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This Learning Seminar is available through a professional courtesy provided by: Rainguard International Products 3334 East Coast Highway, Box #143 Corona Del Mar, CA 92625 Tel: 949-515-8800 Fax: 949-675-3450 Toll-Free: 1-888-765-7070 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org@rainguard.com Web: www.rainguard.comwww.rainguard.com ©2005 Weatherman Products, Inc. The material contained in this course was researched, assembled, and produced by Weatherman Products, Inc. and remains their property. Questions or concerns about the content of this course should be directed to the program instructor. Anti-Graffiti Coatings and Graffiti Removal Technology ©2014Slide 1 of 62
About the Instructor About the Sponsor Seminar Discussion Forum Anti-Graffiti Coatings Understanding Graffiti ©2014Slide 2 of 62
About the Instructor About the Sponsor Seminar Discussion Forum Anti-Graffiti Coatings Understanding Graffiti Introduction The term graffiti is derived from the Italian words "graffito", meaning an "incised inscription", and "graffiare", meaning "to scratch". Modern day graffiti has its origins in New York City's gang and Hip Hop subculture of the 1970s and 1980s. Although some consider it a form of artistic expression, graffiti is typically defined as unauthorized writing or drawing on a public surface. NextPrevious ©2014Slide 3 of 62
About the Instructor About the Sponsor Seminar Discussion Forum Anti-Graffiti Coatings Understanding Graffiti Types of Graffiti There are three general types of graffiti: Tag: Most basic type of graffiti. Typically involves stylized scrawl done in a single color of paint, typically the writers name Throw-Up: Quickly done bubble letters or very simple pieces using only 2 colors. Piece: Graffiti "masterpiece" using at least 3 colors of paint. NextPrevious ©2014Slide 4 of 62
About the Instructor About the Sponsor Seminar Discussion Forum Anti-Graffiti Coatings Understanding Graffiti Graffiti Terminology Tagger: The term used to refer to individuals who do basic tags and throw-ups, as opposed to more complicated pieces. Taggers who never piece are sometimes called "scribblers" by more experienced "writers". Crew: Group of taggers with their own distinct name or tag that work together in the same area. Bomb: Refers to the act of covering an area with graffiti (e.g. bombing) or to a large tag or throw-up. Similar to "hitting", which means covering a surface with paint or ink. When a surface is covered with tags, it is "hit up" or "killed". NextPrevious ©2014Slide 5 of 62
About the Instructor About the Sponsor Seminar Discussion Forum Anti-Graffiti Coatings Understanding Graffiti Some Graffiti Facts It is a common misperception that most graffiti is gang-related when in fact, gangs account for less than 10% - 15% of all graffiti. About 50% of graffiti vandalism is committed by suburban males in their early teens to early twenties, however graffiti vandals come from every social, ethnic, and economic background. NextPrevious ©2014Slide 6 of 62
About the Instructor About the Sponsor Seminar Discussion Forum Anti-Graffiti Coatings Understanding Graffiti Some Graffiti Facts There are four general categories of graffiti: tagging, satanic/hate, gang, and generic (e.g. non-threatening messages like "Bobby loves Suzy" or "Class of 2000"). Tagging graffiti is the most common form, estimated at 80% of all tagging activity, it is more ornate, whereas gang graffiti uses symbols. Estimates are high as $15 - $18 billion per year to clean up graffiti across the United States. Immediate removal of graffiti, within 24 to 48 hours, is the key to successful graffiti prevention. It has been found that community murals are rarely defaced by graffiti and instill a sense of pride among those who live nearby. NextPrevious ©2014Slide 7 of 62
About the Instructor About the Sponsor Seminar Discussion Forum Anti-Graffiti Coatings Understanding Graffiti Art or Vandalism? Some people believe that graffiti has artistic value and that taggers should be considered artists rather than criminals or vandals. Others insist that graffiti is illegal, and that taggers engage in acts of vandalism, defacing public property. Whether you consider it to be art or vandalism, the fact remains that billions of dollars are spent annually on graffiti abatement and removal. NextPrevious Graffiti is graffiti when it is not permitted by the building owner! ©2014Slide 8 of 62
About the Instructor About the Sponsor Seminar Discussion Forum Anti-Graffiti Coatings Understanding Graffiti Effects of Graffiti on Property Values Graffiti destroys property values in three overlapping and escalating waves: Phase 1: The first phase involves the cost of graffiti removal, which is easy to quantify. It has been shown that commercial properties fall in value by $10,000 for every $1,000 spent annually in graffiti remediation. NextPrevious ©2014Slide 9 of 62
