4PropertiesBerylliumMagnesiumCalciumEarth`s crust abundance1.9x10 -42.95Electron configuration[He]2s2[Ne]3s2[Ar]4s2Melting point (oC)1287650842Boiling point (oC)246910901484Density1.851.741.55Common oxidation num.+2Physical StatesolidColorgreywhiteWhite
5The word “earth” was used for the oxides of group 2A by the ancient scientists. Alkaline earth metals, after the alkali metals, are secondary metals with strong metallic properties.The group 2A elements are less active than those of 1A, but more active than those of group 3A.Except Be, all form ionic compounds.Be forms mostly covalent compounds.
6The atomic radius increases from top to bottom. The melting point, boiling point and the hardness of the elements decrease from top to bottom.Beryllium is the hardest alkaline earth metalBarium is the softest alkaline earth metal.Malleable and ductile.Excess Mg+2 and Ca+2 in water means that it is hard.
7Characteristic Flame Colors of Alkaline Earth MetalsCalciumStrontiumBariumMagnesium
8All isotopes are radioactive Minerals of Some Alkaline Earth MetalsBerylliumCalciumBariumBeryl,Be3Al2(SiO3)6Limestone (marble),CaCO3Barytes,BaSO4MagnesiumGypsum,CaSO4.2H2OWitherite,BaCO3Dolomite,CaCO3. MgCO3Fluorite,CaF2RadiumCarnallite,KCI.MgCI2.6H2OStrontiumAll isotopes are radioactiveEpsom salt,MgSO4.7H2OCelestite,SrSO4Strontianite,SrCO3
9Chemical PropertiesThey are Covered by their oxides when they are exposed to air.Burn in air with bright flame.Activity of the metals increases from Be to Ba.Reactions of Ca, Sr and Ba are easy with water.Reactions of Be and Mg with water are difficult.
10Chemical Properties Ca (s) + 2H2O(l) → Ca+2(aq) + 2OH-(aq) + H2(g) Mg (s) + 2H2O(l) → Mg(OH)2(s) + H2(g)2Mg (s) + O2(g) → 2MgO(s)Mg (s) + H2(g) → MgH2(s)Ca (s) + 2HCI(aq) → CaCl H2(g)Be (s) + 2HCI(aq) → BeCI H2(g)All oxides and hydroxides of alkaline earth metals show basic properties.Oxides and its hydroxides of beryllium show amphoteric properties.
11Compounds Ionic Have high melting and boiling points. Thermally stable.Less soluble in water than those of 1A metals.Solubility of salts increase from Be to Ba.
12Calcium Oxide, CaOObtained by heating calcium carbonate (limestone) at 900°C.CaCO3(s) → CaO(s) + CO2(g)Calcium Carbonate, CaCO3It forms by evolving CO2gas from Ca(OH)2 solution.
13Calcium Carbide, CaC2Small gray solid piecesUsed widely in industryPrepared by the reaction of calcium oxide (lime) and coke.CaO(s) C(s) ↔ CaC2(s) + CO (g)CaC2(s) H2O(l) → C2H2(g) + Ca(OH)2(s)
14Calcium Sulfate, CaSO4CaSO4.2H2O : GypsumCaSO4.1/2H2O : Plaster of ParisGypsum is a white substance and used for fabrication into wallboard.
15Uses Beryllium Very light element To prepare some special alloys. 2% Be in Cu alloy in springs.Making glass for X-ray tubes.In the aerospace industry.
16Uses Magnesium Light metal Production of planes, missiles Some light household items.Flash in photography
17MagnesiumTo increase the hardness, durability and resistance to corrosion of alloys.Additive in rocket fuels and signal rockets.Mg(OH)2 is used as a stomach antacid.
18Calcium CompoundsConstruction materials, bleaching agents.CaO in the production of some chemicals, steel, glass, paper and sugar.CaC2 is used to produce acetylene gasfor welding.In fertilizers andtoothpaste
19Barium and Its Compounds Ba is used as a gas absorbent in vacuum tubes.The alloys of Ba with Ni donate electrons so used in vacuum tubes and in ignitors and spark plugs.Barium nitrate and barium chlorate are used to obtain green light in fireworks.
20Barium and Its Compounds BaSO4 is used to take the photos of stomach and intestines.Ba does not allow X-rays to pass like all elements with large atomic number.The Ba+2 ion is toxic, but since the solubility of BaSO4 in water is very low, its poisonous effect disappears.
21StrontiumThe salts of strontium in signal rockets and fireworks to produce red light.Nuclear batteries.
22RadiumIn self luminous paints and in radiotherapy.As a neutron source.On luminous watch dials.