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MK. PSDA PENGELOLAAN DAN PANEN AIR HUJAN diabstraksikan oleh: soemarno, psdl.ppsub, juni 2013.

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Presentation on theme: "MK. PSDA PENGELOLAAN DAN PANEN AIR HUJAN diabstraksikan oleh: soemarno, psdl.ppsub, juni 2013."— Presentation transcript:

1 MK. PSDA PENGELOLAAN DAN PANEN AIR HUJAN diabstraksikan oleh: soemarno, psdl.ppsub, juni 2013


3 KUALITAS AIR HUJAN Diunduh dari: ainwater.pdf+&hl=en&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEEShSyNPyhojWp-m0eII8ncj63YVUaob62uGVrThNXfz-b6eQjB6YUI- 5AuzOijRNqyZ6n49GCOffBXZp9Ahutj9AFUVaP0Kr6b70P8TaUn8MJqor_o1onUX2Wzte0987I_89imvb&sig=AHI EtbQVuuDWjOa-31OfDvnjAqyVWhE7Pg ………… 18/1/2013 Microbial contamination of collected rainwater indicated by E. coli (or, alternatively, thermotolerants coliforms) is quite common, particularly in samples collected shortly after rainfall. Pathogens such as Cryptosporidium, Giardia, Campylobacter, Vibrio, Salmonella, Shigella and Pseudomonas have also been detected in rainwater. However, the occurrence of pathogens is generally lower in rainwater than in unprotected surface waters, and the presence of non-bacterial pathogens, in particular, can be minimized. Higher microbial concentrations are generally found in the first flush of rainwater, and the level of contamination reduces as the rain continues. A significant reduction of microbial contamination can be found in rainy seasons when catchments are frequently washed with fresh rainwater. Storage tanks can present breeding sites for mosquitoes, including species that transmit dengue virus.

4 KUALITAS AIR HUJAN Diunduh dari: ater.pdf+&hl=en&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEEShSyNPyhojWp-m0eII8ncj63YVUaob62uGVrThNXfz-b6eQjB6YUI- 5AuzOijRNqyZ6n49GCOffBXZp9Ahutj9AFUVaP0Kr6b70P8TaUn8MJqor_o1onUX2Wzte0987I_89imvb&sig=AHIEtbQ VuuDWjOa-31OfDvnjAqyVWhE7Pg ………… 18/1/2013 Rainwater is slightly acidic and very low in dissolved minerals; as such, it is relatively aggressive. Rainwater can dissolve heavy metals and other impurities from materials of the catchment and storage tank. In most cases, chemical concentrations in rainwater are within acceptable limits; however, elevated levels of zinc and lead have sometimes been reported. This could be from leaching from metallic roofs and storage tanks or from atmospheric pollution. Faktor-faktor yang menentukan kualitas air hujan yang dipanen Water quality is determined by the composition of water as affected by natural processes and human activities. Water quality depends on the constituents dissolved or contained within the water. It is often presumed that the chemical composition of water is the only factor involved. However, especially (micro) biological factors are of main importance when considering water quality. Diunduh dari: PublicSite/Manuals/RAIN_Rainwater_Quality_Policy_and_Guidelines_2009_v1.pdf+&hl=en ……….. 19/1/2013

5 KONTAMINASI AIR HUJAN Atmospheric pollution can have a major effect on the composition of rainwater. Water that reaches the earth as rain, acquires other substances from processes such as leaching, weathering, and dissolution. Living organisms may enter the water. All these processes affect the composition of the water. Depending on the source of the contamination, three types can be distinguished: 1. (Micro)biological contamination: The most common hazard in water sources obtained from roof or surface catchments is microbial (biological and microbiological) contamination, especially enteric pathogens. Enteric pathogens are micro-organisms (bacteria, viruses, and protozoa) that cause gastrointestinal illness. These organisms are introduced into drinking water supplies by contamination with faecal material (from human or animal origin) or dead animals and insects (enHealth, 2004). The most important indicator is E-Coli. 2. Chemical contamination: Chemical contamination results from air pollution (industrial and traffic emissions), runoff and leaching of chemical substances (agricultural and human activities) and toxic material use. All these factors can pose a serious a health threat. However, in rural areas of developing countries, these activities are mostly absent or very small- scale (for example: fireplaces near a roof or having a chimney can cause soot to settle on the roof), and are therefore unlikely to cause significant impacts on the quality of the collected rainwater (enHealth, 2004). 3. Physical contamination: Physical contamination includes inorganic and organic sediments like sand, silt, clay, or plant material. Physical contamination affects the colour, odour or taste of the water, but it poses no direct health risk. Users can however object to water if its colour, odour and taste are found less attractive Diunduh dari: PublicSite/Manuals/RAIN_Rainwater_Quality_Policy_and_Guidelines_2009_v1.pdf+&hl=en ……….. 19/1/2013

