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1 International Osteoporosis Foundation & European Society of Musculoskeletal Radiology VERTEBRAL FRACTURE INITIATIVE Slide Kit Part 1: Osteoporosis and.

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Presentation on theme: "1 International Osteoporosis Foundation & European Society of Musculoskeletal Radiology VERTEBRAL FRACTURE INITIATIVE Slide Kit Part 1: Osteoporosis and."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 International Osteoporosis Foundation & European Society of Musculoskeletal Radiology VERTEBRAL FRACTURE INITIATIVE Slide Kit Part 1: Osteoporosis and Related Fractures: An Under-diagnosed and Under-treated Public Health Issue

2 2 Why is the Vertebral Fracture Initiative needed?  Most vertebral fractures are a complication of osteoporosis and increase the likelihood of subsequent fractures  Currently mild and moderate vertebral fractures are often not being recognised and reported, leading to under-diagnosis and under- treatment  Radiographic diagnosis is considered the best way to identify and confirm the presence of vertebral fractures in clinical practice  All vertebral fractures identified should be reported as FRACTURED to avoid ambiguity caused by other terminology  Early radiographic diagnosis followed by appropriate therapy will help prevent subsequent fractures

3 3 What is the Vertebral Fracture Initiative?  An educational initiative to improve recognition and reporting of vertebral fractures: Pilot phase in five European countries Teaching Faculty  Initiative Leaders: Harry K. Genant & Pierre D. Delmas  France: Jean-Denis Larédo & Pierre D. Delmas  Germany: Helmut Minne & Michael Jergas / Dieter Felsenberg  Italy: Silvano Adami & Giuseppe Guglielmi  Spain: Jorge Cannata & Francisco Aparisi  UK: David Reid & Judith Adams A clinician and radiologist team taking the lead in each country

4 4 What does the Vertebral Fracture Initiative include? 1. Presentations at radiology conferences 2. Articles in radiology & related publications 3. A resource document and a slide kit including: Part 1. Osteoporosis and Related Fractures: An Under- diagnosed and Under-Treated Public Health Issue Part 2. Recognition and Reporting of Vertebral Fractures 4. Summary handout 5. Interactive teaching programme on CD-ROM Teaching tools available from:

5 5 Definition of Osteoporosis A disease characterized by low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration of bone tissue leading to enhanced bone fragility and a consequent increase in fracture risk. World Health Organization (WHO), 1994 Normal boneOsteoporosis

6 6 OSTEOPOROSIS: THE SIZE OF THE PROBLEM

7 7 Osteoporosis is a Prevalent Disease  Affects 200 million women worldwide 1 - 1/3 of women aged 60 to /3 of women aged 80 or older  Approximately 20-25% of women over the age of 50 have one or more vertebral fractures 2 - United States: 25% 3 - Australia: 20% 4 - Western Europe: 19% 5 - Scandinavia: 26% 5 - Denmark: 21% 6 1. International Osteoporosis Foundation4. Jones G et al., Osteoporos Int 1996, 6: Melton LJ 3rd et al., Spine 1997, 22:2S 5. O'Neill et al., J Bone Miner Res 1996, 11: Ettinger B et al., J Bone Miner Res 1992,7:4496. Jensen GF et al., Clin Orthop 1982,166:75

8 8 Incidence Rates for Vertebral, Wrist & Hip Fractures in Women after Age 50 Wasnich RD, Primer on the Metabolic Bone Diseases and Disorders of Mineral Metabolism. 4th edition, Vertebrae Hip Wrist Age (Years) Annual incidence per 1000 women

9 9 Osteoporotic Fractures in Women: Comparison with Other Diseases Riggs BL, Melton LJ. Bone 1995 Heart and Stroke Facts, 1996, American Heart Association Cancer Facts & Figures, 1996, American Cancer Society * Osteoporotic Fractures * annual incidence all ages † annual estimate women 29+ ‡ annual estimate women 30+ § 1996 new cases, all ages † ‡ § vertebral other sites forearm hip Heart Attack StrokeBreast Cancer Annual incidence x 1000

10 10 Projected Burden of Osteoporotic Hip Fractures Worldwide Total no. hip fractures 1990 = 1.66 million 2050 = 6.26 million Adapted from Cooper C., Melton LJ, Osteoporos Int 1992, 2: North America Europe Latin America Asia 3250 Estimated number hip fractures (x1000)