About the Instructor About the Sponsor Seminar Discussion Forum Anti-Graffiti Coatings Understanding Graffiti Effects of Graffiti on Property Values Phase 2: The second phase involves the surrounding area. Studies have shown that graffiti also lowers property values throughout the graffiti-infected area by 1.6% for every 10% increase in property damage reported to the police. Phase 3: The third phase affects the entire neighborhood. When normal society relinquishes control of graffiti-bombed neighborhoods, property misdemeanors spawn major crime. When an area reaches its "violent crime" threshold and is perceived as an unsafe place to live, property values can fall by up to 40%. NextPrevious ©2014Slide 10 of 62
About the Instructor About the Sponsor Seminar Discussion Forum Anti-Graffiti Coatings Understanding Graffiti Graffiti Abatement Initiatives City of Los Angeles: The city of Los Angeles requires all new construction to possess a graffiti-resistant coating. This requirement has deterred taggers. Each property owner is also responsible for maintaining their property, free of graffiti damage. New York and New Jersey Port Authority: In an effort to maintain the value of buildings, both residential and commercial, surrounding densely populated areas, the New York and New Jersey Port Authorities have mandated strict adherence to graffiti coating application and removal of tags within 48 hours. Home Depot: Recognizing the need not to allow graffiti to decrease the value of its properties and the need to project a solid image within the community, Home Depot has specified graffiti-resistant coatings and strict maintenance guidelines to effectively remove any tagging within 24 hours. PreviousNext ©2014Slide 11 of 62
About the Instructor About the Sponsor Seminar Discussion Forum Anti-Graffiti Coatings Understanding Graffiti How to Respond to Graffiti? Paint Over: The most common form of removing graffiti vandalism and although short run the least expensive, paint overs can be more expensive if graffiti is recurring. Unless an entire wall is repainted, paint overs encourage new tags in the “canvas frame” created with the paint over Remove with Chemicals: There are a wide variety of chemicals available and care should be exercised in selecting the proper one. Chemical removal is not always successful and can leave a “shadow” outlining where the graffiti was, leaving permanent damage.. Replacement: Only economically practical with small objects such as street signs when damage can’t be painted over, chemically removed, cleaned off. Anti-Graffiti Coating: Installing a protective barrier coating over the surface can be an effective approach to preventing permanent surface damage from tags and least costly in the long run. ©2014Slide 12 of 62
About the Instructor About the Sponsor Seminar Discussion Forum Anti-Graffiti Coatings NextPrevious Graffiti Removal Challenges ©2014Slide 13 of 62
About the Instructor About the Sponsor Seminar Discussion Forum Anti-Graffiti Coatings Graffiti Removal Challenges Introduction In general, surfaces that are tagged by graffiti can be divided into two categories (painted and unpainted), which are comprised of porous, non- porous and sensitive materials. On surfaces that have not been treated with an anti-graffiti coating, graffiti removal that does not damage the appearance of the substrate is virtually impossible. The absorption of organic solvent- borne paints into porous surfaces, such as concrete, presents the most formidable challenge for removal. NextPrevious In contrast to latex paints, which are mostly water, spray paints contain large amounts of organic solvents, making them particularly invasive. ©2014Slide 14 of 62
About the Instructor About the Sponsor Seminar Discussion Forum ©2014 Anti-Graffiti Coatings Graffiti Removal Challenges Porous Substrates Concrete and brick: Are highly-porous and heterogeneous materials. When aerosol spray paint is applied to the surface, the paint microspheres quickly migrate into the surface pores, penetrating the surface layer. For integrally- colored substrates, tagging is impossible to remove without damaging the surface, leaving shadows, etch marks, and/or degradation of mortar joints. Stone: Natural stones, such as granite, marble, and sandstone are also highly porous materials. Removing graffiti from sandstone is particularly challenging due to its high profile-relief. Tagging is impossible to remove without leaving shadows, etch marks and/or degradation of mortar joints. Stucco, Plaster, and EIFS: Integrally-colored stucco, plaster, and EIFS surfaces are exposed to a high absorption of tagging materials, making them virtually impossible to remove. Painted surfaces can be destroyed during the cleaning process. In most cases, a recoating of the entire surface is the only alternative. Wood: Tagging materials will permanently penetrate unpainted wood. The only alternative available is to recoat the surface Slide 15 of 62
