Presentation on theme: "Accessing archived qualitative data for secondary analysis Lorena Zambrano."— Presentation transcript:
Accessing archived qualitative data for secondary analysis Lorena Zambrano
Introduction Secondary analysis Relates to the data type that is going to be selected in the research design process. Using existing data to answer new research questions. An option of researchers in the earlier stage of their career. Methodologically operates in the same way as primary data analysis. Advantages Limitations The background work has already been done. It can be a supplement to one’s own primary data. It can inform research design. Gives new methodological insights. Extra documentation available help to understand the data better. Relatively inexpensive. The original context of the primary research is not always available. Relevance - even if on the same topic the primary data may not exactly fit the requirements of the secondary research question. Lacks the inter-subjective data i.e. we cannot fully know the emotional relationship between the interviewer and interviewee.
Considerations The research process needs to be well though out and planned. Similar work is required with the same research steeps and careful though about: Research topic Understand the context Elaborating the research questions Finding the appropriate data Analysis and interpretation Also It is important to ensure the data is rich enough to engage further investigation. Informed consent for secondary analysis works similar to primary analysis.
This will be the main source of secondary data. Archived qualitative data are a rich and unique source, but still an unexploited source of research material. Archived research materials can also prove to be a significant part of our cultural heritage and become resources for historical as well as contemporary research. Accessing archived data is easy and free. Archived data
Qualidata is a service that holds a good number of datasets that can be re-used to investigate a wide range of research questions in different disciplines and topics. Qualidata, is part of The Economic and Social Data Service (ESDS) which is a national data service that provide access and support for an extensive range of key economic and social data, both quantitative and qualitative. Qualidata hold 318 collections which cover a range of qualitative research methods, of which 183 are downloadable from the ESDS catalogue. Qualidata http://www.esds.ac.uk/qualidata/
Types of archived data In-depth interview transcripts/recordings Focus groups transcripts/recordings Diaries Field notes Personal documents Case study notes Open ended survey questions Press clippings Photographs and videos
Some depositors Paul Thompson Peter Townsend Dennis Marsden Hollway and Jefferson Janet Finch Mildred Blaxter Mildred Blaxter Ray Pahl Ray Pahl Stan Cohen Stan Cohen Annette Lawson Jennifer Mason And many more…
How Qualitative data can be re-used? Comparative research Re-analysis Research design and methodological advancement Historical resource Development of a new study/methodology Learning and teaching
Students can also explore actual example of interview types Structured Structured Unstructured Unstructured Semi-structured Semi-structured Psycho-social Psycho-social Oral history Oral history Life story interviews Life story interviews
Thematic Guides Crime and Social Control Gender Studies Gender Studies Health Studies Health Studies Later Life Studies Oral History Studies Oral History Studies Social Class and Social Change Social Class and Social Change http://www.esds.ac.uk/qualidata/support/guides.asp
Examples of Re-using qualitative data 'The Edwardians: Family Life and Work Experience Before 1918’ (1975) data of 450 interviews have been used by over 100 researchers and students. Mike Savage has used 'Affluent Worker in the Class Structure' for his study of social identities. Mike Roper has used 'The Edwardians' for his study of Mothers and Sons in the First World War. http://www.esds.ac.uk/resources/datainuse/casestudies.asp
British Migrants in Spain: the Extent and Nature of Social Integration, 2003-2005 SN: 5271 O'Reilly, K., University of Aberdeen. Department of Sociology Introduction This study explored the trends, motivations, mobility patterns, identity and way of life of British migrant communities in the Costa del Sol. It explored the extent and nature of social integration of younger European migrants in Spanish society. It also considered the impact of such a huge population growth in Spanish tourist towns, increasing European immigration, and the presence of a fluid, multinational migrant population. Main topics: globalisation, migration and tourism, and social policy related to integration. Method This study researched European (mostly British) migrants who consider they live in Spain, and Spanish residents. The data collection was carried out between February 2003 and January 2005 in the Malaga region, Spain. It included a self-completion survey, face to face in-depth interviews, focus groups and short student essays from 11-13 year old school students. The re-use study This study has been re-used by Jo Haynes to teach research methods to graduate students and there are notes on the website about how this was done.
British Migrants in Spain: the Extent and Nature of Social Integration, 2003-2005 SN: 5271 O'Reilly, K., University of Aberdeen. Department of Sociology “I love living in Spain, Spanish people are really kind and the help a lot, and try there hardest to speak english to help us. In Super markets nearly and Basicly everyone speaks english. In england it rains soooooo much and its really dull and boring, most people there are not really friendly to other foreign people, and they don’t try to learn other languages. People in Spain learn to speak lots of different langauges like: German, English, Italian ect. Shopping in Spain is just like shopping in england everything is basicly in english. If you really, really miss england. you can take an hour or half an hour from the costa to Gibraltar, that is english its apart of english nationality. they have got: Marks and Spencers, Safeways, Saisburys, Top Shop, Boots ect. So to me Spain is just like england but much more sunny’. (English female Year 7 pupil from St Anthony’s College, Spain. Spelling mistakes have not been corrected).
Gender Difference, Anxiety and the Fear of Crime, 1995 SN: 4581 Hollway, W., University of Bradford. Department of Social Sciences Jefferson, T., University of Sheffield. Centre for Criminological and Socio-Legal Studies Introduction This project focuses on crime and its relation to the risk of victimisation. It examines in particular the suggestion that high-risk groups, for the most part young men, report lower fear than low-risk groups, most prominently, older women. The research suggests that the relations between risk and fear of crime cannot be understood without theorising the multiple meanings attaching to a person’s identity which become invested with anxiety. Main topics: Anxiety; childhood; community life; crime; crime victims; fear of crime; gender; psychoanalysis; risk; violence. Method The data consists of 36 interview transcripts with men and women aged between 16 and 76, living on low and high crime estates in the North of England during 1995. The interviews aimed to understand the differences in fear of crime among different social groups, integrating demographic characteristics, analyses of gender, ethnicity and age.