6 KUALITAS AIR HUJAN RAINs water quality criteria Based on the WHO Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality (2004), water quality analyses from RAINs water quality surveys in Burkina Faso, Ethiopia en Nepal in 2007, RAIN has set water quality criteria for potable water as listed in the table below. RAINs criteria for water quality based on WHO guidelines. Roofwater harvesting Surface Runoff Sand dams E-Coli < 10 cfu/100 ml Ammonia< 1.5 mg/l Khlorine> 0.2 – 0.5 and < 5 mg/l AluminiumNot relevant< 0.2 mg /l pH – 8.5 TurbiditasNot relevant< 15 NTU< 5 NTU Nitrate / Nitrite Not relevant< 50 mg/l and < 3 mg/l Diunduh dari: /Manuals/RAIN_Rainwater_Quality_Policy_and_Guidelines_2009_v1.pdf+&hl=en ……….. 19/1/2013

7 KUALITAS AIR HUJAN Baseline and long-term water quality survey After the first rainy season after completion of a RWH system, a water quality survey should be done. This survey will also give a general idea of the performance of each system, the skills of construction of the implementing partner and the community operation and management. The results of this first survey will lead to fine-tuning of RWH system; identifying construction flaws, identifying operational, maintenance and management flaws and selecting most optimal treatment measures. RAINs methodology for water quality surveys Diunduh dari: ……….. 19/1/2013 Baseline survey Long-term survey PeriodAfter 1st rainy season after construction After rainy season Nr. of RWH systems All RWH systems constructed that year Random selection of 30% of all tanks (> 1 year old) ParametersAll parameters Roofwater harvesting: E-Coli, Chlorine, if chlorination has been applied. Surface runoff and sand dams: E-Coli, Turbidity, Chlorine, if hlorination has been applied, Aluminium, if it has been applied. PeriodNovember – December

8 KUALITAS AIR HUJAN Risks to human health and aesthetic acceptance of RAIN water quality criteria Diunduh dari: ……….. 19/1/2013 E-Coli or faecal coliforms Examples of diseases which are waterborne (caused by contaminated drinking water) include cholera, typhoid, hepatitis, amoebiasis, and dracunculiasis. The causes of the high levels of contamination/pollution of surface water are often due to hanging latrines and direct sewage discharge (without any minimum treatment etc.) into surface waters and close proximity of latrines or drains (WaterAid, 2008). Ammonia Ammonia is an indicator of water pollution caused due to human activities and natural decay processed. Harvested rainwater may contain ammonia as a result of the decay process in the storage tank. Groundwater often contains some ammonia due to natural reduction of nitrate by bacteria, but sudden change in ammonia may be due to contamination of wastewater through seepage (WaterAid, 2008). Chlorine Free (or residual) chlorine in drinking water is only relevant where supplies are chlorinated, or where routine or emergency chlorination has taken place. The presence of free (residual) chlorine is an indication that removal of bacterial contamination is continuing within the supply. Exposure to extremely high levels of pure chlorine gas can cause lung collapse and death (WaterAid, 2008). Aluminium In humans, aluminium and its compounds appear to be poorly absorbed, although the rate and extent of absorption have not been adequately studied for all sectors of the population. There is little indication that orally ingested aluminium is acutely toxic to humans despite the widespread occurrence of the element in foods, drinking-water and many antacid preparations. It has been hypothesized that aluminium exposure is a risk factor for the development or acceleration of onset of Alzheimer disease (AD) in humans (Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality, WHO, 2004).

