014

7 Wound profile – 7,62 x 51 mm expanding bullet

8 Fragmentation behaviour of 7,62 x 51 mm NATO bullets Application of the Hague Declaration in Denmark – a hundred years later First Ballistics and Wound Ballistics International Congress, Lyon, 16-17th June 2014

9 Case In 1989 a man killed his son, his ex-wife and her boyfriend and finally killed himself when confronted by a police officer. The child was killed with a hunting rifle, but the couple and he were killed with his Home Guard rifle, a M/75 rifle, the German Heckler and Koch G3, using Danish service ammunition produced by the State ammunition factory, the “Ammunitions-arsenalet” (AMA) First Ballistics and Wound Ballistics International Congress, Lyon, 16-17th June 2014

10 Bullet parts found at the autopsy of the woman First Ballistics and Wound Ballistics International Congress, Lyon, 16-17th June 2014

11 Bullet parts found at the crime scene First Ballistics and Wound Ballistics International Congress, Lyon, 16-17th June 2014

12 Reported in1980 (1) and by Fackler in 1989 (2). 1. Stiefel D: Die Wirkung von Vollmantelgeschossen gegen Weichteile, Deutsche Waffenjournal 1980:750 (letter). 2. Fackler ML: Wounding patterns of military rifle bullets, International Defence Review.1989;5:59-64. First Ballistics and Wound Ballistics International Congress, Lyon, 16-17th June 2014

13 Tests were conducted at the Army Combat School, Experimental and Safety Section, confirming the fragmentation of the M/75 bullet in ordnance gelatin Experimental confirmation First Ballistics and Wound Ballistics International Congress, Lyon, 16-17th June 2014

14 Having obtained the necessary permissions all know fatal cases using the M/75 were collected. The results confirmed previous reports – they were all fragmented. Knudsen PJT, Theilade P: Terminal ballistics of the 7.62mm NATO bullet, Autopsy findings. International Journal of Legal Medicine 1993;106:61-67. Collection of Danish cases First Ballistics and Wound Ballistics International Congress, Lyon, 16-17th June 2014

15 Having drawn the attention of the manufacturer to the fragmentation of the Danish ammunition an redesign was performed, after some discussions, however. The M/75 bullet was of similar design to the German bullet, a natural decision since the weapon was German. It had a steel jacket with a thickness of 0,35 mm. The redesigned bullet is of a design very similar to the US bullet, not as a result of copying but after considerable experimentation. The need to follow NATO standardisation requirements led to a similar solution to the similar problem. The new M/94 bullet has a tombak jacket that is 0,80 mm thick The problem First Ballistics and Wound Ballistics International Congress, Lyon, 16-17th June 2014

16 A year after the publication of the findings, a newspaper happened to read it, and suddenly the front page was decorated with a story that the Danish Defence used Dum-dum bullets. The redesign was fortunately under way, but the Minister of Defence had to take action, and ordered a recall of all cartridges from Danish Forces in international operations – ex-Yugoslavia – and a purchase of a large number of bullets from a foreign manufacturer to be fitted into Danish produced cases, until the new bullet could be in production. The ”Scandal” First Ballistics and Wound Ballistics International Congress, Lyon, 16-17th June 2014

17 M/75 M/94 The old and the new First Ballistics and Wound Ballistics International Congress, Lyon, 16-17th June 2014

18 This bullet, that is now the standard 7,62 x 51 NATO bullet in the Danish Defence is still in use as M/94, and has been proved to fulfil the requirements. I was allowed to publish the experimental work leading to the new bullet. Knudsen, PJT, Vigsnæs JS, Rasmussen R, Nissen PS: Terminal ballistics of 7.62mm NATO bullets: experiments in ordnance gelatin, International Journal of Legal Medicine, 1995;108:62-67. First Ballistics and Wound Ballistics International Congress, Lyon, 16-17th June 2014

19 And now for something not so different, but more relevant First Ballistics and Wound Ballistics International Congress, Lyon, 16-17th June 2014

20 Developed for military use based on the.223 rifle bullet. In the NATO countries used in the original M16 rifle. Modified as the US M855 or NATO SS109 for the M16 and derivatives The 5.56 x 45 mm NATO bullet First Ballistics and Wound Ballistics International Congress, Lyon, 16-17th June 2014

21 Design of the SS109 Full metal jacketed bullet Lead core and steel penetrator in the tip High velocity – approx. 920 m/sec at the muzzle First Ballistics and Wound Ballistics International Congress, Lyon, 16-17th June 2014

22 Wound ballistic properties of the SS109 First Ballistics and Wound Ballistics International Congress, Lyon, 16-17th June 2014

23 Similarities FMJ Fragments by break-up at cannelure up to 100 m 7,62 x 51 mm NATO M/75 vs. 5,56 x 45 mm NATO SS109 First Ballistics and Wound Ballistics International Congress, Lyon, 16-17th June 2014

24 7,62 x 51 mm NATO M/75 vs. 5,56 x 45 mm NATO SS10 First Ballistics and Wound Ballistics International Congress, Lyon, 16-17th June 2014

25 Dissimilarities No non-fragmenting bullet that will pass NATO requirements is commercially available, as far as I know! 7,62 x 51 mm NATO M/75 vs. 5,56 x 45 mm NATO SS109 First Ballistics and Wound Ballistics International Congress, Lyon, 16-17th June 2014

26 One day – perhaps yesterday – there will be a NATO-certified non-fragmenting bullet. The – moral - dilemma First Ballistics and Wound Ballistics International Congress, Lyon, 16-17th June 2014

27 What will YOU do? Call your MoD to tell them to buy new bullets and scrap the millions in the depots? Is that a wise move – career-wise? Or do you shut up and hope nobody notices? And what if someone else finds out and they ask you, the expert? And so on and so forth…… The – moral - dilemma First Ballistics and Wound Ballistics International Congress, Lyon, 16-17th June 2014

28 Questions? First Ballistics and Wound Ballistics International Congress, Lyon, 16-17th June 2014


Download ppt "The Shadow of the Hague – Ballistic Problems Past and Present. Peter J. T. Knudsen Institute of Forensic Medicine University of Southern Denmark And Danish."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google