Presentation on theme: "Introduction State of Europe on the verge of Exploration and Colonization."— Presentation transcript:
Introduction State of Europe on the verge of Exploration and Colonization
But FIRST—a few questions What constitutes culture? What constitutes a “civilization”? Why was Europe so backward in 1200? What caused it’s sudden leap forward by 1600? (Renaissance, Enlightenment, Humanism, Scientific Revolution, etc.) What caused the “Age of Discovery”?
What do they all have in common? Write your 4 answers down 1.____________________________________________________________________ 2.____________________________________________________________________ 3.____________________________________________________________________ 4.____________________________________________________________________
What do they all have in common? Write your 4 answers down 1.Rivers (except Central America) 2.__________________________________ 3.__________________________________ 4.__________________________________
What do they all have in common? Write your 4 answers down ___________________________________ Temperate Climates (except Central America) ___________________________________
What do they all have in common? Write your 4 answers down ___________________________________ Domesticatable plants AND animals (except Central America) ___________________________________
What do they all have in common? Write your 4 answers down ___________________________________ BOUNDED IN BY DESERTS, OCEANS, AND/OR MOUNTAINS (Why is this one so important? Lets take a look at the Nile
Domesticate Millet (grain) Domesticate pigs, cattle, camel, horses Things get BETTER!!!! What’s the first thing people do during GOOD times? Answer this on your paper What are the consequences? What must people do after?
Early World Powers: Portugal Portugal –Prince Henry the Navigator –Discovers Brazil sailing south around tip of Africa to find India (Vasco de Gama) –Pays for voyages through slave trade –Dominant force in Indian Ocean –Early Monopoly on oceanic Spice Trade
Early World Powers: Spain Reconquita caused Spain to become: –Catholic protectorate –Most powerful monarchy –Earliest Nation State Shifted attention westward b/c –Italy controlled land access to riches –Portugal controlled African route Reconquista ended in 1492 What to do with all those Conquistadores? They refuse to go to work or become merchants and bankers.
Early World Powers: France Great Climate Great Soil Small population Religiously homogeneous Stable monarchy (oxymoron?) So why leave?
Which of the following creates technological advancement the MOST A.Rivers B.Domesticatable plants C.Population pressure D.Domesticatable plants E.Confining natural barriers F.Temperate climates
Early World Powers: Dutch/Netherlands Long history of trade with Russia, Norway, Sweden, etc. (but not westward) Financiers Guilds Strong merchant class Mercantilism
Early World Powers: Italy Not a country/nation state, but dozens of principalities and kingdoms that constantly squabbled for dominance of: Early wealth due to position b/w Arab world (supply) and Europe (growing demand) Controls the Vatican and therefore the Pope Will be the financier of Joint Stock companies, and voyages of exploration.
Factors in Exploration Accidental discovery. Desire to bypass Moslem world’s monopoly on trade (luxury?) goods. Disruptions of overland routes (somewhat overrated). Intra-European rivalry. Curiosity. Rebirth of science and medicine due to contact with Muslim world (their Golden Age) led to vastly increased life span and population growth. End of Black Death 1350 (further Population Pressure—what do people do during GOOD times?) End of Reconquista
Innovations that aided exploration Caravel (Lateen and square sails in combination) Compass Discovery of Trade Winds Stern-post rudder
Innovations derived from exploration New foodstuffs: coffee, tea, potatoes, tomatoes, chocolate, squash, maize (yet another increase in lifespan and population pressure. Improvements in shipbuilding, charting, navigation. General stimulus to math, chemistry, astronomy, optics, physics, medicine, etc. Further Nation building Growth of towns, Middle Class, AND Mercantilism Decline of Aristocracy Beginning of the end of feudalism QUESTIONING OF LONG HELD CONSERVATIVE BELIEFS
Slave Trade Slaves captured or bought in Africa Shipped to Northern Africa and Caribbean to work on Sugar plantations Slaves traded for sugar Sugar turned into rum rum traded in Europe for manufactured goods European manufactured goods traded in Africa for slaves Slave Triangle
Protestant Reformation: 16 th century Germany, Netherlands, England –Freedom from authority of Church –Reading Bible in common language –New thought and science were triggered –Where the industrial revolution began. Intelligence leads to questioning??? Martin Luther
Counter Reformation Spain, Portugal, Italy –Repression of new ideas –Banning foreign books, education –Heresies punished to preserve Church –Inquisition: Protestants, Jews, Moslems –Fell behind in technology
Why Early Leaders Declined Spain and Portugal very wealthy in 16 th century from New World gold –Spent money on wars and luxuries –Did not have to make things: could buy them –Did not have to improve agriculture: could buy food –Eventually money ran out Italy was a renaissance center of trade and manufacture –But no colonies in New World –Old power structures prevented change
Why early failures advanced Netherlands –Half the population lived in cities: industrial –Prosperous shipping, trading: Middlemen –Money lending allowed –Protestant Spain wages war on Protestantism in Netherlands Dutch send own ships to Indian Ocean: Dutch East Indies Company Soon dominant in Spice Trade Dutch East Indies Company had virtual Monopoly on spice Islands of Indonesia
British Rise British pirates: better ships, guns American Colonies: settled by dissidents to start a new life Britain ahead of Europe in –Textiles (sheep) –Iron –Coal –Agriculture –Roads –Freedoms
British Industrial Revolution Population 1701 Population 1911
Europe Overview: 1.Socially 2.Politically 3.Religiously 4.Intellectually 5.Technically 6.Economically 7.Environmentally
