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BT2103 Developing Small Systems for Business Lecture 2 Databases, Data Management, And The Legal Framework.

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Presentation on theme: "BT2103 Developing Small Systems for Business Lecture 2 Databases, Data Management, And The Legal Framework."— Presentation transcript:

1 BT2103 Developing Small Systems for Business Lecture 2 Databases, Data Management, And The Legal Framework

2 Contents Databases –Requirements of Information –Information Environments –Data Organisation –Terms –Structure Data Management –Database Management Systems –Data Administration Legal Framework –The Data Protection Act (1998)

3 Requirements of Information Information Systems need to provide information that is: –Timely –Accurate –Relevant

4 Traditional File Environment Data Redundancy and Confusion Program-Data Dependence Lack of Flexibility Lack of Data-Sharing Poor Security

5 Database Environment “A collection of data organised to serve many applications at the same time, by storing and managing data so that they appear to be in one location” Laudon and Laudon (2000)

6 Data Organisation Bit0 Byte – the letter v FieldBgkalina – a ‘name’ field RecordBgkalina Gr34 Inf & Fin 4668 FileBgkalina Gr34 Inf & Fin 4668 Pclare Gr44 Inf & Fin 4670 Dwalters Gr33 Inf & Fin 4650 DatabaseLancashire Business School Staff Database

7 Database Terms Entity Attribute Key field

8 Database Terms (cont’d) Order Number Order Date Item Number QuantityAmount /10/ Attributes Entity - ORDER Key field Adapted from Laudon and Laudon (2000) Fields

9 Database Structures Hierarchical Network Relational Object Oriented

10 Hierarchical Records called ‘Nodes’ Top record – Root More specific at lower levels Parent/Child Little flexibility Quick processing of Large-Batch data

11 Network Records viewed in ‘sets’ Sets have one ‘owner’ and one or more ‘member’ records Record can have more than one owner Allows more complicated relationships AD Hoc reports difficult

12 Relational Most common structure Data stored as records in files Allows selection of individual records Analysis of records and files with others More flexibility Slower Large-Batch processing

13 Object Oriented Files such as images, text, sound and video treated as ‘objects’ Objects attached to data –Eg Blackpool Borough Council Allows easy access to hard-to-describe objects

14 Database Trends Distributed Databases Object-Oriented Databases Data Warehouses Databases on the Web

15 Data Management Database Management Systems (DBMS) Data Administration

16 Database Management Systems “Special software to create and maintain a database…” Laudon and Laudon (2000) 3 Components: Data definition language Data manipulation language Data dictionary

17 DBMS Major advantages: –Allows end user to manipulate data without the need of the IT specialist –Easy to understand queries –Retrieves data from database(s) (rather than the software doing it)

18 Data Administration “Responsible for the specific policies and procedures through which data can be managed as an organisational resource” Laudon and Laudon (2000) Develop information policy Planning for data Supervise database design and data dictionary development Monitoring data usage

19 The Legal Framework Background The Data Protection Act (1984) The Computer Misuse Act (1990) The Data Protection Act (1998) Regulation of Investigatory Powers Act (2000) Conflicts

20 Background (1970’s and 80’s) Organisations becoming more dependent in data Data becoming more complex Data security is an issue Legal loopholes regarding access to, and use of, organisational data

21 The Data Protection Act (1984) Principles –Legal obligation to keep accurate and secure data –Allows individual to seek recompense for distress due to inaccurate data Data Registrar –Notified with regard to data storage and usage

22 The Computer Misuse Act (1990) Created 3 new offences: Unauthorised access –‘Hacking’ and those abusing the access powers Ulterior intent –Using data for blackmail or fraud Unauthorised modifications –Includes planting viruses

23 The Data Protection Act (1998) Supersedes the DPA 1984 “an Act to make new provision for the regulation of the processing of information relating to individuals, including the obtaining, holding, use or disclosure of such information”

24 The Data Protection Act (1998) Supersedes the DPA 1984 Obligations on computer users: –Data is accurate and secure –Data readily available –No damage or distress caused –Notification to Data Registrar What data kept On whom data kept For what purpose Appropriate security

25 Principles Information: –Obtained and processed ‘fairly and lawfully’ –Held for ‘specific and lawful’ purposes –Accurate and up-to-date –Not held for longer than necessary Companies: –Not hold excessive or unnecessary data –Protect data Individuals: –Right to see, and have corrections made

26 Regulation of Investigatory Powers Act (2000) Allows governmental agencies to monitor organisational electronic communication Even if it is confidential Big Brother lives!

27 Conflicts Human Rights Act (1998) vs. RIP (2000) Despite all the legislation –“in 2000, the UK suffered the highest level of electronic security fraud in Europe” Financial Times: 29/3/01

28 Summary Data is stored in files which must be defined and organised logically for the databases to function correctly Databases must be managed effectively so as to maintain control over the data A legal framework exists to ensure that this is done Emergent technologies provide new opportunities for the use of databases

29 Fin Questions?


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