2Geoffrey Chaucer *Chaucer himself is depicted in the Canterbury Tales as the narrator; he is initially perceived as gregarious and naïve, and later described as silent. His opinions of each character flagrantly show through in the manner in which he writes each taleGeoffrey Chaucer (c – 25 October 1400)*Chaucer’s various experiences throughout his life helped to pave the way for the writing of The Canterbury Tale*began writing as a poet in his twenties, his earliest works being translations of other European poets *The Canterbury Tales, arguably his most famous work, was believed to be written as an inspiration from his pilgrimage to Canterbury, as he was able to observe a diverse group of people, including* Only 24 out of 120 stories were told, all composed of various genres of medieval literature* deemed “The Father of English Poetry” as he was recognized as the greatest English poet of his time* His cause of death is not quite known, as his tomb was built over one-hundred years following his death and there is little historical record to affirm any distinct cause
3Geoffrey ChaucerChaucer was included in the social class of the merchants, along with his parents. They consisted of the middle class.Chaucer was a modest, inquisitive, and gregarious character. He was very intelligent and his gift for writing is evident in his vast variety ofworks.He is depicted as wearing a dark coverchief on his head, which is similar to a Val that nuns wear. He is also shown dressed in a long, black cloak.He is revealed as having a serious and grave expression along with a fully developed beard. His hair cannot be explained because he is always shown wearing his coverchief.
4The Pilgrimage from Southwark to Canterbury 59.4 miles away.It would have taken at least 4 days to travel this distance back for most people, but Chaucer has his pilgrims do it in 1 day.They left Southwark in the morning and arrived in Canterbury as the sun was setting.They rode horses on this pilgrimage.For Medieval men a pilgrimage was a symbolic journey that represented the course of human life, from one's home on earth to one's true home.
6The Tabard InnThe Tabard was an inn established in 1307 by abbot of Hyde, the head of a Benedictine Monastery just outside of England.It was established to provide a hostile for him when he traveled to England and to accommodate all of the pilgrims heading to England.These pilgrims traveled to England to see the Shrine of Thomas Beckett in Canterbury Cathedral.The Tabard was located on the East Side of Borough High street in Southwark, an area on the east- side of London.
7Canterbury Cathedral Location Canterbury Cathedral is located in Canterbury, Kent.AppearanceOne of the oldest and most famous Christian structures in England.Thomas Becket Archbishop of Canterbury· After his death, this became a major pilgrimage destination. Thomas Becket had a falling out with King Henry II, and this led to his murder in the Canterbury Cathedral.
8Canterbury Cathedral Canterbury, Kent Country: United Kingdom of Great BritainFounded in 602AD by St. AugustineOne of the oldest and most famous Christian structuresIt was probably an existing church building from Roman timesThe cathedral was set on fire in 1011 by marauding DanesIn 1067 another fire broke out, destroying what was left of the Saxon cathedralIn 1070 Archbishop Lanfranc began to rebuild the cathedralAfter Lanfranc, Anslem added the towers abutting the eastern transepts and the crypt, largest of its time in EnglandThomas Becket was archbishop in 1162 to death in 1170On December 29, 1170 Thomas Becket was murdered in the cathedral by 4 knights because he refused to pardon men he had excommunicatedStill functions as the cathedral for the archbishop of Canterbury
9What is a pilgrimage?A pilgrimage is a journey of a pilgrim, especially one to a shrine or a sacred placeDuring the Medieval times, people would make extensive journey to visit the resting place of saints or to visit sacred relicsJerusalem and Rome were popular pilgrimage sites during the Medieval periodMany people decided to journey in groups as it was safer to travel in numbersThese journeys would take months, and numerous times, the pilgrims may not return because it was dangerous to travel to an unknown destinationThere were several spots along popular pilgrim routes that were hospitable to the travelersAt these resting stops, the pilgrims would eat, rest, drink, and tell stories of their journeys and of the sites they been toBecause faith was very important to the people of the Medieval times, many travelers believed that visiting the site would absolve them of their sins
10The Knight Distinguished man Followed chivalry, truth, honor, generousness, and courtesyHonored for his noble gracesSuccessful fighterAristocrats or military classserved with distinction in many campaignswise, modest and politevery worthy mannot gaily dressedwore a fustian tunic stained and dark with smudges where his armor left a marknot vaintakes the pilgrimage seriously enough to rush to join straight from battlepossessed fine horses
11The Squire Appearance Strong and agile 20 years old Curly hair Average heightSocial ClassAristocrat or MilitaryAdditional InformationSon of the KnightBraveCavalrymanGood riderVeteran of combatDevoted to his father
12The Yeoman The Yeoman was an archer and worked for a knight or squire. He wore a green hood and coat. His head was like a nut and his face was brown.He carried arrows with peacock feathers. He knew woodcraft. Yeoman wore a brace on their arm and bore a shield and sword. The yeoman also held a hunting horn. They were proper foresters.The yeoman was considered a noble, but was the lowest of the noble class. He could be a free man and own a small estate. Yeomen became a class of people that gained a reputation for hard toil.