About the Instructor About the Sponsor Seminar Discussion Forum Anti-Graffiti Coatings Graffiti Removal Challenges Non-Porous Substrates Plastic: Although plastic is one of the easiest surfaces to clean, tagging many times will result in a shadow. Essentially pigments in the tagging materials react with pigments in the plastic, lightening or darkening the original color. Metal: In many cases, tagging materials will permanently etch the metal and leave a "ghosting" effect. This ghosting effect will become less visible over time, however it will not disappear entirely unless the surface is recoated. Next ©2014Slide 16 of 62
©2014Slide 17 of 62 Graffiti Removal Challenges Sensitive Substrates Plexiglas: Although Plexiglas is a non-porous substrate, it can be difficult to satisfactorily remove graffiti without damaging the integrity of the plastic. While there are several types of graffiti- removal agents available that are capable of removing the graffiti, they may render the Plexiglas opaque. Road Signs: Graffiti removal from road signs can produce mixed results. Organic solvents in spray paint can attack a road sign's clear coat, causing irreversible damage. Silk-screen processed road signs are often damaged during graffiti removal, whereas some types of reflective coatings remain intact.
About the Instructor About the Sponsor Seminar Discussion Forum Anti-Graffiti Coatings NextPrevious Graffiti Removal Techniques ©2014Slide 18 of 62
About the Instructor About the Sponsor Seminar Discussion Forum Anti-Graffiti Coatings Graffiti Removal Techniques Introduction There are several different techniques that can be used to remove graffiti: Mechanical Dry Abrasive Water Blasting Laser Technology Chemical NextPrevious ©2014Slide 19 of 62
About the Instructor About the Sponsor Seminar Discussion Forum Anti-Graffiti Coatings Choosing a Removal Option The following is an example of a decision matrix with ratings, comments, and criteria for Manual Graffiti Removal Technology TechniqueIdeal ConditionsAdvantagesDisadvantages NextPrevious May damage and discolour non porous and sensitive substrate surfaces Time consuming Expeditious Eradicates most defacing materials Porous substrates Well ventilated areas (outdoors) Mechanical Expensive and time consuming (still being developed) Is a gentle alternative for sensitive substrates Interiors Historical masonry Laser Technology Damages sacrificial anti graffiti coatings Time consuming May damage sensitive substrates Cost effective Expeditious Porous substratesWater Blasting May give rise to airborne particles Damages sacrificial anti graffiti coatings May scar substrate surface, creating greater surface area for pollutants to collect May remove protective surface of masonry, resulting in increased water permeability, accelerated weathering, and deterioration ExpeditiousPorous Substrates (masonry, concrete) Well ventilated areas (outdoors) Dry Abrasive ©2014Slide 20 of 62
About the Instructor About the Sponsor Seminar Discussion Forum Anti-Graffiti Coatings Graffiti Removal Techniques Chemical Graffiti Removal Due to regulatory changes lowering allowable VOC emissions, the use of organic solvents although effective for graffiti removal has been greatly reduced. Today, solvent-borne and water- based formulations with much lower concentrations have become the primary means for graffiti removal. The type and viscosity of chemical remover used will depend on the type of substrate (e.g. sensitive) and its porosity (e.g. porous, non-porous). NextPrevious ©2014Slide 21 of 62
About the Instructor About the Sponsor Seminar Discussion Forum Anti-Graffiti Coatings Graffiti Removal Techniques Factors to Consider Substrate: The type of substrate will influence the choice of chemical remover. For instance, NMP may be too aggressive for graffiti-removal on highly sensitive substrates, such as Plexiglas or road signs. Porosity: Some substrates, such as concrete or masonry, are more porous than other substrates, such as plastic or metal. Non-porous substrates typically require less harsh removers, such as water-based or citrus-based chemical removers. NextPrevious ©2014Slide 22 of 62
About the Instructor About the Sponsor Seminar Discussion Forum Anti-Graffiti Coatings Graffiti Removal Techniques Application Procedures The porosity of the substrate and type of coating (if any), will determine the type of graffiti-removal agent necessary. It is always a good idea to apply the chosen removal agent to a test patch in order to ensure that it is effective at removing the graffiti without causing damage to the underlying substrate. Graffiti-removal agents are typically applied using a brush, roller, or sprayer and are allowed a dwell time as determined by the test patch, or in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations. Repeat applications, with or without some gentle scrubbing with a stiff bristle brush, may be required for particularly resistant graffiti. Lifted graffiti is flushed from the substrate by rinsing with soap/detergents and water (non-porous substrates) or pressure washing with hot or cold water (porous substrates). PreviousNext ©2014Slide 23 of 62