9 KUALITAS AIR HUJAN Risks to human health and aesthetic acceptance of RAIN water quality criteria Diunduh dari: ……….. 19/1/2013 pH According to the WHO guidelines, no health-based guideline value is proposed for pH, although eye irritation and exacerbation of skin disorders have been associated with pH values greater than 11. Although pH usually has no direct impact on consumers, it is one of the most important indicative water quality parameter for operational management, since pH determines the effectiveness of the treatment (WaterAid, 2008). Turbidity Turbidity which is a measure of extent to which light is either absorbed or scattered by suspended materials in water is an indicator of suspended solids present in water. These suspended solids can be in the form of silt, clay, sand, industrial wastes, sewage, organic matter, phytoplankton and other microbial organisms. Turbidity is an important parameter to be considered in drinking water supplies due to aesthetics, filterability and disinfection. Turbidity is also measured to determine what type and level of treatment are needed (WaterAid, 2008). Nitrate and Nitrite Nitrate is the most widespread agriculture contaminant but presence of nitrate/nitrite is considered to have minimal effect on the disease burden. The WHO guideline value for nitrate in drinking water of 50mg/litre (equivalent to 10mg/litre nitrate-nitrogen) and 3mg/l for nitrite (short-term exposure) is established solely to prevent Cyanosis (methaemoglobinaemia) in babies: bottle-fed infants of less than 3 months of age are most susceptible although occasional cases have been reported in some adult populations. The long term exposure to Nitrate/Nitrite is, however, a human health concern as it may increase stomach cancer. A recent study suggested that miscarriage might also be linked to high nitrate levels, although scientists have not confirmed this (WaterAid, 2008).

10 KUALITAS AIR HUJAN System assessment: mapping the risks of contamination Generally treating and filtering of water seems the obvious method for obtaining a certain water quality. This, however, is an end-of-pipe solution. If contamination resulted from for example use of toxic materials or by poor maintenance, re-contamination will certainly occur. By following a top-down method of preventing contamination, a more cost-effective approach can be reached. Pemetaan risiko kontaminasi pada sistem Pemanenan air hujan (based on Diunduh dari: /Manuals/RAIN_Rainwater_Quality_Policy_and_Guidelines_2009_v1.pdf+&hl=en ……….. 19/1/2013 Area Industrial, agricultural or human activities influencing water quality by air, water or soil Preven- tion Catchment surface Roof, paved or unpaved surface, dry riverbed, maintenance Conveyance Gutters, inlet constructions or riverbeds, maintenance Filtra- tion Storage RWH systems, maintenanceTreat- ment Delivery Taps, hand pumps, operation and management Filtra- tion

11 KUALITAS AIR HUJAN Faktor Keadaan Area The area can be described as the external factors influencing the background or reference water quality in a RWH system and can be divided into physical and social factors: 1.Physical factors: The air, water and soil pollution present within the area, resulting from industrial and agricultural activities and geology directly influences the water quality of the RWH system. Mostly these factors are difficult to influence, but should be taken into account when starting a RWH project. In rural areas their influence is relatively small and can often be excluded, but can reflect unexpected outcomes in water quality tests. 2.Social factors: Human conduct and level of education, reflected in the level of awareness of the relation between water and health, hygiene and sanitation, management and maintenance skills of RWH systems are social factors controlling water quality of a RWH system. Diunduh dari: /Manuals/RAIN_Rainwater_Quality_Policy_and_Guidelines_2009_v1.pdf+&hl=en ……….. 19/1/2013

