Water Supply & Sanitation Lifestyle Archaeological finds
Archaeological Finds Archealogical finds encompassed body remains found both in Pompeii and Herculaneum Estelle Lazer and Dr. Sarah Bisel are two archaeologists who studied the body remains at both Pompeii and Herculaneum Examining Health through body remains is key to unlocking vital information in concerns with people’s lives. Dr. S. Bisel Dr. E. Lazer Plaster casts
Dr. Sara Bisel Is a Classic archaeologist and anthropologist contributed to unlocking information about body remains in Herculaneum. She explained “with exposure came quick deterioration” Bisel revealed in her findings that a lack of children's bones was a cause of low fertility rates or they decayed quicker due to being smaller. Her dental studies found that teeth in body remains were quite good due to a high seafood diet which incorporated calcium, however gum disease was present. Worn teeth probably from grindstone in the bread they ate. Bones that were studied show some lead poisoning possibly from the lead pipes caused death as well. Other uses of lead through her studies include medication e.g to treat bleeding, whiten skin, treatment of ulcers and wounds, Her studies stated that high levels of nourishment and was a good indicator for a good diet (height of bones) Consumption of animal protein while others had high levels of Strontium and other fluorides in their diets indicating diets of vegetable protein and seafood. Her examinations on body remains is significant for Pompeii and Herculaneum's inhabitants and their health.
Estelle Lazer Lazer’s research included statistical studies based on skulls, hips, pelivs, legs, arm bones to established the makeup of the population. Through techniques of forensic medicine, physical anthropology used to determine sex, age of death height signs of disease and population affinities of the victims Her work in Sydney 31 st of October 1994 was the cast of a body from an early exhibition from Pompeii. The “Lady of Oplontis” was studied by a multidisciplinary team of radiologists, anatomists and a forensic dentist. Her studies indicated that 11% of examined bodies showed Hormonal disease, HFI, hereditary fructose intolerance. Her studies also indicated that main cause of death was asphyxiation or thermal shock
The Lady of Oplontis X ray was performed on 31 st October 1994 in Sydney, was the first ever analysis of the victim of the eruption. A cast was made from transparent epoxy resin for the purpose of visual inspection and associated artefacts including a gold bracelet on the arm of the victim. No signs of dental or medical intervention. All teeth were erupted and roots were complete. A healed fracture could be observed in the left radius, consistent with having fallen on an outstretched hand. Studies shown that the bone had healed with some irregularity and slight arthritic change
Plaster Casts Using the method developed by Giuseppe Fiorelli from 1863, plaster was poured into cavities at pressure forming statue like moulds of the dead body positions. Poses of the casts reveal manner of death and time taken. Photographer Peter Baxter took 41 complete casts revealing half of frozen positions consistent of the puglistic pose from exposure to extremely high temperatures at time of death. Transparent epoxy resin cast now replaces normal plaster for this produce to examine in further detail the archeaological evidence for enhanced source study. Plaster casts
Citizen Lifestyle Citizen lifestyle of Pompeii and Herculaneum encompassed sport, food and dining. Citizens would produce and eat their own food including olives, wine, garum, grapes, peaches, wheat, barley, and live stock including lamb, fish, scallops and cockle. Produce was sold in markets and also exported. People would exercise and compete at the Palaestra Diet and sport has played a major role in the health of Pompeii and Herculaneum's inhabitants Palaestras Food & Dining Organic Remains
Food & Dining 200 public eating and drinking places have been identified in Pompeii. A Thermopolium was a common place for a snack. It had marble cover counter in a large dolia holding hot food and drinks Bars and taverns well also located and identified but were clustered near entrance gates and amphitheatres for regular business. Many Pompeiians may have been heavy drinkers due to graffiti inscribing “ cheers! we drink like wineskins” “once a man drinks thereafter all is in confusion” Bakeries were also common. Over 30 bakeries have been located in Pompeii and ovens and carbonized bread still stands today. Most had 3 meals a day. Breakfast, lunch and dinner accompanied by copious amounts of wine and desert either sweet (cake) or savoury (pickled onions) People would cook their own food on a tripod heated with fire or pay local people who owned ovens to cook it for them. At dinner parties people would eat lying down and be arranged in hierarchical order at the table. It is believed that the citizens had a highly balanced diet with the natural resources that were available during the time affecting their good health.
Palaestra’s The ‘Palaestra’ was the place for exercise and encompassed physical facilities to achieve health. The importance of sport can be gauged by the size of the main Palaestra. The large Palaestra in Pompeii was 107 by 141 metre rectangle, The Herculaneum palaestra was 110 metres and a depth of 70. Palaestra had activities including athletics, wrestling, javelin and discus throwing which meant the colonnaded space was large enough for such activities. Both Palaestra in both towns had pools. The Herculaneum pool were shaped like a cross, 50metres in length and cross arm was 30 Both Palaestra's featured statues of young men and the ideal body. Through evidence the palaestra played a vital role within the health of citizens in everyday life.
