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The State and Governance from Above and Below, Ethnicity and the nation State Kevin Stenson University of Kent Mannheim Centre, LSE.

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Presentation on theme: "The State and Governance from Above and Below, Ethnicity and the nation State Kevin Stenson University of Kent Mannheim Centre, LSE."— Presentation transcript:

1 The State and Governance from Above and Below, Ethnicity and the nation State Kevin Stenson University of Kent Mannheim Centre, LSE

2 Synopsis  Example of Newham  Sketch key elements of political economic explanations of urban marginality and statecraft strategies  Realist Governmentality theory, highlighting sovereignty, nation building governance from `above & below` - key role of ethnic/cultural sites of governance

3 Newham – multicultural contested space

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5 London Borough of Newham  Newham - > 50% population Black/Minority Ethnic – largest UK % of non- Whites  62% residents UK born. Of 38% born abroad, 90% born in 47 different countries (E Europe etc), – 24% of Newham residents self assigned – Muslim  `White & black flight`  11% of secondary school population `white British` (UK – 27% primary school children ethnic minorities – upward trend)

6 Newham – marginalised urban space  High deprivation scores, 15% unemployment  Knife & `gang` crime – postcode wars  Radical Islamist activity  Riot August 2011

7 Newham – marginalised urban space  Local politics based on shifting inter- ethnic/faith coalitions – flashpoint issues: siting of mosques, Olympic Park etc  Extra Government grants for education, welfare urban regeneration/Olympic Park under New Labour – now threatened by Cameron coalition government cuts

8 Borough Crime rates  Nearby boroughs  Borough Crime count Crime rate BoroughCrime countCrime rate BoroughCrime countCrime rate  Bexley Bexley  Redbridge Redbridge  Greenwich Greenwich  Brking/Dag Brking/Dag  WlthmForst WlthmForst  Newham  TwerHmlts TwerHmlts  Hackney Hackney

9 MET Newham Crime Mapping text view: Total notifiable offences, July 2010  WardCrime count Crime rate per 1000 WardCrime countCrime rate WardCrime countCrime rate  East Ham North East Ham North East Ham North  Wall End Wall End Wall End  Green Street East Green Street East Green Street East  West Ham West Ham West Ham  East Ham South East Ham South East Ham South  Green Street West Green Street West Green Street West  Plaistow North Plaistow North Plaistow North  Manor Park Manor Park Manor Park  Little Ilford Little Ilford Little Ilford  Forest Gate North Forest Gate North Forest Gate North  Custom House Custom House Custom House  Canning Town Sth Canning Town Sth Canning Town Sth  Forest Gate South Forest Gate South Forest Gate South  Boleyn Boleyn  Beckton Beckton  Plaistow South Plaistow South Plaistow South  Canning TownNth Canning TownNth Canning TownNth  Royal Docks Royal Docks Royal Docks  East Ham Central East Ham Central East Ham Central  Stratford/NewTown Stratford/NewTown

10 Urban Control Strategies  `Prevent` anti-terrorism and Olympic security strategies.  Anti-terrorism legislation – police stop and search & surveillance, blanket CCTV  Unintended consequences – resentment, alienation of young people/Moslems through `over-zealous` policing, may reinforce radicalisation, gang crime, inter- ethnic conflict, `white and black flight`

11 Urban Control Strategies (class narrative?)  D. Garland thesis – economic insecurity of urban middle class leads to `culture of control` – dominant classes seek to maintain power over capital & space

12 Urban Control Strategies (class/ethnicity/nation)  Gwen Van Eijk – Rotterdam city policy study: - De-concentration, creating mixed neighbourhoods, integration create new forms of difference & are rooted in cultural insecurities over social order & national identity (liveablity/Dutchness/ethnicity)  C.f. Stephen Scheffer `Immigrant Nations` - Social science role in creating policy discourses of multi-culturalism – similar problems across Europe

13 Wacquant on Neoliberal project – Advanced Marginality Neo-Marxist Political Economy + Cultural Analysis  Functionalist explanation of regulation of urban marginality/attempts to equip populations to adjust to neo-liberal globalisation?  Wacquant - `a rough post-hoc functionality`→ (a) low-skill employment market, (b) public aid, and (c) criminal justice` (2009)  Paternal & maternal strategies of statecraft punitiveness/workfare

