2The Age of FaithThe Medieval people were fixed on one all important goal – preparation for eternal life after deathThe church guided the people in the questThe church influenced the lives of kings and peasants, everyone was born into the faith
33 Period of the Middle Ages * EARLY MEDIEVAL50TH CENTURY – 11TH CENTURYROMANESQUE11TH CENTURY- 12TH CENTURYGOTHIC12TH CENTURY- 16TH CENTURYThe fall of Rome is considered the start of the Early Medieval PeriodThe period was marked by conflicts, open warfare, and mass migrations of foreigners into the across lands formerly controlled by the RomansThe Carolingian dynasty cam to rule and with it came the ruler Charles the Great or also known as CharlemagneHe became the first of the Holy Roman EmperorsHis domain grew until it included all of the Western part of the old Roman Empire except Britain, Spain, southern Italy and Africathe equestrian statue of Charlemagne, first emperor to be crowned in St. Peter's, on Christmas eve of 800.
4Charlemagne Charlemagne encouraged learning and the arts He ordered every monastery and Abby to establish a school were students could learn arithmetic, grammar and the psalmsHis most important achievement many have been the preservation of ancient manuscriptsHe invited scholars from England and Ireland to his court to rewrite old tests and prepare new onesHis capital was Aix-la-Chapelle in present day GermanyIn his capital he restored the splendors of ancient RomeStatues were brought from Italy, baths were constructed, an a chapel was built that closely resembled the famous Roman church at RavennaAfter his death in 814 the empire collapsedPalatine Chapel in the cathedral at Aachen, Ger. The central portion of the structure was built by Charlemagne, and the other sections were built later.
5FeudalismFeudalism was a system in which weak nobleman gave up their lands and much of their freedom to more powerful lords in return for protectionThe lord allowed the former owner to remain on the land as his administrator – who was the servant or vassal to the lordVassal- pledged his loyalty and military assistance to the lordMost of the people were serfs, or poor peasants who did not have land to give in return for protection* These people worked the lands and were handed over with it when the land passed from one nobleman to another.Ceiling of the Octagon within the Palatine Chapel, Aachen, Germany. The Romanesque circular chandelier was a gift from the Holy Roman emperor Frederick I in the 12th century.
6Basilica DesignA basilica featured a rectangular plan, which was divided on the inside to form a nave or central aisle, and two or more side aisles.Light from windows in the walls of the nave above the side aisles in the interior of the buildingAt one of the nave was the main entrance and the opposite end was a semicircular area known as the apseAn altar was placed in the apse in plain viewSome churches were built with a transept, another aisle that cut directly across the nave and the side aislesIt gave the church a shape of the cross from above.The transept increased the space inside the building but also added to its symbolic appearanceOccasionally, towers were also added to the exteriors of the churchesMost churches of the period were made with timber and very few still exist
7The spread of Monasticism Monasticism – these people began to feel that the Church had become too worldlyOriginated in the near East in the 3rd centuriesThese people formed religious communities far removed from the rest of society where whey spent their lives in quiet contemplation and prayerThe Monks often decorated manuscripts pages with mini painting done in sliver, gold, and rich colors with illuminations, or manuscript paintingsCharacteristics of the Monastery StructureMost famous is the monastery San Juan de la Pena in SpainFrom the outside looks like a fortress with stone walls and small windowsInside it is dark and dampThe walls are marked with dark smoke stains from the torches that were once used to light the interiorHad a cloister, an open court or garden and the covered walkway surrounding itMuch emphasis was placed on private prayer and contemplation
8IlluminationsIlluminations became the most important paintings produced in western EuropeWrote in LatinWere created by dedicated men who worked anonymously to record and illustrate historyMedieval monks passed on the ideas of classical writers and church fathers. Often they phrased these ideas in beautiful and complex waysManuscripts of the Gospels were illustrated with small painting of the four EvangelistsA symbol was usually used to help the reader identify each Gospel writersMatthew a angel, mark a lion, Luke a bull and John a eagleThe Church was the center for art and learning as well as religion during the Medieval periodIt favored art that could teach and inspire the people in their faithThe illustration were intended fro those who could not read the manuscripts were meant for those who couldThe Illustration had to be simple and familiar so everyone could understand them, often biblical
10Romanesque Period Castles The Effects of Feudalism The feudal system, was developed in the 9th century reached its peak during the Romanesque PeriodNobles, lords and kings fought constantly to protect or add to the land under their controlCastlesTowers of stone were built by the late 11th century and by the 12th century the now familiar stone castle had evolvedThe castle became the symbol of authority during the Romanesque Period
