Presentation on theme: "Comenius LLP Multilateral Partnerships International Project Meeting 10-17 October 2011 Milas, Turkey."— Presentation transcript:
Comenius LLP Multilateral Partnerships International Project Meeting 10-17 October 2011 Milas, Turkey
The Beginnings of the Educational System in Hungary
The Beginnings of the Hungarian Institutional Education Saint Stephen I (969-1038) The first king of Hungary who was crowned in 1000 got wise to the fact that the adoption of Christianity is prime necessity for the Hungarian Kingdom.
Stephen’s father Géza, the Grand Prince of Hungarians, called Benedictine monks in the country. King I. Saint Stephen founded several monasteries for the Benedicts after he had invited more monks from Bohemia and Poland. One of the monks was Saint Gellért who organised a cathedral school to teach the children of the poor not only the rich. The more talented ones got basic knowledge and religious education, and also were taught Latin grammar, Dictamen and Komputus. They could become archbishops as well.
Throughout the 12 th -14 th centuries St. Stephen was the idol in the eye of the youth.
The Renaissance Education in Hungary In the 15 th century the Court of King Matthias (1443 Kolozsvár – 1490 Vienna) was the centre of humanistic education.
Grammar Latin Diktamen composition writing in Latin speech, argumentation, law, versification, music Komputus astrology, geometry, physics, mechanics, alchemy, making of calendars, casting of horoscopes, rules of a healthy lifestyle Janus Pannonius (1434 Csezmice – 1472 Medvevár) The Humanistic education of the literatus
Schooling in Hungary after Mohács in the mid 16 th century
Reformation was spreading quickly and at first encountered no opposition from the Catholics. Luther's teachings were welcomed by the German- speaking citizens in the free royal cities (libera regiae civitas).
Calvin and his principles were accepted in the country towns (oppidum). Lutherans (Evangelist) and the Calvinists (Reformed) were organized into churches and took their places beside the renewing Catholic Church in the feudal order of society. In the 1570’s the initial revolutionary impetus broke in Hungary, too.
Protestant schools - city and borough schools came under the jurisdiction of the Protestants - the Protestant educational leaders were taught - main objective :to teach religion, intense piety (pietas) - three main languages : Latin, Greek and Hebrew and Humanistic culture
The first Hungarian prime book was printed in Gáspár Heltai’s printing house in Kolozsvár in 1553.
Zsuzsanna Lórántffy (1602-1660) Johannes Amos Comenius (1592-1670)
Students from Debrecen at the end of the 17 th century
János Apáczai Csere (1625-1659) - His main work: ‘Hungarian Encyclopedia‘ - language renewer
Transylvanian protestant schools in the 17 th century Bethlen Gábor (1580-1629) - the reigning prince of Transylvania between 1613-1629 - Golden Age of Transylvania - Latin school in Gyulafehérvár was set up - a boarding school with an Academic Faculty was built up - sponsored students and members of the Academy were sent to study abroad - the youth were educated in institutions - landlords who did not allow the education of their serfs‘ children were punished - foundations were established - libraries were set up - scientists were invited
Transylvanian village cantor teacher from the 17 th century
Jesuit Schools in Transylvania From the mid 1550’ Catholic schools were available for children on weekdays and also on Sundays. The Catholic Church was given help from the Jesuits in organising secondary and higher education. István Báthory noble Prince of Transylvania established schools. Focus was on „studia humanities”. István Báthory (1533-1585) Prince Of Transylvania
Miklós Oláh, the Archbishop of Esztergom, founded the Nagyszombat church school in 1556. In the school curriculum the works of ancient classical authors were included in such a great number that had never been done before. In 1561 the archbishop founded the University Library. First Greek-Latin authors’ works, later comprehensive sciences of history, geography, law, natural sciences, medicine and mathematics.
Péter Pázmány (1570-1637) the Innovator of Catholic Education Pázmány Péter, the Archbishop of Esztergom and a Jesuit monk. His archsee was in Nagyszombat. - 1624 Pázmáneum opened in Vienna - 1635 the Jesuit University opened in Nagyszombat - 1667 the faculty of law started, then during the reign of Maria Theresa, the faculty of medicine
A welcoming letter of the first rectors of the new Nagyszombat University. (1637)
The Nagyszombat University moved to Buda in 1777 after the Jesuit Order had been dissolved, then in 1784 it moved to Pest and has been standing here since then. In 1950 it was named Eötvös Lóránd University of Science.
Schooling in the Enlightened Absolutism Maria Theresa's and her son Josef II's aim: centralisation of the country in - politics - economy - industry - public health - education In 1770 Maria Theresa reformed education. In 1773 she dissolved the Jesuit denomination and established an education fund from its property for primary and secondary and higher education. Empress Maria Theresa (1717-1780)
József Ürményi (1741-1825) the creator of Ratio Educationis
Education under the reign of Joseph II Habsburg (1741-1790) - German became the official language of the Parliament - subjects were taught in German in secondary schools - course books were published in German and Hungarian in public schools - fee in grammar schools, academies and universities - serfs could go on studying only with excellent marks
Emperor Leopold II (1741-1790) In 1790 Leopold II codified protestant freedom of religion and educational autonomy in the 1790/91 Parliament. Acknowledged the Catholic Church as dominant besides the Evangelist and Reformed Churches. Education of the Hungarian language was enacted for those who could not speak Hungarian. Latin was unchanged.
The curriculum of the Debrecen primary schools from 1770
Ratio Educationis II Published in 1806 - Compulsory only for the Catholic schools - Patience among nations and religions - Primary education is free - Each nation has schools in their mother tongue - 3 lower classes of the Latin school became 4 - German language is optional - Official language of education is Latin but Hungarian has a significant role - Ordained syllabus of Lycees and Academies - Lycees are 2-year institutions giving training on philosophy - Academies are 3-year institutions proposing law - The Ratio II is amended the fisrt one, simplified the diversity of subjects
Schooling in The Era of Absolutism (1849-1867) Public education - governmental regulation (1849) - compulsory education between 6-12 - emphasis on religious education Secondary education - 'Organisationsentwurf' (1850) - only qualified teachers could to teach Higher education - compulsory and optional subjects disappeared - students could take up subjects in random order - Hungarian language is the language of education from 1860 (governmental regulation)
Evangelist teacher training college in Sopron (1858)
The new bulding of the Pápa Reformed College (1858)
The 16th-17th century building of the Sárospatak Reformed School (Drawing was made in the mid-19th c.)
Village school. When the teacher is away…. (Funny picture from 1861)
Baron József Eötvös (1813-1871) From 1867 Baron József Eötvös’s second term as Minister of Culture and Education. (The first one was in 1848.) - Total reform - 1868 the first Hungarian Public Education Act - Compulsory elementary education from 6-12 (free education, no fee) - Elementary school with 6 classes (one teacher in villages) - Every child is taught on mother tongue - Upper public school based on elementary with 6 classes - Civil schools in bigger villages (6 classes for boys, 4 classes for girls)
Compiled, translated and created by Andrea Szobotin and Zsuzsanna Pataki Szvobodáné Vásárhelyi Pál Secondary Trade School Source: Pukánszky Béla – Németh András: Neveléstörténet http://magyar-irodalom.elte.hu/nevelestortenet/ http://wikipedia.org Budapest MMXI