We think you have liked this presentation. If you wish to download it, please recommend it to your friends in any social system. Share buttons are a little bit lower. Thank you!
Presentation is loading. Please wait.
Published byAlissa Siddens
Modified about 1 year ago
Page 1© Crown copyright 2005 Who was Sir Gilbert Walker? Hadley Centre for Climate Change Met Office Fitzroy Road, Exeter, Devon, EX1 3PB Dr Rob Allan
Page 2© Crown copyright 2005 Sir Gilbert Thomas Walker
Page 3© Crown copyright 2005 Family Background Gilbert Thomas Walker, 4 th child of Thomas Walker & Charlotte Haslehurst, was born at Rochdale, Lancashire on 14 June 1868 Gilbert Walker’s ancestors were farmers, agricultural labourers & millers in the same part of Derbyshire since the 1600s Gilbert’s father, Thomas, was a mechanical engineer Borough Surveyor for Rochdale Chief Borough Engineer & Surveyor, Croydon Board of Health and pioneered using concrete in dam construction
Page 4© Crown copyright 2005 School Days St Paul’s School, West Kensington, July 1886 My dear High Master, As Walker is now leaving school for the University, this is the last time that it will be my duty to report to you on his progress and on the quality of his work. Throughout the time that he has spent with me his work has been so uniformly good, and he has been so persistent and untiring in his devotion to it, that I can scarcely speak too highly of him. It is a matter for special regret that his illness during the examination should have taken from him his last and best opportunity at school of displaying fully his mathematical knowledge and power. I have never parted from any of my boys with more respect and confidence than I now do for him and I hope that his health will allow his career at the University to be a harmonious continuation of his career at St Paul’s. I am very faithfully yours, C. Pendlebury Charles Pendlebury, writer of school arithmetic texts, was senior mathematics master at St Paul’s School : Whitgift School, South Croydon : St Paul’s School, West Kensington
Page 5© Crown copyright 2005 Trinity College, Cambridge Gilbert entered Trinity College, Cambridge in : prizes in mathematics and dynamics (paper on gyroscopes) 1891: elected a Fellow of Trinity : winters in Switzerland (due to health problems) increased his passions for ice skating & climbing : Mathematics lectureship 1899/1900: awarded the Adams Prize (paper on electromagnetic fields) During his time at Cambridge, Gilbert developed an interest in projectiles, ball games, spinning tops, flight & throwing sticks – especially boomerangs, which he threw on The Backs at Trinity College. He earned the nickname Boomerang Walker. Dr Hugh Hunt, Senior Lecturer, Dept of Engineering, Trinity College, throwing boomerangs on The Backs at Trinity College
Page 6© Crown copyright 2005 A New Direction His predecessor, John Eliot, had found a successor with strong statistical/mathematical qualifications who could assess the various links and relationships with Indian monsoon rainfall that the India Meteorological Department (IMD) had found. In preparing for his new post, Gilbert visited meteorological services and offices in the UK, USA, France and Germany during Gilbert Walker had no training in meteorology or climatology when he was appointed Director General of Observatories in India, based in Simla, on 1 January Sir Gilbert Thomas Walker, 3 rd British Director (Director General of Observatories)
Page 7© Crown copyright 2005 Early Years at the IMD There was little scientific basis for seasonal forecasting Walker aimed to collect all of the data available and treat it statistically without attempting to trace physical connections between cause and effect (Taylor, 1962) Three assistants (Field, Patterson & Simpson – later directors of meteorological services in India, Canada & Britain) Given the nature and extent of the Indian monsoon, Walker had to examine statistical connections (correlations) of global extent and with time delays (i.e. leads and lags) Early stability and workable staff numbers suffered with the departure of Dr Simpson on Scott’s Polar Expedition in 1910, the resignation of Mr Patterson, and illness among the other officers With the Great War draining the European staff from the IMD routine work was with difficulty kept up to date and research work became impossible (Meteorological Office, India, 1925)
Page 8© Crown copyright 2005 Distribution of stations that display varying associations with atmospheric pressure fluctuations in India and at Cordoba in South America (after Lockyer and Lockyer, 1904) Walker’s first forecast of Indian monsoon rainfall in 1909, using a regression equation All-India Monsoon Rainfall = -0.2 [Himalayan snowfall accumulation] [Mauritius pressure] [mean of South American pressure] [Zanzibar rainfall] Pioneered statistical forecasting - formed a ’human computer’ with Indian staff performing a mass of statistical correlations using data from around the world Set up the network of upper air observatories across India Expanded and improved meteorological services for shipping Improved the solar observatory at Kodiakanal (under Jack Evershed) Set up an experimental meteorological laboratory and workshop Achievements as Head of the IMD