11Life in the CastlesThe Main purpose of the caste was protection which eliminated the possibility of windowsThe thick outer walls were pierced only by narrow slots through which archers could fire on attackersStairs were steep and passageways dark and narrowThe rooms were ususally sparsely furnished and lacked decorationOccasionally tapestries, textile wall hangings that were woven, painted or embroidered with colorful scenes, were hung to keep the dampness outThe Growth of citiesCastles remained important as long as the feudal system flourishedBut the growth of trade and industry in the 13th century brought about an economy based on money rather than landCities came up and castles became obsolete
12Romanesque ChurchesAll towns had one thing in common: the center had a churchThe church increased its influence on the daily lives of the peopleIt offered comfort in this life and salvation in the next lifePILGRIMAGE CHURCHESThe church at this time placed great importance on piety and encouraged people to take part in pilgrimage, a journey to a holy placePeople banded together and traveled to pay homage to saints and relics in far off churchesWorshipers believed that praying before the sacred remains of a saint could assure a plentiful harvest, cure diseases, solve personal problems and secure salvationThe Pilgrimage's brought large crowdsTo increase the size of a Romanesque church builders extended both the nave and transept and added two more aisle one on each sideThe often added an ambulatory, an aisle curving around behind the main altarCurved chapels built along the transept and the ambulatory were also built
13The Church of Saint Sernin in Toulouse It was in France that the Romanesque style reached its peak in architecture – The Church of Saint Sernin in ToulouseThe church appears large and solidInside the church is spacious but dark and gloomyClosely spaced piers line the nave and separate it from the aisles on either sideThese lead to the main altar at the far end of the church
14The Revival of Sculpture and Painting Many of the churches along the pilgrimage routes used relief sculptures as another way to teach the faith to people many where illiterateLike manuscripts illustrations stone carvings reminded people of the familiar stores from Scripture it was easier for people to see then read2 architectural features were found to be ideal places for relief carvingsThe tympanum, the half round panel that fills the space between the lintel and the arch over the doorway of the churchPeople naturally lifted their eyes as they entered the buildingUsually had a large figure n the middle smaller figures on either side
15Capital DecorationInside churches and in cloisters the capitals of columns were another excellent place for carvingThe weight of the ceiling was met by the upward thrust of the columns the roving eyes of the faithful came to restMany carving were biblical scenes, human figures, birds, and animalsRomanesque capitals are often a curious mixture of skilled craftwork and quaint storytelling
16Church Wall PaintingsChrist in Majesty wall painting from San Clemente, Tahull, Spain 12th centuryA bold use of line, brilliant colors, and a sensitive feeling for pattern are reminders of the manuscript illuminations in a lot of different paintings of churches* Painting of the time were concerned with easy to understand religious symbols
17Gothic StyleDuring the 13th century French architects developed the pointed arch, piers and the flying buttressGothic builders discovered that they could reduce the sideways pressure or thrust of a stone roof by replacing the round arch with a pointed oneAdditional support is provided by buttresses, a support or brace that counteracts the outward thrust of an arch or vaultBecause they had to reach over the side aisles of the church, thses braces came to be known as “flying buttresses”Gothic is a terms used to identify a period that began around the middle of the 12th century and lasted to the end of the 15th century and on some places into the 16thBecause the Goths and barbarian tribes had brought about the fall of Rome the term Gothic was given to building that replaced classical formsIt was misleading nameMany of the building and churches that were started in the Romanesque Period were finished as GothicThe flying buttresses allowed a counterthrust system that supported the ceilingsThere was no longer a need for solid walls so windows could be build
18Gothic Churches Stained Glass Windows The walls of glass, which builders were now free to use between the piers let light flow into the cathedralsThey were also an ideal way to impress sand instruct the faithful congregation through images created with pieces of colored glassGothic interiors of churches are most radiant at sunsetGothic cathedrals were both expressions of religious devotions and symbols of civic prideThey were products of the new and prospering citiesThey served as churches for bishopsEveryone wanted to participate in the building of the churchesThey were all throughout Europe
19Gothic Sculptures and Books The upward tendency is noted everywhere, in the pillars, pointed arches and windows of the Goth cathedralsSculptures where elongated, or stretched outThe repeated, long folds on their sculptured garments emphasize the vertical movement of these figuresRomanesque carvers made their figures appear firmly attached to the wall; Gothic sculptors, by contrast, made theirs project outward into spaceMost sculptures were easily recognized by anyone familiar with the BibleA sense for sculptures to show emotions spread
20Sculptures The sculptures had a fascination with the Virgin Mary Gargoyles, the grotesque flying monsters that project out from the upper portions of the huge churches started to be createdGargoyles are actually rain spouts intended to carry rainwater from the roofs of the churchesFresco technique required that painting had to be completed before the plaster dried,Giotto and Duccio’s where the painters of Fresco of the timePainting of the Goth Period are mainly frescos a painting created when pigment is applied to a wall spread with fresh plaster