13The Prioress (The Nun)Appearance· Has a simple, shy smile· Grey eyes· Very clean· Wears a nice cloak· Has a coral bracelet and a golden broochSocial Class· The clergy as a nunOther Information· Has very good table manners· Very kindhearted, charitable, and respectable· Real name is Madam Eglantyne· Speaks French· Anti-Semitic
14THE MONK Appearance Rugged Manly Man In good shape Bald and has a shiny head and faceWears very different robes of the usual monks which was a plain habit and hood but wore gray fur on his sleeves of his cope and a gold pin with a love knot at the end of the hoodThe gold pin signified that he was not religious because instead of the gold pin it should be a rosary.Social ClassClergyAbbot meaning father, religious title given to the head of the monasteryInformationRebelliousIgnores rules and lives and controls his own life very unlike monks of the timeHunts and rides horses instead of studying, praying, and working which the rules of the monastery forbidsHe is believed to have joined the monastery because he wanted be separated from betrayal of people and of women.
15Friar Social Class: clergy Jolly, Festive Pale-skinned Strong Happy and sturdy voiceGood singer and hurdy-gurdySparkly eyesHis name was Hubert.CourteousHis job didn’t make him wealthy but he knew how to make a profitHe wasn’t like the friar’s before himLimiterMost Mellow of the Four OrdersMatch maker to many girlsGot many girls in troubleWas able to hear confessionsForgiving to all peopleMade a decent livingKnew taverns and inns bestEasily got money from peopleDeceiving, ImmoralMade a profit off of all that he did for people.Wore a robe
16The Merchant Appearance · Forking beard · Motley Dress · Beaver hat · Buckled boots· Sat high on his horseSocial Class· Free, High status non-nobleInfo important to lifestyle· An expert at currency exchange
17The Oxford Cleric “The Student” A. appearance:thin, had a hollow look and a sober stareworn out, thin clothesB. social class:middle classpeasant-bornC. personality:knowledgeable young student who would do anything to gain more knowledgepreferred books over money and nice thingsquiet and reservednever spoke more words than he needed toformal and respectful
18Sergeant at the Law Very wise Talked little Tricked people into thinkinghe was wiser and busier thehe really wasA very good lawyer, couldmake a fool-proof contract orgive a great defenseKnew the law by heartTook large fees and lived well,middle classCommissioned by the King ofEngland
19Sergeant at the Law He is discreet He is a able attorney Wary and wise Makes people think he is bruiser and wiser that he really isA very busy manWore a homely parti-colored coat with a pin-stripe silken beltImportant in his social class
20The Franklin Franklin means “free man” White-bearded and red-faced - Like Santa ClausWealthy gentleman farmer but was not born nobleMiddle ClassLoves food- House seemed to snow meat and drinkEnjoys good livingWell-liked by other pilgrims
21The Franklin A medieval wealthy land owner. His beard was white as a daisy-petal.Sanguine, high colored, and benign.He was a free man; He didn’t serve a lord but was not a noble.He lived in pleasure believing that happiness is the most important goal in life.He is a connoisseur of food and wine, so much so that his table remains laid and ready for food all day.
22The Weaver Wise, fit to be noble Trim and fresh, silver knives had moneyClothe making professionAll artisans.They are dressed in the livery, or uniform, of their guild.The narrator compliments their shiny dress and mentions that each was fit to be a city official.Demonstrate the pride associated with being a guild membersuccessful peopleGuilds are professional organizations for craftsmenThe characters are proud of their wealth and display it with ornate objectsThe wives enjoyed the status of the husbandsGave the women social recognitionDemonstrate the pride associated with being a guild memberbelonged to a guild (associations of tradesmen, somewhat powerful in this time period)dressed luxuriouslytheir wives are demanding and controlling, were social climbing
23The Dyer Dyers used many components from to make inks. · They used colorful dyes and stains· They could dye anything from furniture, drapes clothing or fabrics, to decorate materials and artwork· Dying was not always for enjoyment· Dying was a trade that often served the nobles· Dying was not only tedious and needed a meticulous mind frame but It was also dangerous.· They used plants that were dangerous and often poisonous if even handled or inhaled and especially ingested
26A haberdasheris a person who sells small articles for sewing, such as buttons, ribbons and zippers. In English, haberdasher is another term for a men's outfitter. A haberdasher would sell small accessories, like linens and silks. Another meaning of "haberdasher" refers to a "dealer in, or maker of, hats and caps.”Medieval craftsmen, like haberdashers, belonged to guilds. Each guild had a hall or house to meet in. The members worked together to insure the quality of their work, train apprentices, set prices, care for the sick members of their guilds and the widows and children of deceased members. The men of the guild were wealthy, and their sons were automatically born into the guild.
