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Why was the Reform Act of 1867 passed? o What were the factors favouring reform in the 1850s? o What was the impact of high and low politics? o What were.

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Presentation on theme: "Why was the Reform Act of 1867 passed? o What were the factors favouring reform in the 1850s? o What was the impact of high and low politics? o What were."— Presentation transcript:

1 Why was the Reform Act of 1867 passed? o What were the factors favouring reform in the 1850s? o What was the impact of high and low politics? o What were the terms of 1859 Bill and the factors for reform in 1860s? o Was democracy inevitable? o What were the terms of the 1866 Bill and why did the Bill fail? o Why was the 1867 Bill passed; was it because of high or low politics? o What were the terms of the Bill? o 1867 Power Point o Reform Unions pages o Chapter 4 (pages 201+) Extension of the Franchise o Chapter 2:2 o Chapter 4 section 3 Government and Reform: Britain o Chapter called “Continuity with the past” pages o Cartoon from Punch showing D & G in a race o Chapter called “A Leap in the Dark” and Cartoon called “A Leap in the Dark” o Pages on Reform Unions o Pages from Britain book o Chapter called “Parliamentary Reform after 1832” o Chapter 4”The significance of parliamentary reform …” End of topic Why was 1867 Reform Act passed? Why was the Reform Act of 1867 passed?

2 What were the factors favouring reform in the 1850s? Learning Objectives: To understand why the attitude of politicians to reform changed. To learn about the attempts to bring in a Reform Bill

3 Cartoons Cartoons are used a lot at AS and A2. Look at the cartoon and work out what it is about. Notice who the main characters are; what model of change do you think it portrays? What do you think this tells us about why a Reform Act was passed in 1867?

4 Dizzy wins Cartoon was published on 25 th May The Liberals won the General Election of The Conservatives won the General Election of The Liberals won in 1880

5 The 1850`s Use Chapter 4 pages to work together on this task. Take a section each to investigate. When your section is complete share it with the rest of the group.

6 Why was Parliament reform acceptable in the 1850s? 1.The Chartists had failed, Britain had not experienced a revolution in 1848 so to widen the franchise would be safe. Population was growing – the skilled working classes were becoming more prosperous, so the electorate had naturally increased from 700,000 to nearly 174 million in 1866 (based on £10 householder franchise in boroughs). If the working class were prevented from voting they might be driven towards the radicals. The party that introduced reform might gain an electoral advantage. 2.The Conservatives might be attracted by the need to win a General Election and stay in power. 3.Some working classes seen as respectable because they were not revolutionary, they had benefitted from an economic boom from They increasingly wanted to accept the norms of society and not rebel against them. Many were becoming literate. They joined Trade Unions but these were also now respectable and started to have influence. They were patriotic, religious and loyal to the monarchy. They were sober, sensible and thrifty. 4.The Residuum were the unskilled, lower working classes, they did not share in this prosperity and were not seen as fit for the privilege of voting.

7 Key Terms What do these mean? Franchise Literate Thrifty Residuum

8 Key Terms What do these mean? Franchise – the right to vote officially granted to a person by the Gov. Literate – able to read and write. The economic boom had given more working classes advantages in education. Thrifty - Using money and other resources carefully and not wastefully. Residuum – unskilled working classes that would not be included in the extension of the franchise

9 Find out about the Bill introduced in 1859:- Why was it introduced ? What were the terms of the Bill ? Why did it fail ? Then use pages to find out what factors influenced reform in the 1860`s. Make a list !

10 Why did reform come back on the agenda in 1860’s and why was the reform bill rejected? Learning Objectives: To consolidate understanding of the reform bill of 1859 To understood why Gladstone introduced a bill in 1866 and why it failed

11 Homework Feedback 1859 Bill Why was it introduced ? What were the terms of the Bill ? Why did it fail ? What factors influenced reform in the 1860`s:

12 1859 Bill Why was it introduced ? The idea of looking at reform from the idea of party advantage had now begun. Disraeli however felt that the Whigs had constructed a bill which suited them in 1832 and that the Conservatives were now entitled to do the same. What were the terms of the Bill ? £10 borough franchise extended to counties, extension of borough boundaries to include more rural voters, £20 lodger vote, a second vote to those earning £10+ a year from investments or had £60 savings (fancy franchise). Why did it fail ? Russell proposed a resolution (expression of opinion in HofC which does not have full weight of law) calling for an extension to the borough votes and it passed – this would benefit the Liberals and Derby resigned in protest meaning the Liberals formed a minority gov. What factors influenced reform in the 1860`s: advances of the skilled, urban working class Gladstone’s personal support for reform Impact from abroad – American Civil War and visit from Garibaldi Role of trade unions and economic problems

13 Key Terms Labour Aristocracy ResiduumFranchise Boroughs Fancy Franchise Redistribution VenalityAdullamitesProletariat

14 Key Terms Labour Aristocracy Position of authority within the working classes Residuum The unskilled and untrustworthy working classes Franchise The right to vote granted by the government Boroughs A town or district that has an administrative unit Fancy Franchise originating from measures of 1854, a £10 lodger qualification for the boroughs, and a £60 savings qualification in the counties. Redistribution Reducing inequalities in wealth or advantages Venality Being open to bribery. Using a position for personal gain Adullamites anti-reform faction within the UK Liberal Party in Proletariat Collective workers or working class

15 Can you explain these reasons for reform in more detail? Disraeli wanted to score points off Gladstone The Conservatives needed to pass reform if they were ever going to stay in power Disraeli wanted to pacify the Radicals

16 The 1866 Bill Using the chapter: “A Leap in the dark” What did Gladstone aim to do? How did he aim to do it? Why did he not succeed?

17 The 1866 Bill What did Gladstone aim to do? How did he aim to do it? Why did he not succeed? To siphon off the respectable working classes To leave the residuum behind To settle on a franchise that would be high enough to keep out the residuum (£7 annual rent) Reduce County franchise from £50 to £14 (but these would be middle class – so safe !) 30 Whigs rebelled, encouraged by Disraeli; their leading spokesman, Robert Lowe feared democracy and thought Gladstone had gone too far ! (Adullamites) Others thought Gladstone was too arrogant and too radical.

18 Opportunities for Derby and Disraeli Who was the Prime Minister? Why was Disraeli in charge? What 3 things persuaded D & D to go for reform ?

19 “A Leap in the dark” Can you understand it?

20 Why did Disraeli pass the 1867 Act? Learning Objectives: To understand the Reform Bill of 1867 To understand why Disraeli introduced the 1867 Act – focussing on high/low politics

21 Look carefully at the images Can you identify them all? Can you give any details about the characters?

22 The Proposals Use the 2 chapters (pages in Chapter 4) A Leap in the Dark (pages 343 – 344) Find out:- 1.What the original proposals from Disraeli were? Page 57/ What the final terms of the Act were? Page 58/ Why did it change? Page 58/ What difference did it make? Impact? Page 59-65/346+

23 Original Proposals 1.To give the vote to all male householders in the boroughs. (This would enfranchise the skilled working classes in the towns) 2.They had to pay rates personally (so not pay it as part of their rent) 3.They had to have 2 year residence qualification (so miss out workmen who travelled a lot) 4.Fancy Franchises, giving votes to those who had £50 in the bank. The number of new voters would be 400,000

24 Final Terms 1.Only 1 year residence qualification needed 2.As well as a householder franchise, a £10 lodger franchise. 3.Vote given to Compound Householders (those who paid rates & rent to a landlord) 4.No Fancy Franchises Number of new voters – about 1,100,000

25 Why Change? 1.Disraeli accepted amendments from Radicals & Liberals (but not from Gladstone !) – gain party advantage 2.To stop reform agitation 3.They had a minority government so needed support from the Liberals in order to get the Bill through Parliament Number of new voters – about 1,100,000

26 What difference did it make? Impact? The old corrupt system took a severe blow (there were further reforms) Party Organisation improved The two party system – Liberals and Conservatives were now two clearly established groups and this ended the confusion of politics in 1850s and 60s.

27 Disraeli`s motives Use the sheet called Activity2.1 Find evidence for tactics that he used to get the bill passed? What evidence is there for the High Politics model? Is there any evidence for the Low Politics model? Is there any evidence that Disraeli did not plan his strategy but was just an opportunist?

