Presentation on theme: "To Accompany Comprehensive, Alternate, and Texas Editions American Government: Roots and Reform, 10th edition Karen O’Connor and Larry J. Sabato Pearson."— Presentation transcript:
To Accompany Comprehensive, Alternate, and Texas Editions American Government: Roots and Reform, 10th edition Karen O’Connor and Larry J. Sabato Pearson Education, 2009 Chapter 13 Voting and Elections
Voting Behavior Voting is a form of conventional political participation. Turnout is the proportion of electorate who votes.Turnout States regulate voter eligibility.States regulate voter eligibility Voters are more educated and make more money. Voters are likely to be middle-aged, women, and white. The South traditionally has a lower turnout rate.The South traditionally has a lower turnout rate
Candidate (Party)Amount raisedAmount spentVotesAverage spent per vote Barack Obama (D)D$778,642,962$760,370,19569,498,516$10.94 John McCain (R)R$379,006,485$346,666,42259,948,323$5.78 Ralph Nader (I)$4,496,180$4,187,628739,034$5.67 Bob Barr (L)L$1,383,681$1,345,202523,715$2.57 Chuck Baldwin (C)C$261,673$234,309199,750$1.17 Cynthia McKinney (G)G$240,130$238,968161,797$1.48 Excludes spending by independent expenditure concerns. Source: Federal Election Commission  
Early voting began last Thursday in Iowa, and mail-in voting has begun in several states for the US general election set for November 4.
The contests on the ballot include a third of the US Senate, all 435 seats in the House of Representatives, and the governorships of 36 out of 50 states, as well as thousands of seats in state legislatures.
Fewer than five percent of eligible voters went to the polls. All indications are that voter turnout in the November 4 balloting will be even lower than the dismal 37 percent recorded in the last non- presidential election in 2010.
Why Is Turnout so Low? In 2008, 62 percent of eligible voters turned out. Most common reason for not voting is being too busy.Most common reason for not voting is being too busy Registration can also be an unclear process.Registration Absentee voting can be difficult. There are a lot of elections. People are apathetic. Political parties have less influence than in earlier years.
Ways to Improve Voter Turnout Make registration and absentee voting easier. Make Election Day a holiday. Strengthen political parties.
Patterns in Vote Choice Party: Democrats largely vote for Democrats. Ticket-splitting has increased. Race: minorities largely vote for Democrats. Gender: women largely vote for Democrats. Income: poor largely vote for Democrats. Ideology: liberals largely vote for Democrats. Issues: prospective and retrospective judgments.
Purposes of Elections Legitimize government, even in authoritarian systems. Organize government. Choose issue and policy priorities. Electorate gives winners a mandate.
Michael D. “Mike” Duman – Chuckatuck Borough 4420 Cherokee Drive, Suffolk VA, 23434 Charles F. Brown – Cypress Borough 1342 Devonshire Court, Suffolk VA, 23434 Leroy Bennett – Cypress Borough 2004 Nansemond Parkway, Suffolk VA, 23434 Clinton L. Jenkins – Cypress Borough 2029 Hickorywood Drive, Suffolk VA, 23434 Jeffrey L. Gardy – Holy Neck Borough 210 Delaney Drive, Suffolk VA, 23434 Timothy J. “Tim” Johnson – Holy Neck Borough 3203 Holland Road, Suffolk VA, 23434 Charles D. Parr, Sr. – Suffolk Borough 1119 Pine Valley Drive, Suffolk VA, 23434 Donald Z. Goldberg – Suffolk Borough 404 W. Riverview Drive, Suffolk VA 23434 Kerry B. Holmes – Suffolk Borough 230 Clay Street, Suffolk, VA, 23434 CITY COUNCIL CANDIDATES
SCHOOL BOARD CANDIDATES Lorraine B. Skeeter – Cypress Borough 2332 Hosier Road, Suffolk VA, 23434 Enoch C. “E.C.” Copeland – Holy Neck Borough 6225 Leafwood Road, Suffolk VA, 23437 Linda W. Bouchard – Chuckatuck Borough 6731 Crittenden Road, Suffolk VA, 23432 Dorothy Bland Gamble – Chuckatuck Borough 5504 Godwin Blvd., Suffolk VA, 23434 Michael J. Debranski – Suffolk Borough 1015 Maryland Avenue, Suffolk VA, 23434 Thelma V. Hinton – Suffolk 2210 E. Washington Street, Apt. H-804 Suffolk VA, 23434
SPECIAL ELECTION for SLEEPY HOLE SCHOOL BOARD David P. Mitnick – Sleepy Hole Borough 916 Vineyard Place Unit C, Suffolk VA, 23435 James “Jim” E. Perkinson – Sleepy Hole Borough 4900 Bennett’s Pasture Road, Suffolk VA, 23435 Charles D. Leavell – Sleepy Hole Borough 3905 Pughsville Road, Suffolk VA, 23435
Types of Elections Primary elections can be open or closed. Crossover voting or raiding can occur in open primaries. Runoff primaries held if no candidate wins a majority. General elections determine who will fill public offices. Ballot measures: initiative, referendum, and recall.
legislative referendum popular referendum advisory referendum
RecallRecall is a procedure that allows citizens to remove and replace a public official before the end of a term of office. Recall differs from another method for removing officials from office – impeachment – in that it is a political device while impeachment is a legal process.
Nominating a President Delegates to convention chosen by election or caucus. Elections may be winner-take-all or proportional. Caucuses are better for the party organization. Elections allow for broader participation. Trend toward front-loading.Trend toward front-loading
Party Conventions Each party has its own rules about delegates. Democrats no longer subscribe to unit rule. Delegates tied to candidate, except superdelegates. Require representation of women and minorities.women Republicans do not bind delegates to candidate. Media extensively cover happenings.
Electoral College Representatives from each state who select president. Electors equivalent to senators plus representatives. Framers favored system to remove power from people. Originally president and vice president selected alone. Changed after Twelfth Amendment. 1876 and 2000 elections demonstrate concerns.
Reforming the Electoral College Three major proposals have been made. Select the president by popular vote. Each congressional district has a vote. Keep the College, abolish the electors.
Congressional Elections In Congress, incumbency has its advantages. Support from a paid staff. Media and travel budgets. “Scaring off” other challengers. Redistricting and gerrymandering to protect incumbents.gerrymandering
Why Incumbents Lose Redistricting can pit incumbents against one another. Scandals. Presidential coattails. Midterm elections; president’s party usually loses seats.president’s party usually loses seats
2008 Congressional Elections Democrats advantaged by momentum and money. Used these to make gains in House and Senate. Victories in South and West were particularly notable.
Reforming the Electoral Process End front-loading with regional primaries. Even the playing field with new campaign finance laws. Increase turnout with online voting or voting by mail. Make voting more accessible with a modern ballot.modern ballot