No, it is not “All about story.” Prof. Tom Johnson Institute for Analytic Journalism Santa Fe, New Mexico USA t o m @ j t j o h n s o n. c o m t o m @ j t j o h n s o n. c o m Natal Witness Pietermaritzburg, South Africa 5 September 2006
And And or & + Prof. Tom Johnson Institute for Analytic Journalism Santa Fe, New Mexico USA t o m @ j t j o h n s o n. c o m t o m @ j t j o h n s o n. c o m Natal Witness Durban, South Africa 5 September 2006
3 ______________________ Journalism is … “ The central purpose of journalism is to provide citizens with accurate and reliable information they need to function in a free society.' ‘ — Bill Kovach Committee of Concerned Journalists
4 ______________________ What journalists do The job of journalists is "to monitor the centres of power." Israeli journalist Amira HassAmira Hass
5 ______________________ Today’s objectives zDiscuss journalism (and journalists) as a species existing in the Datasphere zReview the changes in the information environment zSuggest steps journalism can (Should? Must?) take to adapt to those changes if we are to survive zSuggest the possible disappearance of the species journalist serioso
6 ______________________ The New Datasphere extends the Old zMost canons of journalism stand fast (Though there are some new issues for ethics and law) zThe challenge today is not the old, but the addition of the new
7 ______________________ zJournalists, et al., in Datasphere Changing Datasphere: Metabolism Latent Energy In Energy Out Species in Biosphere:
8 ______________________ Basic Information Theory = Process of Journalism Data In Info Out z Interviews z Text docs z Clips z Pictures z Infographics Analysis This is a headline DATELINE -- And the traditional text story starts here and goes on and on and on.
9 ______________________ Communications Revolution? 1st Era = 2nd Era = Symbols Print Paper Ink Writing
10 ______________________ “100% de la Población Sufre Problemas de Salud Mental”
11 ______________________ Challenge of Digital Revolution 100% de la Poblacion Sufre Problemas de Salud Mental 010100100100100110101101 101011101010101010101010 010101010101010100111010
12 ______________________ Communications Revolution? 1st Era = 2nd Era = Symbols Print Paper Ink Writing 3rd Era = 101010101101010101000100101
13 ______________________ Changing Datasphere zData and “data appliances:” Smaller, lighter, faster, cheaper and greater capacity z1956: First hard drive. 5mgb. 50 24-inch platters. 2,150 pounds the size of a refrigerator. zCost: US$10,000 per megabyte or $10m per gigabyte. Today: one 3.5” HD has a gigabyte for <50 cents.
14 ______________________ Changing Datasphere zIn 50 years, areal density of HDs increased by 50 MILLION times zExpect to see 1-inch terabyte drives in 10 years z1991 - First 2.5-inch HD for laptops held 63mgb. zToday – 2.5-inch HD holds 160gbyte and is 60 times as shock-resistant zMoore’s Law. Yes, but….
15 ______________________ Major Changes for Society/Economy zPower/information shift away from government, mfgrs, marketers, politicians media TO citizens zEra of increasing -- not diminishing - - resources zEra of increasing -- not decreasing -- returns
16 ______________________ Major Changes for Industry/Journalism educ. zData/information in digital form: requires new tools, analytic skills, delivery methods zNetwork TV news dead; Newspapers (in much of Europe and U.S.) are comatose
17 ______________________ Major Changes for Industry zBecome data/information driven in decision-making zGet out of the newsPAPER or broadcasting business; get into NEWS and DATA/Information biz zDeliver content however consumers want it whenever and wherever they want it zLeverage journalism’s data and skills to customize data/info. for users
18 ______________________ Role of news institutions zMust become the HUB for “transactions” between individuals and the data they need, want, seek: yIntellectual transactions yCultural transactions yEconomic transactions yPolitical transactions
19 ______________________ Data Warehouse Audio zReporter’s DAT z“Amateur” zNews Agencies Online Video zReporter’s DAT z“Amateur” zNews Agencies Data Warehouse Database Publishing - Data In Print z Text z Images z Infographics zDynamic db zDynamic maps zStreaming A/V
20 ______________________ Database Publishing-Info Out Data Warehouse Audio PDA/Cell phone Video Data Warehouse Print TBA
21 ______________________ “Hub” model of journalism Journalism Institution: 3 unique values Data Resources needing users zEconomic zCulural zOccupational zEntertainment Users with data needs zEconomic zCultural zOccupational zEntertainment
22 ______________________ “Hub” model of journalism Journalism institution Users with needs zEconomic zCultural zOccupational zEntertainment Resources needing users zEconomic zCultural zOccupational zEntertainment How to do this? z See “data” as a renewable/reusable resource z To survive means to learn. Constantly z It’s about “teams,” knowledge management, coordination Fred Kockott, 2006 Journalist of the Year: “It’s not a one-man business …This work of the sub-editors, photographers, graphic designers and others is often not recognized.” ( Librarians?)