12 KUALITAS AIR HUJAN Permukaan Daerah Tangkanan air hujan The catchment surface can be described as the area on which the rainfall is collected. Depending on the type of RWH system, several catchment surfaces can be defined, i.e. roofs, paved or unpaved surfaces, dry sandy river beds. Contamination can be prevented by: 1.Using non-toxic materials for roofing, like cement, corrugated and galvanised iron. Metal roofs subjected to atmospheric corrosion can act as a source of heavy metals; 2.Frequently cleaning and clearing of the catchment surface (from human, animal and organic matter), removing overhanging branches and fencing off of the catchment area in the case of surface runoff. Faecal contamination of water from rooftops can result from animal droppings on the roof surface. Water harvested from ground surfaces is vulnerable to contamination by animal or human faeces. The larger the catchment surface, the bigger the chance for contamination due to more complex management of the catchment. Diunduh dari: /Manuals/RAIN_Rainwater_Quality_Policy_and_Guidelines_2009_v1.pdf+&hl=en ……….. 19/1/2013

13 KUALITAS AIR HUJAN Penyaluran Air Hujan The conveyance can be described as the means of transportation of the collected rainfall from the catchment surface to the storage system. Depending on the type of RWH systems, several conveyances can be defined: gutters, inlet pipes, and collection and inlet canals. Contamination can be prevented by: 1.Using non-toxic materials; 2.Frequently cleaning of the conveyances. Debris and pools should not remain in the gutters, since they can become pools of contamination. Contamination might have occurred in the previous level (the catchment area). Therefore filters should be installed at the entrance or end of the gutters or inlet canals to prevent (small) animals, organic matter and debris from entering the RWH system. A first-flush device should be installed to divert the first (millimetres of) rainfall, which contains the main load of pollution. Diunduh dari: /Manuals/RAIN_Rainwater_Quality_Policy_and_Guidelines_2009_v1.pdf+&hl=en ……….. 19/1/2013

14 PEMANENAN AIR HUJAN Penyimpanan Air Hujan The storage can be described as the structure or medium in which the rainwater is stored. In RAINs current programme three different types of RWH systems can be defined: above ground tanks, below ground tanks and sand dams. Contamination can be prevented by: 1.Using non-toxic construction materials; 2.Using adequate covering to prevent influence from direct sunlight, human, animal and organic matter from entering the storage system and mosquito breeding. Contamination might have occurred in the previous levels. Treatment of the water can be applied when found necessary (see table 1 and annexes 3 a, b and c). Residence in the storage system itself provides opportunities for water purifying processes such as sedimentation, bacterial die-off and filtration (for sand dams), increasing the water quality over time. Cleaning of the storage system should only be done if the previous water was found to be contaminated (see annex 6). Surface runoff storage systems will contain a lot of soil material which has to be removed every year when the tank is empty (before the rainy season) since it not only affects the water quality, but also decreases the tank capacity. Sand dams have no closed storage system which makes it even more important to limit contamination risks as much as possible in the previous levels. Other possible risks of contamination at the storage level are: 1.Frequent opening of the manhole. Although many people see opening of the manhole as necessary to investigate the water quality (by colour, odour, debris etc); it will pose a bigger risk to contamination since debris might fall into the tank. Children sometimes use the tank to bath in, which is not only dangerous, but will increase risks of contamination. 2.Mixing of tank water or filling of a tank with water from other sources. If water from another source has been tested and found not contaminated, the water can be mixed under well-controlled circumstances with the water in the RWH system. If the water is not tested, chlorination should always be applied after mixing with the water in the RWH system. Diunduh dari: /Manuals/RAIN_Rainwater_Quality_Policy_and_Guidelines_2009_v1.pdf+&hl=en ……….. 19/1/2013

15 PEMANENAN AIR HUJAN Distribusi Air Hujan (Delivery) The delivery can be described as delivery point to the user, hence the pump or tap by which the user fetches the water. Kontaminasi air hujan dapat dicegah dnegan jalan: 1.Proper management of the water distribution; 2.Creating awareness on hygiene issues (hygiene education). People can contaminate the water by non-hygienic use of the taps or pumps, as well as use of unclean containers after extraction. 3.Closing the area around the delivery point for animals, because they can infect the water by drinking from the (leaking) taps or pumps; 4.Preventing water pools around the RWH systems which could enhance mosquito breeding for example by increasing the infiltration capacity of the soil at the delivery point (gravel). The picture on the right shows a good example of increasing the infiltration capacity near the tap of an above ground tank. Diunduh dari: /Manuals/RAIN_Rainwater_Quality_Policy_and_Guidelines_2009_v1.pdf+&hl=en ……….. 19/1/2013