28 High or Low Politics ? Read pages in A Leap in the Dark. What side does this chapter come down on – High or Low Politics ?

29 Using the A3 complete single bubble showing the causes of reform in 1867 Why did Parliament ary reform become an issue?

30 Homework Feedback Pressure Groups for Reform Look at the 2 organisations – The Reform League and the Reform Union What are the differences between them? Reform LeagueReform Union

31 Homework Feedback Pressure Groups Reform LeagueReform Union  Started 1865  Radical, working class  Supported by left-wing organisations  Wanted votes for every resident man, but not the poor, tramps or women  More members  Started 1864  Liberal, middle-class  Based in industrial towns  Wanted co-operation between middle & working classes  Hoped Liberal Party would benefit from an extension to the franchise  Wanted secret ballot as well as even distribution of seats  More money

32 Read pages and find evidence of High and Low Politics models for this Act. Read pages and find evidence of High / Low politics

33 Why did Disraeli pass the 1867 Act? Learning Objectives: To consolidate understanding of why 1867 was passed, focussing on high or low politics To practice interpretations of cartoons ArtisanDemagogueLabour Aristocracy BoroughCountyDisenfranchise ConstituencyTory Democracy Electorate

34 Redistribution What does this mean? Write your own answer explaining what this was. Look at page 348 in A Leap in the Dark; read it carefully. Why did Derby and Disraeli think it was a “safety net”? High or Low politics? Redistribution Safety Net It allowed them to extend the franchise whilst ensuring the mass of voters were in the counties and Conservative voters. Of the 52 seats reallocated 25 went to counties. High or Low? High – party advantage

35 High Politics? Esllc&feature=related Esllc&feature=related

36 Cartoons Read extract A What are the 3 main interpretations of events around 1867 ? Look at Extract B; label all the people and explain the cartoon Do the same for extract C

37 High /Low Politics Use the printed sheet to identify which points are High or Low politics; if they are neither, label them as “other” Decide which model you are going with for the passing of 1867

38 1867 Can you explain the motives for the Bill and the content of it? Do you think it was passed because of High or Low politics?

39 To summarise our learning on 1867 Complete the fishbone diagram to show causes of Remember to start with any causes you can think of. Use the extra 2 chapters to help if you want extra information Then categorise those causes into 4 groups. Display those on the fishbone

40 Key skill: classification of causes Cause 1 Cause 2 Cause category A Cause category B 1867 Reform Act Cause category C Cause category D Cause 1 Cause 2

41 Key skill: classification of causes Reform Union Reform League Low PoliticsHigh Politics 1867 Reform Act Social /economic factors Inevitability Political advantage Working classes deserved it competition Cholera epidemic Democracy was coming

42 How did the 1867 Act affect the development of political parties? Learning Objectives: To learn how the 1867 Act affected the Liberal and Conservative parties To make a judgement as to which party gained most

43

44 Party Politics 1868 – Liberals win (large majority) 1874 – Conservatives win 1880 – Liberals win (large majority) Can you remember what we said about the pattern of elections? What is significant? The electorate have the final say – Disraeli resigned – showed electorate had the final say! 1880 – 84% of seats contested – much higher than previously 1880 – First national election campaign (Gladstone very significant) 1880 – electorate given a clear choice – parties now put forward clear manifesto’s

45 Party Organisation Central Office set up by Conservatives in 1870 Demands on MP’s increased Party discipline became tighter Longer Parliamentary sessions – more pressure to attend debates 1867 – National Union of Conservative Constituency Association – recognition that success in boroughs would mean efficiency at constituency level. Needed propaganda and persuasion Needed to make sure known supporters were registered as voters – difficult as franchise qualification was more open to challenge Party agents were very important Needed to project their policies – used speakers like Bright and Gladstone to do this Disraeli issued a manifesto and Gladstone made promises on taxes Beginning of the 2 party system with clear personalities, end to confusion over Whig/Liberal Electorate were asked to consider party policies when casting votes Liberal registration Association set up 1860 drew up lists of candidates.

46 Party Organisation How does registration affect organisation? Party agents had to ensure that their voters were placed on the register So how did parties know who their voters were?