14 Social Disorganisation Delinquency/penal control  Decline of solidaristic ghettoes → anarchic, welfare dependent, mono- cultural, high crime, racially homogeneous `hyper-ghettoes` - W.J. Wilson -  Social disorganisation - not just labelling difference! – (c.f. Hall & Winlow)  Limited potential for collective action/resistance

15 Delinquency/penal control  Illegal economies/volatile violence flourish in vacuum of governance/punitiveness (c.f. J. Hagendorn)  2003 US– 81 white women/100k incarcerated, 359 black women, 717 white men, 4,919 black men 1717 Latino men

16 National/Regional Variants  International convergence – minority concentration, high crime, unemployment, disaffection, riots & resistance in France etc  In US immigration disrupts old majority/minority relations/racism narratives  W Europe maternal hand of state still advanced & minority areas less isolated, more ethnically plural

17 National/Regional Variants  UK no ghettoes (Ceri Peach). Mass immigration – diversity. – 45% non-whites in London, 13% W. Midlands, 8%, S. East, N. West 8%, Yorkshire 7%  Inter-ethnic/class relations, lateral and vertical. Economic agency inter-twined with ethnic/cultural group formation/governance  Decline of unions/socialist parties bridging ethnic/racial/religious groups  (Barry Hindess – politics constructs classes/alliances)

18 Realist Governmentality Theory – Bringing Sovereignty & Nation Back In  Realist Governmentality theory rejects nominalist (Valverde, O’Malley, Rose) claim you can differentiate study of the mentalities of liberal governance from ways that politicians, officials, professional agents etc interpret/ apply them in everyday contexts (Stenson – Lippert, c.f. Lea and Stenson)

19 Realist Governmentality Theory  Territoriality/governance from below – multiple sites of governance  Sovereignty: meeting point, in advanced democracies, for liberalism & nationalism. Sovereign techniques of governance exercise of or threat of force to maintain physical security through force – control over life & death

20 Realist Governmentality Theory  Plus agencies & processes: to exercise fiscal & monetary controls, foster centripetal cultural solidarity among diverse populations  Key question: `who rules this land & its people & in whose name?`

21 Realist Governmentality Theory  Reject base/superstructure split & right & left political economy. Economic relations politically/culturally constructed – capitalism = cultural processes, not a system (Weber to Keynes to Ha-Joon Chang)

22 Realist Governmentality Theory  Economics as neo-liberal `governmental savoir` - knowledge/power complex  Economic activity made possible by activities of nation states, social life driven by political, symbolic & military drivers

23 Realist Governmentality Theory  Universalistic values of liberalism - equality, human rights etc, emerged with nationalist ideologies - ethnic, religious and other values, identities, histories and solidarities particular to a given nation  Liberalism as `cosmopolitan universalism` Neil Walker and Ian Loader

24 Realist Governmentality Theory  Nation states not in decline, still most significant unit of political authority, UN, IMF etc use delegated powers  Dependence by financial services companies on nation state governments/tax payers bailing them during banking crisis – role of sovereign wealth funds

25 Realist Governmentality Theory  Tensions between ethnic & civic nationalism (c.f. Jon Cruddas MP)  20 th c – welfare nation states social & nation intertwined  Citizens/groups not just economic actors – group formation & politics complex, tensions between strategies of governance from above & below

26 Realist Governmentality Theory  Collective actors at every level have identities, values, lifestyles, agendas of governance (Gwen Van Eijk, urban policy in Rotterdam – Dutchness & `liveability`)  Official liberal discourse recognise race, hides ethnicity/intersections with class – white working class? (C. Webster, K. Hayward)

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28 Conclusion  Political economic explanations over- emphasise economic marginality & our role as economic agents  Western states are liberal/national/sovereign  Governance includes left and right hand state technologies of control & also nation building cultural governance processes from above that interact with strategies from below in diverse communities

29 Conclusion  `Labour has to win back this terrain with a language that can encompass both cosmopolitan modernity and English conservative culture, linking them together in a sense of national purpose. It would incorporate all the things Blair dismisses as anachronisms: tradition; a respect for settled ways of life; a sense of local place and belonging; a desire for home and rootedness; the continuity of relationships at work and in one’s neighbourhood…. An English leader of the Labour Party offers the opportunity to build an identity to respond to white English ethnic nationalism` (Jon Cruddas, MP New Statesman Aug 2, 2010)


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