16 PANEN AIR HUJAN: Improving water quality Recommended treatment and filtering methods Water treatment only makes sense if it is done properly, and if hygienic collection, storage and use of water ensure prevention of recontamination. Due to the fact that RAIN works in remote areas, a selection has been made of practical and acknowledged treatment and filter techniques, presented in table 1. Until now RAIN only has had experience with chlorination. RAINs recommended treatment and filtering methods for RWH systems Diunduh dari: /Manuals/RAIN_Rainwater_Quality_Policy_and_Guidelines_2009_v1.pdf+&hl=en ……….. 19/1/2013 Treatment methodRoof runoff Surface runoff Sand dam Solutions or substances to be added to water: ChlorinationTankHousehold Silver coated ceramic balls TankHousehold Aluminium sulphateHousehold /Tank Household Moringa oleifera and stenopetala Household/ Tank Household Filters:Ceramic pot filterHousehold Bio-sand filterHousehold Heat and UV radiation: BoilingHousehold SODISHousehold

17 PANEN AIR HUJAN: Improving water quality KERANGKA-KERJA Perbaikan Higienis Air Hujan Hygiene promotion works best when combined with improvements in water supply and sanitation services. The Environmental Health Project EHP therefore developed the Hygiene Improvement Framework (HIF), which combines the multiple fronts to fight water-related diseases and uses lessons learned from y ears of program experience. Three key elements can be defined: access to the necessary technologies, promotion of healthy behaviours, and support to ensure long-term sustainability. The HIF can be used as a framework to find the missing elements within a water supply and sanitation project. Sanitation and hygiene play an important role in water supply projects. However RAIN will focus on providing sufficient and safe drinking water and will seek collaborations with national or international organisations with experience on sanitation and hygiene. The Hygiene Improvement Framework (The Hygiene Improvement Framework, 2004). Diunduh dari: /Manuals/RAIN_Rainwater_Quality_Policy_and_Guidelines_2009_v1.pdf+&hl=en ……….. 19/1/2013 Access to Water and Sanitation Access to Water and Sanitation Enabling Environments 1.Water supply systems 2.Sanitation Facilities 3.Household-level technologies and materials 1.Behavioral / Social change methods 2.Community mobilization 3.Social Marketing 4.School programs 5.Community participation in problem identification and Solutions 1.Policy improvement 2.Institutional strengthening 3.Community involvement 4.Financing and cost recovery 5.Cross-sector and public-private partnerships Hygiene Improvement

18 KUALITAS AIR HUJAN Diunduh dari: ainwater.pdf+&hl=en&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEEShSyNPyhojWp-m0eII8ncj63YVUaob62uGVrThNXfz-b6eQjB6YUI- 5AuzOijRNqyZ6n49GCOffBXZp9Ahutj9AFUVaP0Kr6b70P8TaUn8MJqor_o1onUX2Wzte0987I_89imvb&sig=AHI EtbQVuuDWjOa-31OfDvnjAqyVWhE7Pg ………… 18/1/2013 Rainwater lacks minerals, but some minerals, such as calcium, magnesium, iron and fluoride, in appropriate concentrations are considered very essential for health. Although most essential nutrients are derived from food, the lack of minerals, including calcium and magnesium, in rainwater may represent a concern for those on a mineral-deficient diet. In this circumstance, the implications of using rainwater as the primary source of drinking-water should be considered. The absence of minerals also means that rainwater has a particular taste or lack of taste that may not acceptable to people used to drinking other mineral-rich natural waters. Water quality should be managed through development and application of WSPs that should deal with all components from catchment areas to point of supply.