About the Instructor About the Sponsor Seminar Discussion Forum Anti-Graffiti Coatings Choosing a Chemical Graffiti Remover The following is an example of a decision matrix with ratings, comments, and criteria for Chemical Graffiti Removers NextPrevious Is prone to deactivation when exposed to water May damage sensitive substrates Non flammable Non combustible Excellent solvency Concrete, masonry substrates NMP N-methylpyrrolidone Organic solvent Non toxic, biodegradable, environmentally friendly Expeditious, fast acting Porous and sensitive substrates (historical masonry) Water Based Ineffective at removing permanent marker/felt tip pen graffiti Expeditious Effectively removes latex paint pigments Well ventilated areas (outdoors) Citrus Based D-limonene, glycol ethers, surfactants DisadvantagesAdvantagesIdeal ConditionsType ©2014Slide 24 of 62
About the Instructor About the Sponsor Seminar Discussion Forum Anti-Graffiti Coatings NextPrevious Anti-Graffiti Coatings ©2014Slide 25 of 62
About the Instructor About the Sponsor Seminar Discussion Forum Anti-Graffiti Coatings Introduction Anti-graffiti coatings are classified into two broad groups: Permanent coatings provide a tough and chemically resistant film that is difficult for graffiti to adhere to. Temporary or sacrificial coatings are designed to be removed with the graffiti and then re-applied to refresh the system NextPrevious ©2014Slide 26 of 62
About the Instructor About the Sponsor Seminar Discussion Forum Anti-Graffiti Coatings Common Myths Anti-Graffiti Coatings Yellow Over Time: Some permanent systems may yellow over time if they do not allow the substrate to transfer moisture. This is primarily an issue with coatings that provide non-sticking capabilities. More sophisticated coatings are able to provide a non-yellowing, UV-resistant anti-graffiti coating. Anti-Graffiti Coatings Are Not Durable: Permanent anti-graffiti coatings are designed to penetrate the surface of porous substrates, providing a durable and long-lasting finish that is not damaged by repeated cleanings. Anti-Graffiti Coatings Are Difficult To Apply: Today's permanent and temporary anti-graffiti coatings are typically applied in 1 to 3 coats, using a brush, roller, or sprayer. Some are easy to apply, do not require component mixing, and have a low VOC content, making them safe and environmentally friendly. PreviousNext ©2014Slide 27 of 62
About the Instructor About the Sponsor Seminar Discussion Forum Anti-Graffiti Coatings Common Myths Cont'd… Anti-Graffiti Coatings Are Expensive: Anti-graffiti coatings are considered to be one of the most cost-effective methods of graffiti control. Some permanent water-based copolymer coatings can cost as little as $0.30 / sq. ft. Anti-Graffiti Coatings Do Not Stop Tagging: Both permanent and temporary anti- graffiti coatings allow graffiti to be removed quickly and efficiently. Research has shown that removing graffiti within 24 hours effectively eliminates any audience for the tagger's vandalism and provides a disincentive to return. Anti-Graffiti Coatings Change the Look of the Surface Too Much: Most anti- graffiti coatings come with a high gloss sheen level which can negatively impact the look of a building and have limited their use when a change in visual look of the surface is undesirable. There are however a few product alternatives available with a low gloss or matte finish to minimize changes in appearance. NextPrevious ©2014Slide 28 of 62
About the Instructor About the Sponsor Seminar Discussion Forum ©2014Slide 29 of 62 Anti-Graffiti Coatings Common Myths Cont'd… Anti-Graffiti Coatings Cannot Be Painted: Certain types of permanent water- based cross-linking copolymer anti-graffiti coatings can be used on previously painted or unpainted substrates, and may be painted over. Other types of graffiti coatings need to be completely removed before repainting the building. Anti-Graffiti Coatings Are Not Necessary- Graffiti Can Just Be Painted Over: Painting over graffiti offers a quick solution for limited substrates but only masks the problem where anti graffiti coatings behave as a preventative measure. Research has shown that illegal graffiti can also reoccur if the resulting painted patch is visible on the substrate surface, as it provides a frame for the vandal’s work and thus invites further defacement. Paint is also limited in its capabilities to provide a substantial barrier between the substrate surface and defacing material, as paint pigments can potentially be absorbed by certain types of vandalism agents (including marker pens and permanent markers) and result in a ‘ghosted’ effect.
