World Trade Center Attacks FDNY Response – 200+ Units Combined companies – First 3 Hours 121 Engines (61%) 62 Ladders (43%) 27 Chiefs (47%) Lead to management difficulties – City Wide Coverage Maintained Avg Response time: 5.5min FDNY Losses – 343 Fire Fighters – 98 Vehicles
Problem Statement Evaluate fire department city wide response for a catastrophic high rise fire with the presence of degraded infrastructure.
Why? Construction is currently underway to build the new “One World Trade Center” building. Creates a target for future, possibly more sophisticated, terrorist attacks. Attacking infrastructure to impede emergency response is a possibility.
FDNY Structure New York City – Consists of 5 Boroughs Manhattan The Bronx Brooklyn Queens Staten Island – Connected by bridge and tunnel network. Brooklyn Bridge JFK Bridge Etc. – Emergency Response Strength 15,870 Responders 52 Battalions 251 Stations 198 Engines 143 Ladders FDNY Structure Fire Commissioner (Civilian) Overall authority in NYC Chief of Department Highest ranking fire fighter Chief of Fire Operations Responsible for fire fighting efforts throughout the city Borough Chiefs Responsible for fire fighting efforts in their respective Boroughs Division Chief Battalion Chief Captain (Fire Station Commander)
Network Model Nodes (254) – Start Node – Fire Houses – Bridges – WTC (destination) Edges (1289) – Start to Fire Houses – Fire House to Bridge Arcs – Bridge to Bridge Arcs Data – Avg Response Times – Fire House Locations – Fire House Capacities –
Assumptions Borough response times are homogenized. FDNY response is contained within NYC boarders. All non-attacked bridges are currently available for transit. Responding Fire Houses utilize all resources available. Response is instantaneous (no response lag).
Staten Island Brooklyn Manhattan Queens Bronx
New York City Manhattan Bronx Brooklyn Staten Island Queens
Purpose: Minimize the average response times of emergency responders given a prerequisite number of units. (ex: 50 Fire Stations Responding). – Attacks on the network are aimed at vital nodes that provide connections to other boroughs Min Cost Flow
Manhattan Isolation (# attacks > # bridges) Manhattan contains 48 Fire Stations. Thus for a situation where 49 responders are required, FDNY Manhattan would be overwhelmed if they were to receive no outside assistance.
Attacking the Network ( Req’d) 15-16: Isolation of Manhattan 6-7: Isolation of Manhattan & The Bronx 4-5: Isolation of Manhattan, The Bronx, and Queens 3-4: Isolation of Manhattan, The Bronx, Queens, and Brooklyn. This also removes the need for Staten Island.
Conclusions To Overwhelm the FDNY – Requires another 9/11 type attack. Massive response requires manpower and resources – Requires isolation of the borough Level of sophistication would be very high Would not go unnoticed Extensive bridge network needs to be defeated.
Future Research Determine Fire House dispatch procedures to determine individual node capacities. Obtain actual list of dispatched Fire Houses and those that self- dispatched. Image credit: Joe Woolhead Courtesy of: Silverstein Properties Taken: September 08, 2011