19 KUALITAS AIR HUJAN Diunduh dari: ainwater.pdf+&hl=en&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEEShSyNPyhojWp-m0eII8ncj63YVUaob62uGVrThNXfz-b6eQjB6YUI- 5AuzOijRNqyZ6n49GCOffBXZp9Ahutj9AFUVaP0Kr6b70P8TaUn8MJqor_o1onUX2Wzte0987I_89imvb&sig=AHI EtbQVuuDWjOa-31OfDvnjAqyVWhE7Pg ………… 18/1/2013 The first flush of rainwater carries most contaminants into storages. A system is, therefore, necessary to divert the contaminated first flow of rainwater from roof surfaces. Some devices and good practices are available to divert the first foul flush of rainwater. Automatic devices that prevent the first 20–25 litres of runoff from being collected in storages are recommended. If diverters are not available, a detachable down- pipe can be used manually to provide the same result. Even with these measures in place, storages will require periodic cleaning to remove sediment. Storages without covers or with unprotected openings will encourage mosquito breeding, and sunlight reaching the water will promote algal growth. Covers should be fitted, and openings need to be protected by mosquito-proof mesh. Cracks in the tank and withdrawing of water using contaminated pots can contaminate stored water. Storages should preferably be fitted with a mechanism such as a tap or outlet pipe that enables hygienic abstraction of water. Some households incorporate cartridge filters or other treatments at the point of consumption to ensure better quality of drinking-water and reduce health risk.

20 AIR HUJAN DAN KEKURANGAN AIR Population increase Industrialization Urbanization (a) Increase in per capita utilization (b) Less peculation area In places where rain fed/ irrigation based crops are cultivated through ground water Decrease in surface area of Lakes, talab, tanks etc. Sumber: itself/ What is a rainwater harvesting system? A rainwater harvesting system basically collects rainwater and stores it for later use. All throughout history, this has been done but with the creation of mains water supply, this practice has all but died out in the western world. Ireland is a country that is lucky enough to have a large amount of rainfall over any one year period. rainwater harvesting systems store rainwater and use it to supplement the uses of the non potable water. How Can I harvest Rainwater? There are quite a few different ways you can harvest rainwater. The most popular way is the use of water barrels which can hold over 200 litres of water. Many of these barrels have a tap built into the base of the water butt. The next step would be to add a water pump. There are plenty on the market and the same water can be used for watering gardens, cleaning cars and patio areas etc. The beauty of water barrels is that they require very little maintenance apart from the occasional cleaning which means just taking out debris such as leaves from the built in filters.

21 Deforestation (i) Less precipitation (ii) Absence of Barriers (a) Rain drops checked by leaves of tree (b) Water slowly descends through twigs & trunk © Humus – acts as reservoir (d) Tiny creatures – helps percolation 1 hectare of forest-6-7 Lac ton of water (after filtering) top layer can hold 1.2 Lac tons of water Sumber: Rain water harvesting, Gautam Banerjee, UP Jal Nigam MENGAPA KEKURANGAN AIR ?

22 What is the solution ? Rain water is the ultimate source of fresh water Potential of rain to meet water demand is tremendous Rain water harvesting helps to overcome water scarcity To conserve ground water the aquifers must be recharged with rain water Rain water harvesting is the ultimate answer Sumber: Rain water harvesting, Gautam Banerjee, UP Jal Nigam Why Rain water be harvested To conserve & augment the storage of ground water To reduce water table depletion To improve the quality of ground water To arrest sea water intrusion in coastal areas To avoid flood & water stagnation in urban areas

23 What is rain water harvesting ? 1.It is the activity of direct collection of rain water 2.Rain water can be stored for direct use or can be recharged into the ground water aquifer Sumber: Rain water harvesting, Gautam Banerjee, UP Jal Nigam The roof catchment are selectively cleaner when compared to the ground level catchment 1.Losses from roof catchment are minimum 2.Built & Maintained by local communities 3.No Chemical contamination & only required filtration 4.Available at door step with least cost

24 The typical roof top rain water harvesting system comprises Roof catchment Gutters Down pipe & first flushing pipe Filter Unit Storage Tank Sumber: Rain water harvesting, Gautam Banerjee, UP Jal Nigam Roof catchment The roof of the house is used as the catchment for collecting rain water. The style construction and material of the roof effect its suitability as a catchment, Roofs made of corrugated iron sheet, asbestos sheet, Tiles or Concrete can be utilized for harvesting the rain water