About the Instructor About the Sponsor Seminar Discussion Forum Anti-Graffiti Coatings Applications Anti-graffiti coatings are suitable for a variety of substrates and applications. Anti-graffiti coatings can be used whenever maintaining property values is important (whether or not graffiti vandalism is a concern). PreviousNext ©2014Slide 30 of 62 Dense Masonry Porous Masonry Metal Surfaces Wood Surfaces Stucco Surfaces Aggregate Surfaces EIFS Surfaces Stone Surfaces Vertical Surfaces New Surfaces Painted Surfaces Interior Surfaces Exterior Surfaces
About the Instructor About the Sponsor Seminar Discussion Forum Anti-Graffiti Coatings Permanent vs. Temporary Coatings NextPrevious ©2014Slide 31 of 62 Permanent Coatings (Non-Sacrificial) Multiple graffiti removals Tough and durable Chemically resistant Can be Difficult to recoat Not breathable Very low perm rates Temporary Coatings (Sacrificial) Removed along with graffiti Requires refreshment Less chemically resistant Easily recoated Breathable Higher perm rates
About the Instructor About the Sponsor Seminar Discussion Forum Anti-Graffiti Coatings Choosing an Anti-Graffiti Coating Option The following is an example of a decision matrix with ratings, comments, and criteria for Permanent (Non Sacrificial) Anti Graffiti Coatings NextPrevious Inorganic Can be expensive Long term effectiveness (graffiti is easily removed after coating cures) UV Resistant Well ventilated areas (outdoors) Water Based Silicones Lack of breathability may cause peeling and premature failure if applied to porous substrates with a high moisture content Most give substrate a glossy surface Relatively expensive Smooth, resin rich surface hinders magic marker and spray paint graffiti Steel structures (rail cars, bridges, doors) Non ferrous metal and concrete substrates Polyurethanes Resists yellowing/aging Environmentally friendly Mold, mildew resistant Cost effective, easy to apply Damp climates Previously painted (and unpainted) substrates Cross Linking Copolymers Gives substrate glossy, wet finish Low permeability – breathability issues Can be expensive Chemically resistant Provides low adhesion for defacing materials Damp climatesWater Based Epoxy Silicones Expensive Is not compatible with existing coatings, bare steel, and damp substrates Breathable UV and chemically resistant Porous substrates (brick, block, concrete, stucco, wood) RTV Silicone Rubber TechniqueDisadvantages Ideal ConditionsAdvantages ©2014Slide 32 of 62
About the Instructor About the Sponsor Seminar Discussion Forum Anti-Graffiti Coatings Choosing an Anti-Graffiti Coating Option The following is an example of a decision matrix with ratings, comments, and criteria for Permanent (Non Sacrificial) Anti Graffiti Coatings NextPrevious Provides minimal and uncertain protection against graffiti Inexpensive Provides water repellency Porous bare surfaces Silicone Emulsions Expensive Combustible, generate flammable vapors Must be applied with brush, roller with no-atomizing spray Excellent graffiti protection Easy removal Bare concrete surfaces Fluorosilanes TechniqueDisadvantages Ideal ConditionsAdvantages ©2014Slide 33 of 62
About the Instructor About the Sponsor Seminar Discussion Forum Anti-Graffiti Coatings Choosing an Anti-Graffiti Option The following is an example of a decision matrix with ratings, comments, and criteria for Temporary (Sacrificial) Anti Graffiti Coatings NextPrevious Requires regular reapplicationCost effective Unobtrusive (provides clear film resistant to yellowing) Graffiti easily removed with hot water Fairly versatileWater Based Wax Coatings Contain starches which may render substrate sensitive to mildew growth and insect infestation, particularly in humid environments Requires reapplication Non toxic, biodegradable, environmentally friendly Expeditious Dry climatesWater Based Polysaccharides Requires reapplicationProvides substantial and durable barrier against graffiti Protects longer than most sacrificial graffiti coatings Exterior porous substrates (concrete, brick, stucco) Water Based Polymers DisadvantagesAdvantagesIdeal ConditionsTechnique ©2014Slide 34 of 62
