Presentation on theme: "Human Security A humane world where people can live in security and dignity, free from poverty and despair, is still a dream for many and should be enjoyed."— Presentation transcript:
Human Security A humane world where people can live in security and dignity, free from poverty and despair, is still a dream for many and should be enjoyed by all. In such a world, every individual would be guaranteed freedom from fear and freedom from want, with an equal opportunity to fully develop their human potential.
Building human security is essential to achieving this goal. In essence, human security means freedom from pervasive threats to people's rights, their safety or even their lives. Human security has become both a new measure of global security and a new agenda for global action.
Safety is the hallmark of freedom from fear, while well-being is the target of freedom from want. Human security and human development are thus two sides of the same coin, mutually reinforcing and leading to a conducive environment for each other
The concept of 'human security' has been gaining greater recognition. Unlike traditional concepts of security, which focus on defending borders from external military threats, human security is concerned with the security of individuals. For some proponents of human security, the key threat is violence; for others the threat agenda is much broader, embracing hunger, disease and natural disasters. Largely for pragmatic reasons
Another human security concept should be one that focuses on protecting individuals and communities from violence.
No doubt, peace and security are needed to protect not only lives, but also the protect investments- foreign and domestic. There can be no peace, security or sustainable economic development in societies which deny human rights, including the human rights of women
A lasting peace cannot be established without the equal participation of women and men and the inclusion of gender perspectives in both formal and informal peace processes It is importance for women's to have equal participation and full involvement in all efforts to maintain and promote peace and security.
The resolution underscores the responsibility to protect women and girls from human rights abuses, including gender-based violence; and emphasizes the vital importance of mainstreaming gender perspectives in all aspects of conflict prevention, resolution, and reconstruction.
. While previous reviews of the level of implementation have revealed progress achieved in a number of areas, these reviews have also clearly shown that much stronger and coordinated efforts are needed to reach the goal of full implementation of resolution 1325.
More specifically, African women often suffer most adversely from insecurity brought on by wars and conflict.
A World Bank study of the effects of wars and conflicts in the last decade concluded that women and children end up poor and more destitute. Loss of the main bread winner of the family coupled with the destruction of means of making an income work to impoverish the African woman often leaving her a refuge without a home and a source of livelihood.
The various forms of psychological and physical abuse suffered by women and children - sexual molestation and various forms of child abuse (slavery and child soldiers) draw attention to the severe impact of wars and conflicts on these groups of people.
The case of displaced persons is particularly of interest here. Recent events in Angola, Liberia and Sierra Leone have contributed greatly to the increase in the number of women and children living in poverty
However, the role of women in resolving conflicts should not be disregarded, as this could be explored as a possible means of resolving ethnic, political and religious conflicts. Historically, women have proven to be excellent mediators between warring sides, most often applying patience, foresight and intuition in very tense situations.
Perhaps, communities should consider allowing women to play this significant role in conflict resolution, especially at the tribal level, before the problem escalates out of control. But whether or not women will be allowed to play a prominent role in resolving conflicts in Africa,
it remains that there should be greater consideration for the impact of war and conflict on women and children in NEPAD, with strategies being adopted to minimise disruptions in their lives, because these disruptions ultimately affect the family, which means every single African.
The major stakeholders that could be identified here are professional/business women, rural (poor) women, urban women and self-employed women. All these groups of women, though with different needs, have equal rights to the peace and security of the African continent.
This peace and security would determine the business climate for investment, and this affects the working (business/professional and self- employed) women. For the rural women, more education, healthcare, and employment. For the urban women, this would guarantee them better opportunities for survival.
The partners for the achievement of peace and security in Africa are both the government and the private sector, with external support from the international community.
Rural Women and Food Security Rural women play a key role in household food security, which is a multisectoral issue. Therefore, it is important to use a "gender lens", when looking at the critical areas of concern, such as rural poverty, agricultural and rural economy, management of environmental and natural resources, and maintenance of biodiversity and genetic resources. Trade rules play a key role in insecurity of rural women e.g Agreement of agriculture.
Access to land is a, water, seeds, land tenure security, resources power,are other key issue in regard to rural women and security. Secure economic policies is another factor to take into consideration in regard to rural women especially in agriculture. Subsidies undermine security of rural women.
Feminization of Poverty and Agriculture According to the "Human Development Report 1995", the number of rural women living in poverty in the developing countries is estimated at 565 million, and in Africa alone: 130 million. The data further reveal that since the 1970s, the percentage of rural women below the poverty line has increased by 50 percent, whereas that of men: 30 percent. This is what we call "feminization of poverty".
Recognition of Women as Farmers in Their Own Right Women's work in agriculture needs to be recognized in the public and policy fora. If they are invisible in national statistics and have no access to decision-making structures how can they be empowered as agricultural producers in their own right?
According to FAO's 1989 global survey, rural women have a very reduced access to agricultural extension services worldwide compared to men, and technology is rarely designed specifically to address their gender-based needs. In Africa, only 7 percent of all agricultural extension resources were allocated to women farmers, and only one percent to home economic extension.
Reorientation of Agricultural Policies and Services What is needed is a reorientation of agricultural programmes to become people- centered and gender-responsive and so contribute toward the advancement of rural women, food security and sustainable resource use.
Women& peace keeping Women’s active involvement and the articulation of gender equality at this critical period are fundamental both to ensure the legitimacy of the decision-making process, to encourage a broad base of participation and to make sustainable peace and development possible. Yet, women remain largely excluded from equal participation in peace negotiations, and are thus denied their basic human right to take part in the decisions that will set the course for their country.
Although a few women have been able to participate in peace talks in different capacities over the past decade, peace negotiations remain dominated by male leaders who also often represent parties to conflicts. Supporting Coalition-building and Influence in Peace Negotiations
For women to participate effectively in peace- making and peace-building, it is particularly important that women’s groups identify their common priorities and from them develop a strong, unified agenda. Bringing a Gender Perspective to the Drafting Stage and Consolidating the Peace
Gender Justice and Post Conflict Reconstruction and Reconciliation CRIMES AGAINST WOMEN reach new levels of brutality and frequency in times of armed conflict. During a country’s transition to peace, unique opportunities emerge to promote gender equality and gender justice, particularly in the context of peace negotiations and post-conflict reconstruction processes and structures. Given the importance of strengthening the legal foundations of a post-conflict society as a cornerstone of peace-building and restoring public trust is needed.
such as truth and reconciliation commissions and traditional mechanisms, can play an important role in establishing accountability for crimes against women in war, without which it is extremely difficult to overcome the destabilizing cycles of violence and retribution. A combination of methods may be appropriate in order to ensure that all victims secure redress, and rebuild trust in relationships.
Given the limited number of cases that national and international courts can handle, traditional and community-based approaches, such as Gacaca in Rwanda, are being viewed in some cases as a complementary, if not alternative, system of justice and reconciliation. However, it is essential that traditional justice mechanisms are consistent with international human rights norms and protect the rights of witnesses, victims and defendants.
Conclusion It is therefore critical that women be encouraged and supported in playing a role in building security to eradicate poverty and hunger. Let me end by saying that rural women should not be always seen as vulnerable but very strong in their own rights. They should be respected and honored for being able to live in such harsh conditions yet thrive in their own ways. VIVA rural women viva and keep up the good spirit!!!