47 Party Organisation Voters had to be persuaded to vote for a particular party by :- Reforms that appealed to the working classes, such as better housing, public health, trade unions. Use of propaganda / speeches around the country Using Party Agents to help a candidate win an election Issuing a manifesto which made promises

48 Terms Liberal Caucus Chamberlain`s strategy to counter the use of 2 votes for 3 members. Liberal voters were told which 2 candidates to vote for – so Conservatives were squeezed out Some boroughs had 3 MPs; so voters there had 2 votes. They could vote for 1 candidate using 2 votes, or 2 candidates using 1 vote each. Class-consciousness Awareness of one`s own identity and class. How does this affect the way you might vote? Temperance To give up alcohol- especially working men Why did they want to do this ?

49 Gaining support – who wins ? LiberalsConservatives Local constituency organisations & clubs Political education of members National Liberal Federation set up 1877; 50 Liberal Associations in different boroughs were affiliated Use of Caucus Labour Representation League set up to gain more influence within Liberal Party by Trade Unions Local constituency organisations & clubs Political education of members National Union of Conservative Associations set up in 1869 (John Gorst) Annual Conferences held Disraeli used Conferences to make policy speeches 1870 Central Office set up

50 Support for Conservatives Can you explain each of these? Deference Patriotism Dislike of foreigners Liberal Weaknesses National Party

51 Support for Conservatives Can you explain each of these? Deference – respect for ‘social superiors’ this motivated men to vote for the party most clearly associated with aristocracy Patriotism – identification of Conservative party with defence of national interests (Gladstone’s moralistic approach meant Conservatives claimed to protect the Empire) Conservatives were seen as guardians of national interests Dislike of foreigners – in general, and in particular the Irish, meant prejudices could be played upon in election campaigns and hostility to immigrants, especially in working class areas, meant Gladstone’s proposals for Irish Home Rule, Jewish Immigrants all aroused suspicions. Liberal Weaknesses – Conservatives adopted a strategy of waiting for Liberals to run into difficulties over their own reforming efforts. They tried to appeal so widely that they were bound to let people down. National Party – Disraeli’s ministry introduced new social reforms, he now needed to attract urban working class – “One-Nation Toryism” was a slogan and rallying cry to avoid class warfare.

52 Middle Classes By 1874 starting to support Conservatives They were worried that the Liberals were becoming too liberal. They wanted to stop the advance of the working classes They became wealthy and so identified more with landed classes

53 The development of parties Chapter 2.2 argues that there were 7 main functions of the 2 political parties. Read your own allocated function and summarise it. (3 & 4 are done together and 1 and 2 are done together, & 6 and 7 are done together) Display it on your bubble map Explain it to the rest of the group. Decide which party had the biggest impact after 1867 and which function is most important

54 7 functions of political parties 1.Registering Voters – it was one thing to have the right to vote but quite another to exercise it as it was now a highly complex system. Elections could be won or lost depending on whether voters were registered. 2.Spreading the message – needed to find new ways of communicating with their electorate. On a local level leaflets and canvassing was used, on a national level the press and tours. Needed to gain support for election campaigns 3.Selecting candidates – function of LOCAL party to find candidates for Parliament, Poor Law Guardians and, after 1870, Education Boards. Local parties were often left to their own devices in later 19 th Century. 4.Organising election campaigns – Always a primary function, before 1867 this was only at election time but after it was a permanent party structure. 5.Exerting pressure on leadership – there is debate about whether this became a function or not. Parties set up rival candidates, organised election meetings and distributed propaganda – this was a means whereby voters’ policy preferences achieved a degree of political relevance. However little attempt was made to directly affect policy and there was little open criticism 6.Integrating groups into the political system – to make new and potentially hostile groups feel at home. Gave them a stake in the system and demonstrated that the Party was sensitive to at least some of their desires and prejudices. Played an important role in the education of their members – made them ‘politically fit’ 7.Providing facilities for leisure activities – social side. Leisure time activities used to encourage loyalty, and were mobilised at election times. Intended to keep activists happy, “elevate and improve” members by exposing them to middle-class values and keep young people away from bad influences.