Page 9© Crown copyright 2005 Walker in Simla At Simla, Gilbert Walker found the perfect environment in which to develop and enjoy his wider interests bird flight & aerodynamics (gliding) throwing boomerangs on the playing fields at Annandale climbing and walking painting (Simla Art Exhibition) ice skating flute playing (theory, practise & evolution) Playing fields at Annandale, Simla
Page 10© Crown copyright 2005 Imperial College and Oscillations After completing his tenure in India in December 1923, Walker was appointed Professor of Mathematics at the Imperial College of Science and Technology in September 1924, a post he held until he retired in 1934 A series of papers authored by Gilbert Walker and Edward Bliss on global climatic fluctuations presented the scientific findings for which he is most remembered This research was made possible by the masses of worldwide correlations produced by his ‘human calculator’ during his time in India, and his pioneering work on the criteria for statistical significance In a paper on world weather correlations in 1924, Walker first introduced the terms Southern Oscillation, North Atlantic Oscillation, and North Pacific Oscillation
Page 11© Crown copyright 2005 El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) El Niño & La Niña
Page 12© Crown copyright 2005 The North Atlantic Oscillation Positive Phase Negative Phase
Page 13© Crown copyright 2005 Sir Gilbert Walker RMS Symons Gold Medallist 1934 Honours 1920s: Vice President & President of the Royal Meteorological Society (RMS) 1924: Knighted in the King’s Birthday Honours 1934: RMS Symons Gold Medallist 1934: Royal Aeronautical Society Simms Gold Medallist : Member of RMS Council : Editor of the Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 1946: Honorary Fellow of Imperial College 1952: Honorary Member of the RMS
Page 14© Crown copyright 2005 Personal Life Married May Constance Carter in 1908 Daughter Verity Micheline Walker born 1910 Son Michael Walker born 1917 Gilbert Walker with son Michael in England Walker’s health suffered from the strain of running the IMD, with its continual shortfalls and fluctuations in accommodation, finances and staff. In IMD official documentation, Walker is noted as being away in Europe on a combination of privilege and medical leave from July 1911 to April Sir Gilbert Walker died on 4 November 1958 at Woodcote Grove House, Coulsdon, Surrey, aged 90
Page 15© Crown copyright 2005 This award, instituted by the Indian Meteorological Society in 2001, is given biennially to an eminent Indian or foreign scientist internationally recognised in the field of monsoon studies. The Sir Gilbert Walker Gold Medal 2001: Professor Jagadish Shukla Head of the Center for Ocean-Land- Atmosphere Studies & the School of Computational Science at George Mason University, USA 2003: Dr P.K. Das Fellow of the Indian Academy of Sciences, & former Professor of Meteorology, Centre for Atmospheric Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi
Page 16© Crown copyright 2005 “I think that the relationships of world weather are so complex that our only chance of explaining them is to accumulate the facts empirically; we know that it was impossible to explain cyclones (lows) until data of the upper air conditions were available, and there is a strong presumption that when we have data of pressure and temperature at 10 and 20 km, we shall find a number of new relations that are of vital importance.” Sir Gilbert Thomas Walker, 1932
Page 17© Crown copyright 2005 “He was a very normal human being, with none of the proverbial eccentricities of mathematicians among whom he ranked high. This normality itself is perhaps a great and likable distinction.” (Sohoni, 1959)
© Crown copyright /0653 Met Office and the Met Office logo are registered trademarks Met Office Hadley Centre, FitzRoy Road, Exeter, Devon, EX1.
John Dalton By: Taylor Smith chemist, meteorologist and physicist.
Likelihood Ratio Tests The origin and properties of using the likelihood ratio in hypothesis testing Teresa Wollschied Colleen Kenney.
Long Range Forecast Update for the 2009 Southwest Monsoon Rainfall India Meteorological Department Presents.
Dr Mark Cresswell Statistical Forecasting [Part 2] 69EG6517 – Impacts & Models of Climate Change.
Scientific Outreach, Community Service and Education These have permeated COLA’s fabric since its founding !! The opportunities provided to COLA scientists.
Stephen Hawking was born on the 8 th of January His parents were Frank and Isobel Hawking. He was born in Oxford, England.
Review of Northern Winter 2010/11 Mike Blackburn National Centre for Atmospheric Science, University of Reading Seasonal Climate Discussion 15 April 2011.
Seasonal Outlook for 2010 Southwest Monsoon Rainfall D. S. Pai Director, Long Range Forecasting South Asian Climate Outlook Forum (SASCOF -1) April.
© Crown copyright Met Office Met Office seasonal forecasting for winter Jeff Knight (with thanks to many colleagues)
Albert Einstein. BIOGRAPHY Albert Einstein was born at Ulm, in Württemberg, Germany, on March 14, Six weeks later the family moved to Munich, where.
Are Exceptionally Cold Vermont Winters Returning? Dr. Jay Shafer July 1, 2015 Lyndon State College 1.
Albert Einstein Brief history Albert Einstein was born in Ulm, in Wittenberg Germany, on March 14, 1879 At the age of fifteen he quit high.
Charles Babbage (Computers) Sarah Jayyousi 7C. Charles Babbage Born :26 December 1791,London, England. Died:18 October 1871 (aged 79) Marylebone, London,
JOHN POPLE by Maryjane P. Villanueva.