11 11 OSTEOPOROSIS: MORTALITY & MORBIDITY

12 12 Hip Fracture vs. Stroke Mortality: Death Rates per 100,000 in Older Women Hip FractureStroke Sweden Denmark Germany Hip fracture data: age 80; Kanis JA, J Bone Miner Res 2002, 17:1237 Stroke data: ages 65-74; Sans et al., Eur Heart J 1997, 18:1231

13 13 Relative Risk of Death Following Clinical Fractures Fracture Intervention Trial (FIT)* *6459 postmenopausal women ages years followed for an average of 3.8 years Any Symptomatic Age-Adjusted Relative Risk (95% CI) Non-spine Other Forearm Spine Hip Cauley JA et al., Osteoporos Int 2000, 11:556

14 14 Cumulative Survival Probability Center JR et al., Lancet 1999, 353:878 Age MEN Survival probability Dubbo Population Vertebral/Major Fractures Proximal Femur Fractures Age WOMEN Survival probability

15 15 Mortality Rates by Number of Prevalent Vertebral Fractures Kado DM et al., Arch Intern Med 1999,159:1215 P for trend < Mortality (per 1000 person-years) Number of Vertebral Fractures 45

16 16 Clinical Consequences Kyphosis Loss of height Bulging abdomen Acute and chronic pain Breathing difficulties, reflux and other GI symptoms Depression REDUCED QUALITY OF LIFE

17 17 Vertebral Fractures Substantially Increase the Risk of New Fragility Fractures  Women with vertebral fractures have a 5-fold increased risk of a new vertebral fracture and a 2-fold increased risk of hip fracture Black et al., J Bone Miner Res 1999 Melton et al, Osteoporos Int 1999  One woman in five will suffer from another vertebral fracture within a year Lindsay et al., JAMA, 2001

18 18 Effect of Prior Vertebral Fracture on Risk of Subsequent Vertebral Fracture Adapted from Lindsay R et al., JAMA 2001, 285:320 First Year of Study 2725 postmenopausal women randomised to placebo Incidence of New Vertebral Fracture (%) No. of Vertebral Fractures at Baseline 01 11 2 RR=5.1 (3.1, 8.4) RR=2.6 (1.4, 4.9) 15 RR=7.3 (4.4, 12.3)

19 19 All Types of Vertebral Fractures are Associated With Morbidity Nevitt MC et al., Arch Intern Med.2000, 160:77 Limited Activity Bed Rest Patients (%) No Incident Fracture Radiographic Fracture Clinical Fracture Due to back pain

20 20 Vertebral Fractures in Summary  Are the most common osteoporotic fractures  Are associated with excess mortality  Are associated with significant morbidity, even if they do not come to clinical attention  Increase the risk of subsequent vertebral fracture(s) by 5 fold and of other fragility fractures (including hip) by 2 fold

21 21 COST OF OSTEOPOROSIS

22 22 Some Costs of Osteoporosis in Europe  In Europe the total direct costs of osteoporotic fractures are over €31 billion and are expected to increase to more that €76 billion in Kanis JA & Johnell O. - Osteoporos Int 2005 (in press)  In France osteoporotic hip fractures are estimated to cost about €1 billion every year*  In Spain the total direct hospital cost of osteoporotic fractures in 1995 was approximately €222 million*  In England & Wales the total direct hospital cost of osteoporotic fractures in 1999 was approximately €847 million* *Osteoporosis in the European Community: A Call to Action. IOF Nov, 2001

23 23 Osteoporosis Results in More Disability & Direct Hospital Cost Than Many Other Diseases  8% of vertebral fractures are hospitalised and 2% require long-term nursing care Ross et al., Am Journal of Medicine 1997, 103(2A):30S – 42S  Annual cost of acute hospitalisation in Switzerland in 1992: 600 million Swiss francs (US$350 million) Lippuner et al., Osteoporosis Int 1997, 7: – Number of bed days (men & women) 891,000 for COPD 701,000 for osteoporosis 533,000 for stroke 328,000 for myocardial infarction 201,000 for breast cancer Osteoporosis # 1 when looking at women only

24 24 UNDER-DIAGNOSIS OF VERTEBRAL FRACTURES: WHAT IS THE SIZE OF THE PROBLEM?