55 Terminology What do these mean ? Discuss them in your group and see if you can come to an agreement Pressure on voters Class-based voting Broad church Political activism Religion & voting behaviour

56 Terminology What do these mean ? Discuss them in your group and see if you can come to an agreement Pressure on voters - Class-based voting Broad church – Liberal Party found a way to work with the Reform League and other semi-detached organisations shows it was a broad church with many competing interests pushing for support. Political activism – party organisations which began to develop after Aimed to give people “a sense of participation” Religion & voting behaviour

57 What still needed to change after 1867? Learning Objectives: To know what reforms were introduced after 1867 To evaluate their success To investigate the impact on political parties

58 To research: Ballot Act Corrupt and Illegal Practices Act Gladstone’s Reforms Disraeli’s Reforms What still needed to change after 1867? To produce: A 5-10 minute presentation. An A4 hand out for each student. Aim To prepare for 40 mark question.

59 Ballot Act Why was it needed? What did the Act say? (what were the terms?) How successful was it? (evaluate) How important was this as a move towards democracy? Explain any key terminology linked to the Act. Who introduced it? And when?

60 Corrupt and Illegal Practices Act Why was it needed? What did the Act say? (what were the terms?) How successful was it? (evaluate) How important was this as a move towards democracy? Explain any key terminology linked to the Act. Who introduced it? And when?

61 Gladstone’s Reforms Give 4 examples of reforms introduced by Gladstone. Give explanations of: why each was introduced (why was it needed?), what the terms of the bill were? (what did it say?), was it popular? Was it successful? Does it signal a move towards democracy or is it a social reform? How important is it? (evaluate) How did it impact on their party?

62 Disaeli’s Reforms Give 4 examples of reforms introduced by Disraeli Give explanations of: why each was introduced (why was it needed?), what the terms of the bill were? (what did it say?), was it popular? Was it successful? Does it signal a move towards democracy or is it a social reform? How important is it? (evaluate) How did it impact on their political party?

63 Homework Prepare presentation Monday 17 th March Revise Assessment on 1867 Start on Monday 17 th March and Tuesday 18 th March

64 What still needed to change after 1867? Learning Objectives: To know what reforms were introduced after 1867 To evaluate their success To investigate the impact on political parties

65 Double Bubble! Gladstone’s Reforms Trade Unions Legal status and activities (G=1871, D= 1875) Education Level of education and ages (G=1870, D= 1876) Licencing Beer and opening hours (G=1872, D=1874) Civil Service Act 1870 Army Reforms 1870 Voting – Ballot Act and Corrupt Practices Act 1872 Disraeli’s Reforms Factory Act 74/78 and Employers and Workmen Act 1875 Housing Artisans Dwelling Act 1875 Public Health Act 1875 Comparing and Contrasting: The major function of this thinking map is to take two bubble maps and compare concepts. The outside circles are reserved for differences whilst the inside are reserved for similarities

66 The Ballot Act Answer: When – it was passed 1872 under Gladstone’s Liberal Government Why – it was passed Means of preventing the influencing, bribery and intimidation of voters through the more discrete means of persuasion by aristocratic patrons Considered an essential first step towards the rooting out of corruption 1868 election was corrupt and the violence that followed was, unusually, extremely publicised by the press 1870 report by Bright and others to the government was highly in favour of secret ballot Who – was in favour of it and who was against Radicals had long campaigned for this reform, elements within the Liberal Party (John Bright) who believed that tenant farmers in particular were obliged to vote for their landlords or face eviction. Passed by Liberal Government under Gladstone Gladstone however had a personal dislike for the Act but pushed it through for political gain, Lord John Russell (architect of 1832) defended open voting as he saw the secret ballot as a prelude to universal suffrage, defenders (including Lords Shaftsbury) regarded the secret ballot as ‘unmanly’ and tainted with cowardice What - it meant Abolition of voting by public declaration and replacement by a system of voting by ballot. Whether – it was significant or not Symbolic significance – in long term it made the system more representative and democratic and pushed for the growth of political pressure groups. However – the 1880 election was the most expensive to date, voters could now receive bribes from both sides of contest, corruption was not rooted out and elections continued to be lively affairs, the results of its introduction did not bear out the hopes of its supporters or the fears of its opponents.