23 ______________________ Classic Journalism Information Environment zI-o-P storage, analysis and communication zLinear intake of data as TEXT zPrimitive analytic tools zOnly literary skills needed and highly regarded z100% of our work was qualitative: text or static images Journalism: The first refuge of the mathematically phobic!
24 ______________________ Classic Journalism Information Environment zI-o-P storage, analysis and communication zLinear intake of data as TEXT zPrimitive analytic tools zOnly literary skills needed and highly regarded z100% of our work qualitative -- text or static images zThrow away total work product every 24 hours
25 ______________________ Changing Datasphere zAs storage medium changes from I-o-P to 1's and 0's… z...we need functional technology between the data/info and our brain. zRequires new awareness/skills for RRAW- P (Research, Reporting, Analysis, Writing- Packaging model) zAdopt new literacy to survive, NOT as old- style hunters-and-gathers but new era interpreters and explainers. zSome of us move from data fishermen to data farmers to support the community
26 ______________________ RRAW-P Process of Journalism 1.Research 2. Reporting 3. Analysis DEADLINE! 4. Writing 5. Publishing-Producing- Packaging
27 ______________________ Process, and Emphasis, of Classic Journalism: RRAW-P Research ReportingAnalysis The focus of… z Journalism education z On-the-job training z Mid-career training z Most graduate studies Writing- Publishing, Producing, Packaging
28 ______________________ Process - and Emphasis - of Digital-Age Journalism Research ReportingAnalysis Must be – somewhere, some how – the focus of… z Journalism education z On-the-job training z Mid-career training z Most graduate studies zResearch zReporting zAnalysis
29 ______________________ Classic Journalism Information Environment zI-o-P storage, analysis and communication zLinear intake of data as TEXT zPrimitive analytic tools zOnly literary skills needed and highly regarded z100% of our work qualitative -- text or static images
30 ______________________ I-o-P vs.. Digital Environment Traditional Data In z Interviews z Text docs z Clips z Pictures z Infographics 100% of story
31 ______________________ I-o-P vs. Digital Environment Digital DATA IN z Interviews z Text docs z Scholarly articles z Archival content z Pictures z Infographics z Sound/Video z Dynamic maps z Database publshg u Ink-on- paper = <50% of story u Digital data = >50% of story
32 ______________________ Major Changes for Media Production z“Data In” is qualitative AND quantitative z“Info Out” must be qualitative and quantitative
33 ______________________ Major Changes for Datasphere Newsroom zJournalists must be able to work like good social scientists and good poets zLiterally put information specialists (aka: librarians) in center of space and process zImplement team -- conceptual or skills -- approach
34 ______________________ Survival in the Datasphere zAll analysis and eventual stories have three conceptual aspects: Content? Analytic Tools? Methods/ Process?
36 ______________________ New skills for journalists Just as an opening hand…. zSophisticated online research zAnalytic and visual statistics zSpreadsheets zDatabase creation and analysis zGeographic Information Systems zSocial Network Analysis zForensic Accounting/Performance Measurement
37 ______________________ Significance for Journalism zLearn to think in multiple dimensions: non-local & non-traditional sources; depth of sourcing; raw data; dynamic online "data“ (i.e non-documents) zNeed greater analytic skills, e.g. quantification, mapping zGreater degrees of specialization in newsroom (GA reporter may be a dying intellectual breed in 5-10 years. Declining status?)
No, it is not “All about story.” It’s about AND, & and + Prof. Tom Johnson Institute for Analytic Journalism Santa Fe, New Mexico USA t o m @ j t j o h n s o n. c o m t o m @ j t j o h n s o n. c o m Natal Witness Pietermaritzburg, South Africa 5 September 2006