Re-studying Gender Difference, Anxiety and the Fear of Crime, 1995 Using this study for further research into the fear of crime would have value in such areas as methodology, comparative research, rich examples, re-analysis and new or extended research questions. Interview example: ”Well there's this - there has been quite a few burglaries. I mean I remember er, one particular night - we used to sleep in back bedroom and I - it'll be about 3 o'clock in morning. I 'eard this banging, and er, I woke up. Went downstairs and the banging were about 150 yards down road. And somebody were breaking into house - we found that out the following day. Following morning. (sigh). If it woke me up, why didn't it wake some of other neighbours up? Because it were a really - din they were making - these burglars to get in, and they got in. But nobody seemed to bother.”(TJ/Arthur Interview 1, 26 October 1995. Int3.) As can be seen from the quote above, the study has rich examples that could be useful to future researchers in describing the attributes, attitudes and behaviour of individuals and groups from the time of the original project. It can also be used in: a comparative research between then and now, or re-analysing it by asking new research, or to retrace and expand on the original research.
Last Refuge, 1958-1959 SN: 4750 Townsend, P., London School of Economics and Political Science. Department of Social Policy and Administration Introduction This study conducted by Peter Townsend in the late 1950s carried out the major investigation of long-stay institutional care for old people in Britain. Townsend questioned whether long stay institutions for the elderly were still needed and, if so, whether improvements could be made in the nature of such provision. Main topics: old age, residential care of the elderly, care of dependants, retirement, isolation, nursing and welfare services. Method The study was groundbreaking in its use of qualitative research methods. In-depth interviews were conducted with 67 local authority chief welfare officers and with serving staff and residents of 173 institutions. Photographs and field notes about the condition of the buildings and the facilities were created. Diaries were also kept by a number of residents and staff. It is important to remember that Townsend only had the time to use a small proportion of this in his own publications
The re-use study The Last Refuge' Revisited: continuity and change in residential care for older people'. Introduction This study was re-used by Julia Johnson, Sheena Rolph and Randall Smith. The project began with a review of Townsend's research material and subsequent findings and recommendations. Then a tracing study was conducted to find out and document what happened to the institutions visited by Townsend. It was found that of the 173, 25 still existed as registered care homes and these were investigated further. Method The follow-up study replicated Townsend's method allowing direct comparison of the situation in 2005 with the detailed original information on the individual homes with the addition of visual analysis of the old and new photographs. There are more than one publications emerging from this re-use project including: Residential Care Transformed: Revisiting 'The Last Refuge' (Palgrave, 2010).
The re-use study The Last Refuge' Revisited: continuity and change in residential care for older people'. The visual analysis consisted in compared the black and white photos taken by Townsend in 1959 with the same themes photos taken by Johnson and team in 2005 Townsend’s original photograph (1959)Photo taken by Julia Johnson (2005) What can be analysed here? The uniforms. The difference colour makes to the photograph. Relationships between staff. Setting for the photographs.
Citations As any academic valuable source, the data used must be accompanied by the correct citation and acknowledgement information. Example on how to cite data can be found in the ESDS website.
Conclusions Early preparation and good thinking is essential for a good research design. Archived data is a rich an unique source of material ready to be re-used. Accessing qualitative data is free, open, and easy while conforming to ethical and legal standards.
References Barbour, S. and Eley, S. (eds.) (2007) 'Refereed special section: reusing qualitative data', Sociological Research Online, 12(3), www.socresonline.org.uk/12/3/contents.html. Bishop, L. (2006) 'A reflexive account of reusing qualitative data: Beyond Primary/Secondary Dualism‘, Sociological Research Online, 12(3)2 Bishop, L. (2009) 'Ethical Sharing and Reuse of Qualitative Data‘, Australian Journal of Social Issues, 44(3) Spring. Blaikie, N. (2010) Designing social research, The logic of anticipation. Cambridge: Policy Press. Corti, L. and Thompson, P. (2003) 'Secondary Analysis of Archive Data' in C. Seale et al. (eds.) Qualitative Research Practice, London: Sage Publications, www.uk.sagepub.com/booksProdTOC.nav?prodId=Book224935. Hakim, C. (1982) Secondary analysis in social research. London: George Allen and Unwin. Hollway, W., Jefferson, T., Gender Difference, Anxiety and the Fear of Crime, 1995 [computer file]. Colchester, Essex: UK Data Archive [distributor], 2003. SN: 4581, http://dx.doi.org/10.5255/UKDA- SN-4581-1http://dx.doi.org/10.5255/UKDA- SN-4581-1 O'Reilly, K., British Migrants in Spain: the Extent and Nature of Social Integration, 2003-2005 [computer file]. Colchester, Essex: UK Data Archive [distributor], 2006. SN: 5271, http://dx.doi.org/10.5255/UKDA-SN-5271-1 http://dx.doi.org/10.5255/UKDA-SN-5271-1 Townsend, P., Last Refuge, 1958-1959 [computer file]. Colchester, Essex: UK Data Archive [distributor], 2005. SN: 4750, http://dx.doi.org/10.5255/UKDA-SN-4750-1http://dx.doi.org/10.5255/UKDA-SN- 6614-2http://dx.doi.org/10.5255/UKDA-SN-4750-1http://dx.doi.org/10.5255/UKDA-SN- 6614-2
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