67 The Corrupt Practices Act Answer: Why it was needed Corruption continued particularly ‘colourable employment’ – the temporary and unnecessary employment of people to gain their vote. Heavy election costs remained. Who passed it Liberal’s – if election costs fell this might harm the wealthy Conservatives However it might benefit the pockets of the Conservatives and therefore the Conservative party backed the Liberals When it was passed 1883 What it said It was broken into the 3 main areas: 1 = the laying down of penalties, 2 = it defined what was meant by corrupt and illegal practices, 3 = it classified expenses. It fixed maximum spending, legal expenses and the numbers of paid employers, it also forbade the hiring of vehicles to carry voters to elections. Whether it was significant; look in particular at the results of the Act. It has been described as “a landmark in the struggle for electoral purity” It had important consequences and greatly reduced corruption In the next General Election in 1885 the total expenditure fell by ¾ and the average cost per vote feel from 97.75p to 18.3p) Candidates and their agents DID try to keep to the terms of the Act, if only because their opponents could use their infringements against them Act put an onus on politicians to recruit unpaid volunteers which stimulated local party organisation – for example The Primrose League was set up in 1883 LIMITATIONS – politics continued to be expensive – between election rich MPs or prospective candidates could ‘nurse’ a constituency – banning of transport benefitted some as it left certain areas unable to vote or be fully represented

68 Read page 64/65 of Chapter 4 Parliamentary Reform after 1832 Second Reform Act was a successSecond Reform Act could have gone further

69

70 Double Bubble! Gladstone’s Reforms Trade Unions Legal status and activities (G=1871, D= 1875) Education Level of education and ages (G=1870, D= 1876) Licencing Beer and opening hours (G=1872, D=1874) Civil Service Act 1870 Army Reforms 1870 Voting – Ballot Act and Corrupt Practices Act 1872 Disraeli’s Reforms Factory Act 74/78 and Employers and Workmen Act 1875 Housing Artisans Dwelling Act 1875 Public Health Act 1875 Comparing and Contrasting: The major function of this thinking map is to take two bubble maps and compare concepts. The outside circles are reserved for differences whilst the inside are reserved for similarities

71 The Ballot Act Answer: When – it was passed 1872 under Gladstone’s Liberal Government Why – it was passed Means of preventing the influencing, bribery and intimidation of voters through the more discrete means of persuasion by aristocratic patrons Considered an essential first step towards the rooting out of corruption 1868 election was corrupt and the violence that followed was, unusually, extremely publicised by the press 1870 report by Bright and others to the government was highly in favour of secret ballot Who – was in favour of it and who was against Radicals had long campaigned for this reform, elements within the Liberal Party (John Bright) who believed that tenant farmers in particular were obliged to vote for their landlords or face eviction. Passed by Liberal Government under Gladstone Gladstone however had a personal dislike for the Act but pushed it through for political gain, Lord John Russell (architect of 1832) defended open voting as he saw the secret ballot as a prelude to universal suffrage, defenders (including Lords Shaftsbury) regarded the secret ballot as ‘unmanly’ and tainted with cowardice What - it meant Abolition of voting by public declaration and replacement by a system of voting by ballot. Whether – it was significant or not Symbolic significance – in long term it made the system more representative and democratic and pushed for the growth of political pressure groups. However – the 1880 election was the most expensive to date, voters could now receive bribes from both sides of contest, corruption was not rooted out and elections continued to be lively affairs, the results of its introduction did not bear out the hopes of its supporters or the fears of its opponents.