25 25 A Retrospective Study Suggests that Vertebral Fractures are Under-Diagnosed Gehlbach et al.,Osteoporos Int 2000, 11: hospitalised women with a lateral chest x-ray Patients (n) Fracture identified by study radiologists Fracture noted in radiology report Fracture noted in medical record Received osteoporosis treatment

26 26 A Large Prospective Study Demonstrates Under- Diagnosis of Vertebral Fractures is a Worldwide Problem Vertebral fractures were markedly under-diagnosed in radiology reports in a multicenter, multinational study population of osteoporotic women (n=2451) in which 789 (32%) women had  1 vertebral fracture at baseline. Adjudicated discrepancies (n=350) between local and central readings due to undetected vertebral fracture (68%) or equivocal terminology in the local radiology report (32%) yielded a false-negative rate of 34%. Under-diagnosis of vertebral fractures was observed in all geographic regions (false-negative rates: North America 45.2%, Latin America 46.5%, Europe/South Africa/Australia 29.5%). The false-positive rate was 5% globally. Under-diagnosis of vertebral fracture is a worldwide problem attributable in part to a lack of radiographic detection or use of ambiguous terminology in the radiology report, or both. Delmas et al., J Bone Miner Res 2005, in press.

27 27 Awareness & Treatment of Vertebral Fractures in Europe is Low Despite…  Known disability associated with all fractures  Excess mortality associated with vertebral and hip fractures  €31 billion total direct hospital costs in Europe  A validated radiographic diagnosis technique  Effective and safe treatments  Evidence based guidelines for diagnosis and management

28 28 Effective therapies are widely available and can reduce vertebral, hip and other fractures by 30% to 65%.

29 29 Updated from Delmas, Lancet 2002 Antifracture Efficacy of Antiosteoporotic Agents Incident vertebral fractures - Relative risk RR ± 95% CI RLX 60 (MORE)* RLX 60 (MORE)** ALN 5/10 (FIT1)* ALN 5/10 (FIT2)** RIS 5 (VERT - NA)* RIS 5 (VERT - MN)* CT 200 (PROOF)* Teriparatide 20µg Strontium ranelate (SOTI)* Strontium ranelate (SOTI + TROPOS)** * with prev vert fracture(s) ** without prev vert fractures

30 30 RECOGNITION & REPORTING OF VERTEBRAL FRACTURES

31 31 Vertebral Fractures Semi-quantitative reading / visual scoring Genant et al., J Bone Miner Res 1993, 8:137 Normal (Grade 0) Wedge fractureBiconcave fractureCrush fracture Mild fracture (Grade 1, ~20-25%) Moderate fracture (Grade 2, ~25-40%) Severe fracture (Grade 3, ~40%)

32 32 SQ Mild FXSQ Severe FX

33 33 Single Energy Fan-beam DXA Imaging a Potential Alternative to Conventional Radiographs  Single energy imaging  Fast (10 sec) scanning / breath hold  Simple visual evaluation  Low dose (1/100 of radiographs)  Available at point of care

34 34 Lateral Vertebral Assessment: …Point-of-Care tools

35 35 Combining BMD & Vertebral Fracture Assessment: A New Approach to Improve the Diagnosis Rate of Vertebral Fractures  Improve risk assessment  Identify many (~30%) of “missed” fractures  Improve targeting of therapy  May improve patient understanding, acceptance and compliance

36 36 Conclusions  Most vertebral fractures are a complication of osteoporosis and increase the likelihood of subsequent fractures  Currently mild and moderate vertebral fractures are often not being recognised and reported, leading to under-diagnosis and under- treatment  Radiographic diagnosis is considered the best way to identify and confirm the presence of vertebral fractures in clinical practice  All vertebral fractures identified should be reported as FRACTURED to avoid ambiguity caused by other terminology  Early radiographic diagnosis followed by appropriate therapy will help prevent subsequent fractures – Effective therapies are widely available and can reduce vertebral, hip and other fragility fractures by 30% to 65%.

37 37 Action is needed by Radiologists to ensure:  Recognition of vertebral fractures using radiography imaging techniques  Reporting as FRACTURED to avoid ambiguity  These actions will help patients receive effective treatment and prevent subsequent fractures This is the goal of the IOF / ESSR Vertebral Fracture Initiative


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