About the Instructor About the Sponsor Seminar Discussion Forum Anti-Graffiti Coatings Cleaning Procedures Graffiti can be removed from sacrificial coatings using low-pressure hot water (180°F - 190°F) not exceeding 800 to 900 PSI. Surfaces should be cleaned from top to bottom allowing the temperature of the water to heat the wall and the pressure to carry away the graffiti defacement. All areas that have been stripped of their sacrificial coating should be noted and allowed to damp dry prior to reapplying a fresh sacrificial coating, slightly over- lapping the previously coated surfaces not removed by hot water blasting. For permanent coatings, graffiti should be removed using a manufacturer- approved cleaning solution. It is typically recommended that graffiti be removed within 2 to 3 weeks of tagging. Other methods of graffiti-removal, such as abrasive blasting may damage the anti-graffiti coating. NextPrevious ©2014Slide 35 of 62
About the Instructor About the Sponsor Seminar Discussion Forum Anti-Graffiti Coatings Coverage Rates Coverage rates will depend upon the whether the coating is permanent or sacrificial and the type and porosity of the substrate. Sacrificial coatings require 1 to 2 coats, while permanent coatings typically require 2 to 3 coats. The use of fluted or scored block, or raked joints will increase surface areas by 20% to 30% or more and decrease coverage rates. NextPrevious ©2014Slide 36 of 62 Type of Substrate Sacrificial (ft 2 /gallon) Permanent (ft 2 /gallon) Porous140-150 (1)200-300 Substrates200-300 (2)per coat Dense150-175 (1)250-400 Substrates250-300 (2)per coat Painted150-175 (1)275-325 Substrates250-300 (2)per coat
About the Instructor About the Sponsor Seminar Discussion Forum Anti-Graffiti Coatings Environmentally-Approved Products The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has established maximum volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions for anti-graffiti coatings at 600 grams per liter. Individual states can adopt EPA guidelines or establish their own, tougher VOC emission standards. Other VOC standards include the Ozone Transport Commission (OTC) for New England, Mid-Atlantic and Mid Western states, California Air Resources Board (CARB) in California and South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) in the Los Angeles area. In some cases, manufacturers of architectural coatings may exceed EPA guidelines by paying an "overage fee". However, the overage fee only relates to product activity in the state of manufacture & does allow for stocking, sale, or application of non- compliant coatings in other states. In some cases, the EPA, working with local and regional air emission boards, has fined not only the distributors and contractors that applied the coating, but also the architects who specified it. NextPrevious ©2014Slide 37 of 62
About the Instructor About the Sponsor Seminar Discussion Forum Anti-Graffiti Coatings Standards The graffiti-resistance of anti-graffiti coatings can be evaluated based on a series of laboratory tests conducted in accordance with ASTM D6578-00, "Standard Practice for Determination of Graffiti Resistance". Graffiti resistance is based on how a defined set of markings is removed by a defined set of cleaning agents. The test involves applying the anti-graffiti coating to aluminum panels, allowing it to dry as per manufacturer's recommendations, and then applying one of four common graffiti marking materials (solvent-based ink marker, solvent-based spray paint, water-based ink marker, or blue/black wax crayon) to the surface. The coating is considered "repellent" if the marking material does not "wet out" the test surface. If the material is not repellent, a series of cleaning agents are used to try to remove it, in order of increasing aggressiveness: dry cloth; mild detergent; citrus cleaner; isopropanol; and methyl ethyl ketone (MEK). PreviousNext ©2014Slide 38 of 62
About the Instructor About the Sponsor Seminar Discussion Forum Anti-Graffiti Coatings Standards The Cleanability Level of a particular anti-graffiti coating is determined by the agent that first removes the graffiti. For instance, a Cleanability Level 1 means that graffiti material can be removed with a dry cloth; Cleanability Level 2 means that graffiti material can be removed with a mild detergent, etc. Because the graffiti-resistance of a coating can change over time, the ASTM practice covers the evaluation of anti-graffiti coatings that are freshly applied, artificially weathered in a laboratory, and naturally weathered outdoors. When evaluating the performance of anti-graffiti coatings, more weight should be given to graffiti-resistance after natural weathering. Also, it is important to note that the tests are performed on a smooth surface and that the Cleanability Level of a coating will be affected by the roughness of the substrate. PreviousNext ©2014Slide 39 of 62
About the Instructor About the Sponsor Seminar Discussion Forum Anti-Graffiti Coatings NextPrevious Specifying Anti-Graffiti Coatings ©2014Slide 40 of 62