72 The Corrupt Practices Act Answer: Why it was needed Corruption continued particularly ‘colourable employment’ – the temporary and unnecessary employment of people to gain their vote. Heavy election costs remained. Who passed it Liberal’s – if election costs fell this might harm the wealthy Conservatives However it might benefit the pockets of the Conservatives and therefore the Conservative party backed the Liberals When it was passed 1883 What it said It was broken into the 3 main areas: 1 = the laying down of penalties, 2 = it defined what was meant by corrupt and illegal practices, 3 = it classified expenses. It fixed maximum spending, legal expenses and the numbers of paid employers, it also forbade the hiring of vehicles to carry voters to elections. Whether it was significant; look in particular at the results of the Act. It has been described as “a landmark in the struggle for electoral purity” It had important consequences and greatly reduced corruption In the next General Election in 1885 the total expenditure fell by ¾ and the average cost per vote feel from 97.75p to 18.3p) Candidates and their agents DID try to keep to the terms of the Act, if only because their opponents could use their infringements against them Act put an onus on politicians to recruit unpaid volunteers which stimulated local party organisation – for example The Primrose League was set up in 1883 LIMITATIONS – politics continued to be expensive – between election rich MPs or prospective candidates could ‘nurse’ a constituency – banning of transport benefitted some as it left certain areas unable to vote or be fully represented

73 Next Steps: HOMEWORK Reasons for Reform in 1884 /5 Identify the 5 reasons given on pages Put them into a single bubble with a brief explanation of each one.

74 Bubble map Reasons for reform in 1884 Describing Qualities: functions as a descriptive organiser- the concept goes on the centre and all around in the circles go adjectives or qualities of the central concept.

75 How did the 1867 Act affect the development of political parties? Learning Objectives: To plan for an exam question To learn how the 1867 Act affected the Liberal and Conservative parties To make a judgement as to which party gained most

76 Democracy In your groups discuss this question:- How far do you think that the Ballot Act and Corrupt Practices Act were more important in bringing democracy than the 1867 Act.

77 Sources Read the 3 sources from activity 2.2 How do sources 1 and 2 disagree? What new information does source 3 give? How do these sources add to our understanding of the development of parties?

78 Exam Question January 2010 Look at question (b ii) What 2 different views are there ? Highlight the key words in the question; do you understand what it is asking?

79 Working with the question Do you agree with the view that, after the extension of the franchise in 1867, political parties sought to gain power mainly by appealing to the self-interest of the electors?

80 Sources Now look at the 3 sources; which views are they taking? Are there any gaps in your knowledge that you need in order to answer this question?

81 Reforms Read the cards which show the reforms of Gladstone and Disraeli. Display the information on the double-bubble map so you can compare what they did. Which politician do you think did more to attract the working classes? Now can you answer the question?

82 Double Bubble! Gladstone’s Reforms Disraeli’s Reforms Comparing and Contrasting: The major function of this thinking map is to take two bubble maps and compare concepts. The outside circles are reserved for differences whilst the inside are reserved for similarities

83 How did the 1867 Act affect the development of political parties? Learning Objectives: To review exam question (b) on Disraeli To learn about the next stages in democracy

84 Essay Look at your own essay; Have you quoted from the sources and explained the quote ? Have you added in your own knowledge ? Make a note on your own work to do this in future so it is a reminder when you revise.

85 Mark Scheme Use of Sources:- To reach Level 3 (9-12 marks) you need to show that there is an interpretation under discussion and say which source agrees with which view. You have to link the evidence in the sources with the question. So, if Source 4 refers to Disraeli “grasping the nettle of reform” then that would hint at the Act being linked to party advantage. If Source 5 shows the Reform League then that would hint at outside pressure.

86 Mark Scheme Own Knowledge: To reach Level 3 (13-18 marks out of 24) you need to include accurate factual material which is integrated with the sources. So if Source 5 shows the Reform League, then put in what you know about it. If Source 4 refers to the “pressure outside parliament of late 1866 and 1867”, then put in what you know about these events.

87 How did further reforms improve democracy in Britain? Learning Objectives: To understand what further reforms were needed and why they were passed To begin to learn about why a further Reform Act was passed in 1884

88 Other Reforms Think back to the 1832 Act. Now consider what still needs to be done to make government and the voting procedures fairer. 2 minutes to come up with 3 things !

89 Further Reforms This cartoon was published by Punch in What do you think it is referring to?

90 The Ballot Act Resources: Chapter 4, page 60 Chapter called “Continuity with the past”, pages Chapter pages Answer: When – it was passed Why – it was passed Who – was in favour of it and who was against What - it meant Whether – it was significant or not

91 The Corrupt Practices Act Resources: same as before but also use page 56 and page 245 Why it was needed Who passed it When it was passed What it said Whether it was significant; look in particular at the results of the Act.


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