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Chapter 14 Andrew Jackson & the Growth of Democracy.

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1 Chapter 14 Andrew Jackson & the Growth of Democracy

2 I. Inauguration of Andrew Jackson A.Inauguration Ceremony 1. 10,000 people flocked to DC, many of whom were 1 st time voters B.For the Common Man 1.Voting laws changed to give “common man” right to vote 2.Jackson promised to return the government “to the people” 3.Reflected a shift in power to the West, farmers, shopkeepers and small business owners

3 II. From the Frontier to the White House A.Background 2.During Revolution, joined militia at age 13 and was captured by British B.Frontier Lawyer 1.Worked in law office in Salisbury, NC 2.1788 – head to Nashville, TN and earned enough money to buy land and slaves 3.Never outgrew temper a)Slave trader called Jackson a scoundrel and insulted his wife b)Jackson challenged him to duel with pistols c)Slave trader shot first, hitting Jackson in chest d)Jackson fired a single shot, with trader falling dead to ground e)Bullet was so close to Jackson’s heart, doctors were unable to remove it

4 II. From the Frontier to the White House C.People’s Choice 1.Jackson served in both House and Senate 2.Became known as “Old Hickory” when defending New Orleans in War of 1812 3.1824 – ran against Henry Clay, William Crawford, John Quincy Adams for President a)Won most popular and electoral votes, but not enough for majority (House then chooses from top 3) b)Clay (4 th place) urged supporters to back Adams. Clay then brought in as Secretary of State c)Jackson’s supporters promised revenge and created Democratic Party (representing farmers, workers, and the poor) d)Jacksonian Democracy – common people should control the government

5 Andrew Jackson’s Rise to Power

6 III. Jackson’s Approach to Governing A.Kitchen Cabinet 1. Did not rely on cabinet for advice, but on trusted friends who met in White House kitchen B.Spoils System 1.Jackson replaced Republican officeholders with loyal Democrats a)Said rotating people in office was more democratic than lifetime service as it gave more people a chance to serve their government b)Opponents called this practice the spoils system c)Only 10% were replaced

7 IV. Nullification Crisis A.A New Tariff 1.1828 – Congress passed a law to raise taxes on imported goods in order to encourage growth of manufacturing 2.Higher taxes = higher prices for imported factory goods 3.Northern states favored new law 4.Southern states opposed tariffs a)Raised the prices paid for factory goods b)Discouraged trade among nations c)Worried would hurt cotton sales to other countries d)Law favoring one region = unconstitutional B.The Right to Nullify 1.1832 – Jackson lowered tariff but not enough to satisfy SC 2.SC proclaimed their right to nullify the tariff laws and threatened to secede a)Jackson had Congress pass the Force Bill which allowed him to use army to collect tariffs b)Congress passed compromise bill that lowered tariffs more c)SC backed down, still tense

8 V. Jackson Battles the Bank of the US A.Feelings Against the Bank 1.Jackson thought the bank benefited rich Eastern investors at the expense of farmers and workers B.Slaying the Bank 1.Bank’s charter was up for renewal in 1836 but Henry Clay pushed bill through Congress that would renew it 4 years early (hoping for Jackson to lose support) 2.Jackson vetoed the recharter bill calling the bank a monopoly 3.1833 – ordered secretary of treasury to remove all federal deposits from the Bank and put in state banks

9 VI. Jackson’s Indian Policy A.Conflicts with Native Americans 1.Treaties – drew boundaries between areas claimed for settlers and areas government promised to Indians a) Despite treaties, still pushed off land 2.Only 125,000 lived east of Mississippi a)Most lived in South b)Belonged to 5 groups: Creek, Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Seminole c)Had adopted many white ways and hoped to live in peace with white neighbors B.Indian Removal Act 1.1830 – allowed President to make treaties in which Indians in East traded their lands for new territory in Plains a)Did not say Indians should be removed by force b)1831 – Supreme Court ruled Indians had right to their lands c)Jackson disagreed – groups that refused to move west were met with military force

10 VI. Jackson’s Indian Policy C.Trail of Tears 1.1836 – thousands of Creeks who refused to leave Alabama were rounded up and marched west in handcuffs 2.1838 – President Van Buren had 17,000+ Cherokee dragged from their homes in Georgia and herded west by federal troops a) 4,000 died during the walk to Indian Territory 3.Seminoles of Florida resisted removal for 10 years a)Most costly Indian war in US b)Some found refuge in Florida swamps 4.Jackson claimed to have solved Indian problem, but only moved the conflict across the Mississippi

11 Cherokee Trail of Tears

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