27The Cook Name was Roger Skillful Master of his trade Good at cooking Cut on his shinBest dish was Creamed Chicken PieTrade ClassRude and vulgar manEngages in violent and arguable behavior
28The Skipper Appearance He wore a woolen gown that reached his knee He had a dagger on a lanyard that hung from his neck under his arm and downTanned by the summer heatWas an excellent fellowSocial ClassTrade classInfo important to lifestyleCame from far west, he came from DartmouthThe nicer rules of conscience he ignoredHe was hardy, prudent in undertaking
29The Doctor Social Class He was part of the Middle Class Appearance He wore blood red garments with bluish gray in them and they were lined with taffeta (which was used for formal wear).PersonalityHe made most of his money from when plagues struck his country and he tended to rip people off. Gold and money was very important to him. He was somewhat greedy.He was very intelligent in the field of medicine. He knew the cure for any malady that you had. He also was educated in astrology; he could read you your stars and tell you your luck. He knew his medical information by heart but did not know the Bible at all. He was not a very holy man.As for food, he only ate what was nutritious and never ate food for pleasure
30The Doctor • One of the best of his profession Could heal almost any illnessWas in very good shape, thinHas an obsession with gold and finical gainBelieves in study of stars.
31The Wife of Bath A deaf but intelligent woman · A very skilled tailor, a person who creates clothes· She wore very heavy kerchiefs· Her shoes were soft and new· Bold, beautiful face but a little reddish· She had five husbands· She was alone during her childhood· Skilled in traveling· She had spaces in her teeth· She had large hips that was covered by a mantle· Likes to laugh and talk to others· She knew how to flirt very well· She was the type that couldn’t keep her man down. She was too outgoing.
32· A bold, handsome woman, deaf in one ear and gap toothed The Wife of Bath· A bold, handsome woman, deaf in oneear and gap toothed· As a seamstress, she is dressed ratherextravagantly in scarlet colored clothes· She is a worldly woman, having seenmany different places· After living with five different husbands,she is experienced and well versed inthe games of love.· Through her experiences, she hasgained intellect, independence, and theability to provide for herself
33THE PARSON Wore a tabard, loose jacket. Poor in his social class, rich in holiness and work.Stands out as what the parish priest should be.Lived a perfect life taught others to follow.Ideal Christian Priest.
34The Parson Social Class- the Clergy Truly knew the gospel and preached itDisliked extorting the titheGave to the poor out of his ownbelongingsNothing stopped him frompreachingA description of physicalappearanceis not given because a parson is astereotype of the perfect priest.
35The MillerThe Miller was a broad, well-muscled man who could easily wrestle a ram.The Miller’s job was to grind wheat into flour using large rocks which constituted his large musculature. The Miller was so adept at his trade that he could tell the quality of grain simply by feeling it.The Miller’s social standing was with the lot of the Peasants. However, because of his wealth, not as much as a noble’s, he was held with higher regard among the peasants.
36Manciple Appearance Elderly Gentleman Bearded Wears a long cloak and hatSocial classTraderSteward for a law school in Londonauthorized to buy provisions (food or other necessities)Relevant InformationNever rashIlliterateWiser than thirty lawyers he feedsCunningCheated well-educated lawyersby putting aside a tidy little sum for himselfCame from Inner TempleAll carters follow his example in buyingUsed to watch the market carefullyGo in first do he did well in shopping
37His hair looked as if it were cut by clippers; cut around the ears ReeveReeve was a slender manHe had a beard shaven to the best of his ability; it was as clean-shaven as he could get it to beHis hair looked as if it were cut by clippers; cut around the earslong legs and was very leanshort tempercould be angered very easilybelonged to the middle class.Good writercarpenterAn administrative officer (high rank)
38The Summoner had a fire-red face, with boils all over. Appearance:The Summoner had a fire-red face, with boils all over.He had pimples all over his face, and nothing could get rid of them.He wore garland around his headHis breath was wretched because he loved to eat garlic and onions.Social Class:He was in the lower class.His job was to the send those who were arrested for sins to court.Lifestyle:He was a drunken man, and slurred too often, only in Latin.He rarely followed any of the law.He was a scary man and partook in too many sexual activities.He believes he is more knowledgeable than most people.
39Plowman Relevant information to the lifestyle of the pilgrim AppearanceWore a tabard(loose jacket) smockHe would not have been dressed up in nice clothes because of his occupation and he might have smelled from carrying manureOccupationHe worked in fieldsHe dug corn and carried manureSocial ClassThe Plowman’s social class is considered to be among the virtuous poor or lower classHe was extremely poor but represented all the Christian values and virtuesRelevant information to the lifestyle ofthe pilgrimHe was a good worker who was religiousHe lived in peace and charity and treated his neighbor with much respectPlowman helped the poor and was always charitableHe was the Parson’s brotherHe always paid his tithes and they were on time and in full
40PardonerAppearanceLong, blonde hairWears a cap with a holy relic on itBig, bulging eyesSmooth facial skinSocial ClassClergy, Freeman, contested statusLifestyle InformationA pardoner is one who dispenses papal pardons.He was gentle and patient because of working with the pope.
41The Host: Harry Barley Appearance Bright eyes Wide body Manly Very handsomeSocial ClassTrader classInformationJoyful manKind-heartedGenerous in giving food and drinkInvented the idea of telling the stories of the pilgrimageOffers dinner to the pilgrim who tells the best storyMaintains peaceGuides the trip