I. Socially Very Hierarchical society Emergence of a new “middle class” Increasing Social Tensions between classes ENCLOSURE movement. Agricultural changes leads to excess population heading toward European towns and American colonies
II. Politically Medieval European Government --Decentralized and Local New View of Politics during the Renaissance --Machiavelli, The Prince Emergence of Centralized, Competitive Monarchies
III. Religiously Growing SECULARISM Protestant Reformation Division Breeds Dissent No sense of religious toleration or separation of church and state Dissenters need places of refuge = colonies
IV. Intellectually/Artistically Renaissance (Rebirth) scholars emphasized concrete experience over abstract theory and tried to observe the natural world carefully, completely, and without preconceived ideas. This spirit of impartial inquiry was more important to the future of science than any specific achievement. –Galileo –Sir Isaac Newton –Johannes Kepler –William Harvey –Leonardo da Vinci –Nicholaus Copernicus –Michelangelo Donatello, and the rest of the turtles
V. Economically Increasing Secularism --move away from “just price” theory Emergence of Long-Distance Trade --breaks monopoly of the guild system Emergence of Middle-class capitalists -- “New rich” = lots of $, wrong blood Mercantilism and the role of colonies Joint Stock Co’s Source of capital for colonial ventures
VI. Technologically (cont) New Military Technology --Emergence of gunpowder weaponry --The Rise of the “Standing Army” --Royalized Warfare Lots of imperial warfare—competition for –Power –Land –pride
Patterns of Discovery Rival European powers converge on a “New World” that isn’t really “new” at all—just “different”
I. European Background to Exploration Myth of the “West” goes all the way back to the Greeks—Atlantis Vikings discover Greenland around 1000 A.D. Africans to Central America? Columbus’ Voyage— 1492 Motivations for Exploration?
A. Pre-European Contact Mode and timing of arrival on the continent Not a “new world” but rather a “different” world when the Europeans arrive Great diversity among Native American tribal units Begin to farm as a early as 5000 B.C. Most advanced civilizations in Mexico and Central America Tribes of North America = less technologically accomplished
A. Pre-European Contact (cont.) Moved from centralized societies (Mississipian centers like Cahokia) to small villages linked by reciprocity Algonquian-speaking people inhabited the area from Maine to North Carolina Significance of Kinship and Reciprocity “Manitou” and other Spiritual Values Reciprocity as applied to land use Warfare as ritual to restore order, but often led to very bloody internecine warfare. Incorporated strangers far more thoroughly and enthusiastically than Puritans
The Other Immigrants Rats and ships are synonymous Dogs (for companionship) and pigs (for food) were common passengers on early voyages Rats, dogs and pigs wreaked havoc on many island ecosystems Horses were reintroduced to the Americas by the Spanish and were utilized by Indians far outside the zone of immediate contact The most significant travelers were microscopic
B. European Contact Transitional phase with periodic contact during the 15 th and early 16 th centuries No sudden invasion, then, but a slow infiltration of men and microbes
C. Results of European Contact Initial phase of mutual dependence Upsets balance between Native American tribes Epidemiological disaster --America = “widowed land” Inherent differences in value systems and land use patterns The “Columbian Exchange” Some inter-marriage, mostly with Spanish Lots of Silver and Gold ruins the Spanish economy
III. Spanish Pattern of Exploration and Settlement First ranking world power in the 1400’s and 1500’s The Reconquista of Spain— produces conquistadors The voyages of Columbus The Treaty of Tordesillas (1494) Cortes’ conquest of the Aztecs Administration of New Spain -- “encomienda” 3-G’s
III. Spanish pattern (cont.) Brought Catholicism to the New World More fluid racial categories than with other European settlement No real settlement in New Mexico and California until later Importation of precious metals leads to rampant inflation in Spain and the rest of Europe—also leads to piracy
IV. French Pattern of Exploration and Settlement Interest in New World developed more slowly Motivation for exploration = northwest passage No real success at first --Jacques Cartier Developed fur trade with Hurons and other Native American enemies of the Iroquois --Samuel Champlain
IV. French Pattern (cont) Marquette and Joliet traveled down the Mississippi River in 1670’s Catholic desire to save the heathens Indifference of French monarchy to colonization Individualistic trappers carve out isolated existence
V. Dutch Pattern of Exploration and Settlement Some Dutch settlement along the Hudson River Valley in 1624 --Henry Hudson Nurtured a fur trade with the Iroquois confederacy Peter Minuet bought Manhattan Island from the natives in 1626 creating New Amsterdam
V. Dutch Pattern (cont) Beyond New Netherlands, no real Dutch presence in the New World --No religious turmoil --Booming commerce = plenty of jobs --No surplus agricultural population
VI. English Pattern of Exploration and Settlement English fishermen explored the Grand Banks in the 1480’s First official visit = John Cabot in 1497 English interest wanes for 75 years Elizabeth I merges English nationalism with Protestantism as she increasingly challenges the Spanish in Europe and in America Ireland = “Dress Rehearsal” for treatment of Native Americans
VI. English Pattern (cont.) The glorious failures of Sir Humphrey Gilbert The colonial vision of Sir Walter Raleigh The Lost Colony of Roanoke (1587-1590) -- “Croatan” Propagandist Richard Hakluyt keeps English fascination with the New World alive through his writings --Voyages, 1589 Indian village
VII. Settlement Patterns and Success Depended upon... Support of Mother Country Characteristics and density of Native American population where settlement was attempted Geography and climate of the land itself The abundance of game, timber, and/or precious metals All of these ingredients were, to a great extent, beyond the control of the actual explorers and colonists