About the Instructor About the Sponsor Seminar Discussion Forum Anti-Graffiti Coatings Specifying Anti-Graffiti Coatings Part 1: General Application of anti-graffiti coatings should be performed by an experienced and manufacturer-approved applicator in strict accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations. At no time should the number of coats or coverage rate be less than that recommended by the manufacturer. Anti-graffiti coatings should be delivered to the job site in the manufacturer's original containers, with seals unbroken. Containers should be properly labeled. All materials should be kept protected from the elements and stored in their original, unopened containers in order to prevent contamination by foreign materials. In climates where freezing temperatures have existed prior to application, allow adequate time for surfaces to thaw. PreviousNext ©2014Slide 41 of 62
About the Instructor About the Sponsor Seminar Discussion Forum Anti-Graffiti Coatings Specifying Anti-Graffiti Coatings Part 2: Products A first coat application of a water repellant coating is recommended for all new unpainted masonry and concrete surfaces in order to enhance the long-term performance of permanent and sacrificial anti-graffiti coatings. Specify a product compatible with the selected anti-graffiti coating. Only specify anti-graffiti coatings that are VOC-compliant for where the project is located, do not increase substrate flammability, and will not support the growth of mildew, mold, fungus, or bacteria. Require the contractor to supply a sufficient amount of manufacturer-approved cleaning agent to the client upon job completion. It is important to specify coatings that are versatile (i.e. can be applied over paint and can be painted over), non-yellowing, and low-sheen (minimizes changes to surface appearance). Ensure that the coating will not leave a shadow after cleaning and that Cleanability Levels meet project requirements. ©2014Slide 42 of 62
About the Instructor About the Sponsor Seminar Discussion Forum Anti-Graffiti Coatings Specifying Anti-Graffiti Coatings Part 3: Execution Remove all surface contamination using high-pressure water, chemical cleaning, abrasive blasting, or mechanical methods, such as wire brushing, scraping or sanding, to remove any coatings, grime, dirt, oils, efflorescence, alkali, acid residue, or chalk, that may impair the adhesion of the anti-graffiti coating. All surfaces to be coated shall be structurally sound, clean and dry. Repair all cracks, voids, defects, and damaged surfaces using the proper materials prior to applying the anti-graffiti coating. Always apply material to a mock wall, test panel, test wall, or actual surface area to determine acceptable color, surface porosity, application rates and application methods prior to starting general application. All test or sample surfaces should be approved prior to general application. PreviousNext ©2014Slide 43 of 62
About the Instructor About the Sponsor Seminar Discussion Forum Anti-Graffiti Coatings Specifying Anti-Graffiti Coatings Part 3: Execution Cont'd… New masonry, stucco and concrete surfaces should be allowed to cure for 30 days to neutralize alkalinity and release residual moisture. Freshly painted surfaces should be allowed to fully cure according to the paint manufacturer’s recommendations prior to the application of the anti-graffiti coating. Follow manufacturers instructions to achieve a uniform, pinhole-free, continuous film. Allow coating to dry and become clear before applying subsequent coats. Do not apply to surfaces below 45°F or above 90°F. Do not apply in direct sun, or windy weather, or if relative humidity is greater than 80%. Anti-graffiti coatings provide a maintenance-free surface. Lightly sprayed water is typically sufficient to clean the surface of any dust or dirt accumulation. Light brushing of the surface with a soft bristle brush is acceptable, however chemical washing should not be conducted without manufacturer's approval. PreviousNext ©2014Slide 44 of 62
About the Instructor About the Sponsor Seminar Discussion Forum Anti-Graffiti Coatings Additional Resources If you require additional information on graffiti prevention and the use of anti-graffiti coatings, please visit: ASTM International www.astm.org www.astm.org Society for Protective Coatings www.sspc.org www.sspc.org Graffiti Resource Council www.anti-graffiti.org Graffiti Hurts www.graffitihurts.org NextPrevious ©2014Slide 45 of 62
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