Lord Rayleigh a.k.a. John William Strutt. John William Strutt Born: 12 Nov 1842 in Langford Grove (near Maldon), Essex, England Born: 12 Nov 1842 in Langford.
Northwest European High Summer Climate Variability, the West African Monsoon and the Summer North Atlantic Oscillation Jim Hurrell, NCAR, & Chris Folland,
By Tina Stumpenhagen. General Albert Abraham Michelson was born in Strelno, Prussia, on December 19,1852 and passed away in May 9, 1931 American Physicist.
Climate Change and Variability, Transitions in the Phase of El Nino. Anthony R. Lupo, Professor Department of Soil, Environmental, and Atmospheric Science.
CHARLES BABBAGE Know as the father of Computers. PERSONAL LIFE Charles Babbage was born in London on Dec on St. Stephen day. And died at the.
Born : 30 October 1909 Bombay, British India Died : 24 January 1966 (aged 56) Mont Blanc, France Residence : New Delhi, India Citizenship : India Nationality.
MET 61 1 MET 61 Introduction to Meteorology. MET 61 2 MET 61 Introduction to Meteorology MET 61 Introduction to Meteorology - Lecture 11 Global Circulation.
Leonardo Pisa Bigollo Also known as Leonardo Fibonacci. Born in Pisa, Italy, around115. Some considered him the most talented mathematicians of he middle.
Physics Biography By: Josh Auble,. Interesting Facts Ernest T. S. Walton Born in Dungarvan, Ireland on October 6 th, 1903 In 1915, as boarder to the Methodist.
SIO 210: ENSO conclusion Dec. 2, 2004 Interannual variability (end of this lecture + next) –Tropical Pacific: El Nino/Southern Oscillation –Southern Ocean.
By Anthony R. Lupo Department of Soil, Environmental, and Atmospheric Science 302 E ABNR Building University of Missouri Columbia, MO
Mohammed Basil Al-Mudaifa Mrs. Timm 12 C January 19, 2014 Winston Churchill.
Academia Ophthalmologica Internationalis Oration 2008 Professor the Honourable Arthur K C Li.
Herbert C. Hoover Nicknamed the Great Engineer. Background Information Born August 10, 1874 in West Branch, Iowa Graduated from Stanford University in.
Assessing Predictability of Seasonal Precipitation for May-June-July in Kazakhstan Tony Barnston, IRI, New York, US.
Climate Prediction: Products, Research, Outreach Briefing for NOAA’s Science Advisory Board March 19, 2002 National Weather Service Climate Prediction.
The ability to accurately predict climate in the New York metropolitan area has tremendous significance in terms of minimizing potential economic loss.
James Clerk Maxwell By: Courtney Shrock, Jordan Medsker, Hanna Mcnutt, Ben Agnew.
Born July , she attended Ystalyfera Bilingual School and performed at the Eisteddfod where she won the Crown. She then graduated with first class.
Arthur Cayley By: Carson Dial. Who is Arthur Cayley? Arthur Cayley was a British mathemetician who helped found the Modern British School of pure Mathematics.
The Winter Winter Recap and Spring Outlook Jason Hansford Senior Forecaster National Weather Service Forecast Office Shreveport, LA.
Climatology Lecture 8 Richard Washington Variability of the General Circulation.
By Devon Cripps. Edmund Hillary was born on 20th July His family moved to Tuakau (south of Auckland) in 1920, after his father who served in the.
1 Workshop Media 21 Will New Technologies Save the Planet ? Dr Mannava Sivakumar Acting Director, CLPA World Meteorological Organization.
Sir Winston Churchill By Charlotte Sofranek “It was the nation and the race dwelling all round the globe that had the lion's heart. I had the luck to be.
Excerpts of the AAAS Fiscal Year 2009 Appropriations Summary ( September 2008 summary: Congress has made little progress on the federal.
Climate Variability and Irrigation Water Use Joel O. Paz Extension Agrometeorologist Biological and Agricultural Engineering Department The University.
1 The Asian-Australian Monsoon System: Recent Evolution, Current Status and Prediction Update prepared by Climate Prediction Center / NCEP September 14,
PRESENTED BY Judy Hartegan Brad Thomas Doris Jackson.
Sir John Ambrose Fleming Sir John Ambrose Fleming was born on November 29, 1849 in Lancaster, Lancashire. Every year he could hear less and less. He went.
1 00/XXXX © Crown copyright Hadley Centre MSLP Data Base Rob Allan Hadley Centre, Met Office, UK AOPC Surface Pressure Group Workshop, UEA, Norwich November.
JOHN ADAMS By: Jazmyne Griggs and Kara Webb. EARLY LIFE Born October 30 th, 1735, Braintree (now Quincy), MA John took advantage of the freedom given.
SIR ISAAC NEWTON By Maddie Beard. Sir Isaac Newton was born on December 25th, His father, who was also named Isaac, died three months before his.
Marshall McLuhan: Biography (Life and Career) Kevin Shen.
© 2017 SlidePlayer.com Inc. All rights reserved.