Organic Remains Archaeological evidence suggests that the inhabitants of Pompeii and Herculaneum had a well balanced and highly Nutritious diet. Towns grew most of the produce Many organic materials were carbonized including dates, figs, prunes, almonds, chestnuts, olives, myrtle berry and whole loaves of bread. 3 sources of food remains were examined: waste from food preparation, waste from latrines and remains of burnt sacrificial offerings found in the garden. Such remains included olive stones, peach stones, fish bones, sheep, pig and cattle bones Through the findings is based the theory that citizens ate a wide variety of food and also held many occupations that it’s prime focus was for produce and edible resources. Farming was a primary occupation This illustrates that organic material gives insight of the health of Pompeii and Herculaneum's inhabitants Carbonized bread Carbonized nuts Carbonized Pomegranate
Water Supply Water supply was a main necessity in citizen life of Pompeii and Herculaneum. Citizens accessed water from numerous points within the town including water fountains, fulleries Public/Private Latrines and sewerage systems. Water came from the Aqua Augusta into water reservoir called the Castellum, which split the water supply into 3. Then gravity fed into pipes that served the towns water for pubic and private use. 1.Baths and private homes, 2.cisterns and public fountains, 3.latrines. Level of sanitation was high, water availability and cleanliness contributed to the factor latrines fountainsbaths
Public & Private Latrines Public latrines/toilets or foricae (top left) were provided publicly at the Forum and the Palaestra. Toilets were continually flushed then waste would travel in underground pipes and sewerage systems out to the river (Pompeii) or the ocean (Herculaneum) Private toilets were commonly found in houses (both bottom left, Villa Oplonti). They were flushed with either hand or continual with piped aquaducts to house. toilets often near kitchen sharing same pipeline. Toilets up to six seaters Cantranella and Jacobelli state “The latrines annexed to the thermal baths in Pompeii a certain aesthetic quality.” These photographs of latrines illustrates how human excrement was deposited depicting high levels of sanitation Public latrines Private latrines (middle & bottom)
Drinking Fountains fountains were a main source of drinking water. There are public fountains in the streets of both towns. Pompeii has 42 excavated fountains and Herculaneum only has revealed 3. Water flowed out through decorative spout as revealed in picture (bottom right). And travel through pipeline underground. The House of Octavius Quartio extensively featured all range of waterworks including spouting jets, gushing waterfalls, channels, pools and nymphaeums. Fountains were either accompanied with mosaics, engravings or decorative carvings to ornament the feature With numerous drinking fountains located, it illustrates how citizens access to water was copious in order to maintain their good lifestyle of health. Private fountain, Herculaneum Public fountain, Pompeii Fresco in fountain
Visiting the Baths in Pompeii & Herculaneum Visiting the baths or thermae was common in Pompeii and Herculaneum. Usually opened around midday Baths were a place for relaxing, socialising and leisure There were 5 stages that citizens followed in the baths Baths found in Pompeii included Stabian bath (oldest), the forum baths, central baths and Sarno Baths while in Herculaneum there are Suburban Baths and forum baths Private baths were uncommon but were present featured in the house of Julia Felix who ran a small private bath Citizens brought their slaves to perform certain tasks including skin scraping and carrying clothes Often baths were decorated with elegant stucco work, mosaics and graffiti with a marine theme (top right and bottom left) Baths located in Pompeii and Herculaneum demonstrate the cleanliness and overall health of both towns Floor mosaic Decorative wallsShelves in Apodyteruim Apodyterium
5 Stages of the Baths The first stage of the bath began in the changeroom (apodyterium) where clothes were kept on shelves. The bather would then enter the hot room (caldarium) a vaulted steamer to 40 degrees. Then the bather would go into the sweating room (Iaconium). Then the bather would travel into the normal room (tepidarium ) which was used as a transition space for adjusting temperatures. Then the bather would finish off into a cold circular bath (frigidarium) which would cool off the remaining temperature and close up the open skin pores. A Frigidarium An Apodyterium A Heating system in the Thermae
Relaxation, Socialising & Leisure Activities People would play sport, indulge in a range of therapies such as massage, stroll in the gardens, listen to music, recite poetry and have sexual activity Multiple forms of pornographic graffiti would have stimulated men to perform sexual activity at the baths A graffito describes Apelles, a waiter dining ‘ most pleasantly with Dexter and the slave of Caesar’ Gladiatorial games were popular as entertainment, and as a political tool. Roman game balls used for Harpatsum