5Rows on the periodic table are called periods Rows on the periodic table are called periods. All the elements listed in a row belong to the same period. There are 7 (seven) periods.
6Columns in the periodic table are called groups or families Columns in the periodic table are called groups or families. All elements in a group have similar properties.
7Insert copy of the periodic table. The columns have been given an Arabic number. The columns are numbered 1 – 18 starting at the left and moving to the right. Please make sure that your periodic table has them numbered like this.
8The outer most energy level is usually not full or complete . Valence ElectronsThe outer most energy level is usually not full or complete .These electrons in the outer energy level are called Valence electrons.Valence electrons are important because they determine how an element will react with other substance.
9Insert picture of periodic table. Group 1 and 2 the number of Valence electrons in the outer energy level will match the group number.
10Insert picture of periodic table. Groups 3 through 12 do not follow any particular rule to determine the number of Valence electrons.
11Insert picture of periodic table. Group 13 to 18 – The Valence electrons for each of these is the group number less 10. For example Group 14 – 10 = 4 Valence electrons.
12Elements whose atoms gain, lose or share electrons are reactive and they combine to form the many compounds we use in our daily lives.
13Elements are categorized as metals, nonmetals or metalloids. Metals: An element that has luster, is malleable and ductile, and is said to be a good conductor of heat and electricity.
14What is luster, malleable and ductile? Luster describes the way a surface reflects light…therefore metallic luster would be shiny like a metal object.Malleable means to be able to press or pound the substance into sheets or different shapes.Ductile means that the substance can be drawn out into thin wires.
15Elements are categorized as metals, nonmetals or metalloids (cont’). Nonmetals: an element that is usually a gas or a brittle solid at room temperature. It is a poor conductor of heat and electricity.
16Elements are categorized as metals, nonmetals or metalloids (cont’). Metalloid: an element that shares some characteristics or properties with both metals and nonmetals.
17Group 1 and 2 Elements:These elements are so reactive that they are only found combined with other elements in nature.
18Low Density (some will even float) Group 1: Alkali MetalsSoft – can be cut with a knifeShiny and silver coloredLow Density (some will even float)Most reactive of the metalsValence electrons = 1Reacts violently with water forming a hydrogen gasCompounds from these are very useful such as NaCl3LiLithium6.94111NaSodium22.99019KPotassium39.09837RbRubidium85.46855CsCesium87FrFrancium
19Silver colored Group 2: Alkaline- Earth Metals 4BeBeryllium9.01212MgMagnesium24.30520CaCalcium40.07838SrStrontium87.6256Babarium88RaRadium226Group 2: Alkaline- Earth MetalsVery reactive but not as reactive as Alkali Metals.Silver coloredMore dense than Group 1 metalsValence electrons = 2Useful compounds include: Calcium compounds such as cement, plaster, chalk, and YOU.
21Higher density and melting points (except mercury) than Group 1 and 2 Group 3 to 12: Transition MetalsDo not lose their valence electrons as easily as groups 1 & 2.Less reactive than Alkali and Alkaline Earth metalsShinyGood conductors of electricityHigher density and melting points (except mercury) than Group 1 and 2
22Group 3 to 12: Transition Metals (cont’.) Lanthanides: The first row underneath the periodic table: Shiny, reactive, many are used in the production of steel.Actinides: The second row underneath the periodic table: These elements are all radioactive and unstable..Note: Elements found after 94 (Plutonium) are man made and not found in nature
24Solid at room temperature 5BBoron10.81113AlAluminum26.98231GaGallium69.72349InIndium81TlThalliumGroup 13: Boron GroupReactiveValence electrons = 3Contains 1 Metalloid and 4 MetalsSolid at room temperatureAluminum is the most abundant in this group and the most common in the Earth’s crust
25Reactivity varies in this group depending on the element 6CCarbon12.01114SiSilicon28.08632GeGermanium72.6450SnTin82PbLead207.2Group 14: Carbon GroupReactivity varies in this group depending on the elementValence electrons = 4This group contains 2 metals, 1 nonmetal and 2 metalloids.Many forms found uncombined in nature such as diamondsCompounds are very useful: proteins, fats, carbohydrates, computer chips.
26Group 15: Nitrogen GroupReactivity varies in this group depending on the elementValence electrons = 5Group contains 1 metal, 2 Nonmetals, and 2 metalloidsPhosphorous is very reactive and only found in nature combined with other elements.All but nitrogen are solid at room temperature.Nitrogen makes up 78% of our atmosphere.Generally unreactive.7NNitrogen14.00715PPhosphorous30.97433AsArsenic74.92251Sb Antimony83BiBismuth
27More reactive than group 15 Valence electrons = 6 Group 16: Oxygen GroupMore reactive than group 15Valence electrons = 6Group contains 1 Metals, 3 Nonmetals and 1 MetalloidsSulfur is found in nature and is used to make sulfuric acid, a very commonly used chemical in industry.All but oxygen are solid at room temperature.Oxygen makes up 21% of the Earth’s AtmosphereOxygen is very reactive and combines with many other elements especially metalsRust is the result of the oxidation of metal.8OOxygen15.99916SSulfur32.06534SeSelenium78.9652Te Tellurium127.6084PoPolonium209
28Poor Conductors of electricity and heat Group 17: Halogen GroupVery reactiveValence electrons = 7Nonmetal groupPoor Conductors of electricity and heatReact violently with alkali metals to form saltsNever found uncombined in natureAtoms of these elements only need to gain 1 electron to fill their outer shellChlorine and Iodine are both in this group and can be combined to make disinfectants.9FFluorine18.99817ClChlorine35.45335BrBromine79.90453I Iodine85AtAstatine210
29Outermost energy shell is full Colorless, odorless gases at room temp. 2HeHelium4.00310NeNeon21.18018ArArgon39.94836KrKrypton83.8054Xe Xenon86RnRadon222Group 18: Noble Gas GroupNon-reactantValence electrons = 8Outermost energy shell is fullColorless, odorless gases at room temp.Under normal conditions they do not react with other elementsAll found on Earth in very small amountsArgon is the most common in the groupTheir non-reactivity makes them very useful for light bulbs, helium for blimps and weather balloons.
30Properties do not match the properties of any single group Hydrogen Stands Alone:Properties do not match the properties of any single groupValence Electrons = 1Easily looses that one valence electronPhysical properties are like the nonmetal groupMost abundant element in the UniverseIts reactive nature makes it useful as a fuel for rockets.1HHydrogen1.008