Presentation on theme: "The Formation of Western Europe 800-1500. Size of the forces involved; the number of casualties (dead and wounded) The major “players” involved, whether."— Presentation transcript:
Size of the forces involved; the number of casualties (dead and wounded) The major “players” involved, whether they be powerful countries or people The context/circumstances surrounding the battle. Why was the battle being fought? Where there extenuating circumstances like geography, weather, etc. that influenced the outcome? The outcome, for example: did the battle win the war or turn the tide of the war; had one side been losing up until that battle? Long-term effects, for example, did the winner go on to win the war and change the course of history?
NAME OF BATTLE: Example: the Allied invasion of Normandy, France. June 6, 1944 CHARACTERISTICS THAT MADE IT IMPORTANT: Largest amphibious landing ever. 1 million men Fortress Europe was being invaded. The success at Normandy hastened the end of WWII Had to be done in absolute secrecy to ensure its success Weather played a factor. Germans didn’t think Allies would invade in bad weather; they did! The heroics of the men at Omaha Beach have become part American culture (Saving Private Ryan; Band of Brothers, The Longest Day, etc.)
How did democratic traditions begin to evolve as the kingdoms of England and France began to develop? What steps were necessary to centralize governments in France and England? What was the significance of the Battle of Hastings? What is the significance of the Magna Carta?
Many invaders landed from different regions landed in Britain The Angles The Saxons Created Anglo-Saxon culture The Vikings Alfred the Great (871-899) unites his kingdom under one rule, calling it England, “land of the Angles” 1016 – Danish King Canute united Anglo-Saxons and Vikings into one people
1042 – King Edward the Confessor took the throne Died in 1066 without an heir The resulting power vacuum leads to war!
William the Conqueror Invader = William the Conqueror Duke of Normandy (northern France) Cousin of King Edward William invaded England with a Norman army and claimed English crown Harold Godwinson Rival = Harold Godwinson Brother-in-law of Edward Anglo-Saxon who claimed the throne Fought against William in the Battle of Hastings Normans were victorious after Harold takes an arrow in the eye William claimed all England his person property. Kept 1/5 for himself Gave lands to 200 Norman lords Unified control of the land Laid foundation for centralized government Brought feudalism to England
Anglo-Saxons hated their Norman conquerors The Norman lords wielded much power and heavily taxed the Saxons The story of Robin Hood tells of his exploits in stealing from the rich (Normans) and giving to the poor (Saxons)
Hold onto and add to their French lands Strengthen their power over nobles and the Church English king Henry II acquired a French territory, Aquitaine in his marriage to Eleanor of Aquitaine Added to lands in Normandy Served as a vassal to the French King
Henry II strengthened the royal courts by: Sending royal judges to every part of England at least one/year Collected taxes Settled lawsuits Punished crimes Introduced use of a jury Made up of loyal people Answered judge’s questions about the case Only allowed in king’s courts Common law: a unified body of law created by case by case rulings of England’s royal judges The basis for law in U.S.
ORDER OF MONARCHS: Henry II > Richard the Lionhearted > John Softsword Lost Normandy, lands in northern France Alienated the Church Threatened rights to self-govern Raised taxes to all-time high Nobles revolted and forced John to agree to the Magna Carta (Great Charter) in 1215 Guaranteed basic political rights No taxation without representation Right to a jury trial Right to protection under the law Basic legal rights in U.K. and U.S. today!
John Softsword > Edward I 1295 – Edward needed to raise taxes so he called on 2 burgesses (citizens of wealth and property, but not necessarily a noble) from every borough and 2 knights from every county In November, knights, burgesses, bishops, lords met together in London as a parliament (a legislative group) A model for later kings In Parliament – the two groups formed an assembly of their own: House of Commons (knights and burgesses) House of Lords (nobles and bishops) Weakened power of lords Provided a check on royal power, just like the Magna Carta
Capet family only controlled a small area of France, but it included Paris Despite being weak rulers, Capets managed to expand their power outward from Paris Most powerful Capetian was Philip II (1180-1223) His goal: weaken the power of English kings in France Seized Normandy from King John in 1204, tripled the lands under his control Established a strong central government Established officials called bailiffs who presided over the king’s courts and collected the king’s taxes
Louis IX – 1226-1270 Created a French appeals court (could overturn the decisions of local courts) Strengthened the monarchy Weakened feudal ties Philip IV – 1285-1314 Fought w/ the pope about priests paying taxes to the king Called a meeting to win support against the pope and invited commoners
Philip IV invited all to participate in a meeting known as the Estates- General Helped to increase royal power against the nobility Did not limit the king’s power In England and France these events were important steps towards increased central government power and democratic rule
How did democratic traditions begin to evolve as the kingdoms of England and France began to develop? What steps were necessary to centralize governments in France and England? What is the significance of the Magna Carta?