3The elements in a family or group in the periodic table often, but not always, share similar properties.The properties are the same because the elements have the same number of electrons in their outer energy level.
4Atoms in these elements take, give, or share electrons with other atoms in order to fill the outer valence shell. They do this to form a compound with another element.
5Electrons in outer level: 1 Don’t match the properties of any groupsHydrogen belongs to a family of its own.Most abundant element in the universeHydrogen is a diatomic, reactive gas.Hydrogen reacts violently with oxygen. The hot water vapor that forms as a result pushed the space shuttle into orbit.Placed above the group 1 elements because it has only 1 electron in it’s valance shell and can give one awayProperties are more like atoms of alkali metalsHydrogen was involved in the explosion of the Hindenberg.Hydrogen is promising as an alternative fuel source for cars
6Electrons in outer level: 1 1st column on the periodic table (Group 1) not including hydrogen.Most often found in compoundsSoft, silver-colored, shiny, low densityare soft enough to be cut with a knifethe densities of some elements are less than waterMost reactive of the metalseasily give away the single electron from the valence shellReact violently with water (Stored in oil to prevent reacting with water and oxygen in the atmosphere)
7Electrons in outer level: 2 Second column on the periodic table. (Group 2)Still reactive but not as reactive as Group 1 because they have 2 electrons to give away in the valence shellTypically found in compounds such as calcium in chalk, plaster, cement, and of course, humans!
8Properties vary widely The atoms of the transition metals do not give away their electrons as easily as in Groups 1 and 2 so they are less reactive.Properties: shiny, good conductors of thermal energy and electric current, higher densities and melting pointsTransition Metals(yellow)
9These bottom two rows from Periods 6 and 7on the periodic table are placed at the bottom to keep the table from being too wideLanthanidesActinides
10Named lanthanides because they follow the element lanthanum Shiny, reactive metalsSome are used to make different types of steelLanthanides
11Actinides follow the element actinium All are radioactive, which means they are unstableAtoms from a radioactive element can change into atoms of a different elementElements after plutonium (94) do not occur in natureActinides
12Electrons in outer level: 3 Group contains 1 metalloid and 4 metalsReactiveSolid at room temperatureMost common element is Al (aluminum)Al is most abundant metal in Earth’s crust1880’s Al more valuable than gold
13Electrons in outer level: 4 Group contains 1 nonmetal, 2 metalloids, and 2 metalsReactivity varies among the elementsSolid at room temp2 metalloids in this group make computer chipsDiamonds and soot are both natural forms of carbon!
14Electrons in outer level: 5 Group contains 2 nonmetals, 2 metalloids, and 1 metalReactivity varies among the elementsAll but nitrogen are solid at room temperature; nitrogen is a gas at room tempNitrogen non reactive, phosphorous extremely reactive and only found combined with other elements in nature
15Electrons in outer level: 6 Group contains 3 nonmetals, 1 metalloid, and 1 metal.All but oxygen are solid at room temperatureMany things that stink, contain sulfur (rotten eggs, garlic, skunks,etc.)Reactive
16Group 17: Most reactive nonmetals Group 18: Least reactive nonmetals; normally won’t react with other elements
17Electrons in outer level: 7 Contains only nonmetalsVery reactive because they need to gain only 1 electron to complete valancePoor conductors of electric currentReact violently with alkali metals to form saltsNever found uncombined in nature and combine readily with other atoms, esp metalsPhysical properties of atoms in this group are different
18Electrons in outer level: 8 (2 for helium) Contains nonmetals only 18Electrons in outer level: 8 (2 for helium)Contains nonmetals onlyUnreactive under normal conditionsColorless, odorless gases at room tempAll are found in Earth’s atmosphere in small amountsArgon is the most abundant noble gas