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 Facial and oral malformations that occur very early in pregnancy  Results when there is not enough tissue in the mouth or lip area, and the tissue.

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Presentation on theme: " Facial and oral malformations that occur very early in pregnancy  Results when there is not enough tissue in the mouth or lip area, and the tissue."— Presentation transcript:


2  Facial and oral malformations that occur very early in pregnancy  Results when there is not enough tissue in the mouth or lip area, and the tissue that is available does not join together properly  Cleft lip – split or separation of the two sides of the upper lip  Cleft palate – split or opening in the roof of the mouth (hard or soft palate)  1 in 700 babies; 4 th most common birth defect in the US

3  The cause is unknown  May be linked to genetic and environmental factors (drugs, exposure to viruses or chemicals)  Eating, speech, and dental problems could result  Often requires multiple surgeries to treat


5 Scoliosis : abnormal lateral curvature of the spine (occurs most often in the thoracic region)  Caused by a bone abnormality present at birth, abnormal muscles or nerves, trauma, or genetic  2-3% of Americans at age 16 (girls are more prone to developing the condition)  Diagnosed by screening exams, bone exam, and X- ray  Treatments include braces or surgery (spinal fusion)


7  Softening of the bones due to a lack of Vitamin D or a problem with the body’s ability to break down and use Vitamin D  Rickets - Children's form of osteomalacia  Causes – not enough Vitamin D; not enough exposure to sunlight or malabsortption of Vitamin D by the intestines  Symptoms - bone weakness, fractures that occur without real injury, and numbness  Treatments – Vitamin D, calcium, and phosphorus supplements

8  Bone loss outpaces bone regeneration  Bones weaken and lose mass  Bones become brittle and fractures occur more often  Found most often in women  Treatment may include; medication, diet changes, exercise Osteoporosis

9  Degenerative joint disease  Most common type of arthritis (21 million)  Breakdown of cartilage in joints  Mostly occurs in the weight bearing joints, but it can occur anywhere  Causes cartilage to become stiff and lose its elasticity  As cartilage deteriorates, tendons and ligaments stretch, causing pain

10 Symptoms: Joint aching and soreness Pain after overuse or long periods of inactivity Joint swelling Fluid accumulation Treatment: medication, physical therapy, surgery

11  Generally reserved for people over the age of 50 with severe osteoarthritis  Helps relieve pain & restore function in severely diseased knee joints  During surgery; a surgeon cuts away damaged bone and cartilage from your femur, patella, and tibia and replaces it with an artificial joint made of metal alloys, high-grade plastics, and polymers


13  A crack or break in a bone  Despite its mineral strength, bone can crack or even break if subjected to extreme loads, sudden impacts, or stresses from unusual directions

14  Named according to their external appearance, their location, and the nature of the crack or break in the bone.  Two general categories: 1. Closed (simple) – fracture is internal 2. Open (compound) – fracture projects through the skin




18  Comminuted fractures

19  Spiral fractures Figure 6–16 (4 of 9)

20 Figure 6–16 (7 of 9)  Greenstick fracture

21 Figure 6–16 (9 of 9)  Compression fractures


23  Initial treatment for fractures of arms, legs, hands, and feet include splinting the extremity in the position it is found, elevation, and ice.  Edema (or swelling) What does this have to do with splinting and casting?  Closed Reduction – manual realignment  Open Reduction – surgically realignment

24 Step 1 –  Immediately after the fracture, extensive bleeding occurs (blood vessels are broken).  A large blood clot, or fracture hematoma, soon closes off the injured vessels and leaves a fibrous meshwork in the damaged area.  The disruption of the circulation kills osteocytes (mature bone cells) around the fracture.  Dead bone soon extends along the shaft.

25 Step 2 –  The cells of the endosteum (cellular layer) and periosteum undergo cell division and the daughter cells migrate into the fracture zone.  An external callus (hard skin) forms and encircles fracture  An internal callus organizes within the cavity and between the broken ends of the shaft  The broken ends have been temporarily stabilized

26 Step 3 –  Osteoblasts (bone building cells) replace the central cartilage of the external callus with spongy bone  Calluses form a brace at the fracture site  Spongy bone now unites the broken ends  Fragments of dead bone are removed and replaced  If the fracture required a cast, it can be removed at this stage

27 Step 4 –  Osteoclasts (remove and recycle bone matrix) and osteoblasts continue to remodel the region of the fracture (4 months to 1 year)  When remodeling is complete, the bone of the calluses is gone and only living compact bone remains.  The bone could be slightly thicker and stronger than normal at the fracture site



30  Holds a broken bone in place as it heals  Help to prevent or decrease muscle contractions  Provide immobilization (the joints above and below the area)  Casts are made of plaster and fiberglass  Typically worn for 6-8 weeks

31  Separation of two bones where they meet at a joint (no longer in normal position)  Caused by a sudden impact to the joint  May be hard to tell a dislocated bone from a broken bone  Generally take 3-6 weeks to heal  Possible ligament damage can occur

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