25 Gutters - Talang Air Hujan Gutters are channels fixed to the edges of roof all around to collect & transport the rainwater from the roof. Gutters can be made in semi-circular and rectangular shape with cement pipe, plain galvanized iron sheet, PVC pipes, bamboos etc. Use of locally available material reduce the overall cost of the system. Sumber: Rain water harvesting, Gautam Banerjee, UP Jal Nigam Each rainwater harvesting system consists of at least the following components (INFONET-BIOVISION 2010):rainwater harvesting 1.Rainfall 2.A catchment area or roof surface to collect rainwater. 3.Delivery systems (gutters) to transport the water from the roof or collection surface to the storage reservoir.reservoir 4.Storage reservoirs or tanks to store the water until it is used. 5.An extraction device (depending on the location of the tank - may be a tap, rope and bucket, or a pump (HATUM & WORM 2006); or a infiltration device in the case the collected water is used for well or groundwater recharge. Diunduh dari: Sumber: sources/hardware/precipitation-harvesting/rainwater-harvesting-r …………. 19/1/2013

26 Down Pipe It is the pipe which carries the rainwater from the gutters to the filter & storage tank. Down pipe is joined with the gutters at one end & the other end is connected to the filter unit of the storage tank. PVC or GI pipe of 50mm to 75mm (2 to”) are commonly used for down pipe. Bamboo can be also used wherever available and possible Sumber: Rain water harvesting, Gautam Banerjee, UP Jal Nigam Rain Water Harvest Plant: The water reaching the Roof through precipitation is allowed to flow down by an exhaust pipe which can be connected to a filter which further empties itself into the tube wells. As a result of this small method we can recharge the groundwater and prevent the underground water table from further deterioration. Diunduh dari: 19/1/2013

27 First Flush Pipe Debris, dust & dirt collect on the roof during non rainy periods when the first rain arrive. A first flush system arrangement is made to avoid the entering unwanted material into the Filter media & storage tank. This is a simple manually operated arrangement or semi-automatic system with a valve below the ‘T’ junction Sumber: Rain water harvesting, Gautam Banerjee, UP Jal Nigam Roof materials and pipes Some roofing materials are not suitable for rainwater collection- check with the manufacturer. A typical rainwater system is set up to minimise contamination. Diu8nduh dari Sumber: rainwater/… 19/1/2013

28 Filter Unit The filter unit is a container or chamber filled with filter media such as coarse sand, charcoal, coconut fiber, pebbles & gravels to remove the debris & dirt from water that enters the tank. The filter unit is placed over the storage tank or separately. It may be of Ferro cement filter unit, Aluminum, Cement rings or Plastic bucket etc. Sumber: Rain water harvesting, Gautam Banerjee, UP Jal Nigam Diu8nduh dari Sumber: sources/hardware/precipitation-harvesting/rainwater-harvesting-r … 19/1/2013 llustration of water flow scheme of a RTRWH system. Basic components: roof, gutters, first flush device (first rain separator), rain barrel with filter and tap and recharge well.first flush device Source: RAINWATERCLUB (Editor) (n.y.)n

29 Storage Tank It is used to store the water that is collected from the roof through filter. For small scale water storage plastic buckets, jerry cans, clay or cement jars, ceramic jars, drums may be used. For larger quantities of water, the system will require a bigger tank with cylindrical or rectangular or square in shape constructed with Ferro cement or cement rings or plain cement concrete or reinforced cement concrete or brick or stone etc. The storage tank is provided with a cover on the top to avoid the contamination of water from external sources. The storage tank is provided with pipe fixtures at appropriate places to draw the water to clean the tank & to dispose of extra water. A provision for keeping the vessel to collect the water is to be made. Sumber: Rain water harvesting, Gautam Banerjee, UP Jal Nigam Diu8nduh dari Sumber: l--11-en about utfZz-8- 00&cl=CL3.31&d=HASH3d2b712eafacff9c7fe5f >=1 ………….. 19/1/2013 Schematic of a rainwater catchment and storage system.

30 UKURAN TANKI PENYIMPAN AIR HUJAN Ukuran tanki berdasarkan: – No. of person in the House hold – Per capita water requirement – No. of days for which water is required. Example Drinking water requirement for a household with 5 family members, period 8 months & 6 lpcd = 5x 180x 6 = 7200 Liters Sumber: Rain water harvesting, Gautam Banerjee, UP Jal Nigam The rainwater can be collected in pots at the edge of the roof or ideally from down-pipes connected to gutters. When it first starts to rain, debris from the top of the roof or gutters is washed into the down-pipe, so it takes a while for clean water to filter through the system. A technique to remove this first flush of dirty water is by the use of down-pipe flaps. When it starts to rain, the flap is closed and the water is directed away from the storage tank onto the ground. Once clean water can be collected, the down pipe flap can be opened and the clean water is diverted into a storage tank. Fitting sieves to the top of the down pipe further decreases the risk of dirt getting into the water.ground Sumber: 19/1/2013

31 Air hujan yang tersedia dari cucuran atap bangunan Annual rainfall (in mm) x roof area (in sq. m) x co-efficient of run off for roof co-efficient of run off GI sheet 0.9 Asbestos0.8 Tiled0.75 Plaster on bricks/ Concrete0.7 Water available from roof top 800 mm x 20 sq.m = Liters per annum Sumber: Rain water harvesting, Gautam Banerjee, UP Jal Nigam

32 Size of Tank=1.2 m dia1.8 m height No. of Tanks4 Volume of Tanks 3.14x1.2x1.2x1.5/ cum 2000 liters Volume of of 4 tanks = 4x Liters (this can be designed as per requirement) Schematic of a rainwater catchment system. Diu8nduh dari Sumber: l--11-en about utfZz-8- 00&cl=CL3.31&d=HASH3d2b712eafacff9c7fe5f >=1 ………….. 19/1/2013 Air hujan yang tersedia dari cucuran atap bangunan

33 Sistem Pemanen Air Hujan mempunyai tiga fase: 1)Mengumpulkan dan mengangkut air hujan This is done through catchment areas & conduits. The catchment of a water harvesting system is the surface which receives rainfall directly. It can be a paved area like the terrace or courtyard of a building. Conduits are the pipelines that carry rainwater from the catchment or rooftop to the harvesting system. 2) Filtrasi = Menyaring untuk membersihkan In case of rooftop rainwater harvesting specially designed filters are used to filter the rainwater before it is stored in a storage tank for non- potable usage. PURE RAIN has the Purain range of RWH filters for the same For groundwater recharging, the rooftop or ground water needs to be properly filtered so that the water does not contaminate the underground aquifers. PURE RAIN has a specially design groundwater recharging system - Jal Rakshak that not only filters the water but also holds it while it percolates into the ground. 3) Menyimpan dalam tanki untuk dimanfaatkan / untuk mengisi groundwater The harvested water can now be stored in storage tanks for immediate non-potable usage, which are designed according to your water requirements. Existing non-potable water storage tanks in the society can also be used to store the harvested rainwater. For groundwater recharging you need to design a collection chamber that holds the water while it percolates into the ground as the rate of percolation is much lower than the intensity at which it rains. Diu8nduh dari Sumber: ………….. 19/1/2013

34 MEMANEN AIR HUJAN. Sumber: ….. Riomay ® Renewable Energies has a range of rainwater harvesting products that provide versatile, economic and ecological solutions and give consumers the ability to freely collect water and use it without feeling guilty; on their plants and lawns, for washing their cars, in their washing machines and in their toilets.

35 Bagaimana meminimumkan problematik? 1By providing pipe water system with source (electric based) (a) Surface water (b) Deep tubewells 2 Recharging stratas through rainwater harvesting methods (No. of villages of lower range concentration can be decreased) 3 Storing rain water for drinking purpose (a) In areas where electricity problem is more (b) In areas where concentration is more ( c) In areas where PWS is uneconomical (d) In areas where dependable source is not available Sumber: Rain water harvesting, Gautam Banerjee, UP Jal Nigam

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