Presentation on theme: "Apprenticeships in Bricklaying in Germany and England: A case study"— Presentation transcript:
1Apprenticeships in Bricklaying in Germany and England: A case study Michaela Brockmann, University of WestminsterLinda Clarke, University of WestminsterChristopher Winch, King’s College LondonTUC, November 2010
2The Research:Nuffield study: Cross-national equivalence of vocational qualifications and skillsCross-national: England, Germany, Netherlands, FranceCase-study approach: bricklaying, lorry-driving, software engineering, nursingLeonardo-da-Vinci: Bricklaying qualifications, work and VET in EuropeExamines bricklaying qualifications in 8 European countriesDeveloping a framework for the comparative assessmentAssessing possibilities and problems concerning the implementation of EQF/ECVET
3Occupational vs Skill-based VET systems statutory frameworksocial partnershiprecognised qualificationscomprehensive nationally recognised VET programmesmulti-dimensional competence‘occupational capacity’occupational knowledgegeneral and civic educationSkill-based:weak statutory frameworkmarginalisation of stakeholder interestsnarrow skills sets, remedial functional skillsfunctionalist-behavourist conception of competenceminimal underpinning knowledgeneglect of general and civic education
5Place, scope of bricklaying in England 1.9m employed in construction; c.100,000 bricklayers (11% of skilled construction tradespersons)Trade – not occupation, tools of trade, employed by LOSC, often self-employed, lack of stability, loss of status, usually paid according to price i.e. secondary not occupational labour marketFragmented nature of social partners: dominance of trade associations, VET employer-led, little trade union (UCATT) involvementOften narrow activities, especially housebuilding, but changing →increasing need for versatility (e.g. stone, concrete); glue instead of mortar + machinesHigh degree informal learning + acquiring NVQ through OSAT → Need for more comprehensive VET as not reflecting changing labour process; what is bricklayer?
6Nature of Bricklaying VET in England Traditional trade-based VET: 21% first year construction trainees = bricklayersPredominantly NVQ2: 11% construction trainees = Level 3, 60% Level 2, 17% Level, little permeability or progressionApprenticeships: 4,831 bricklaying in England, c45% construction trainees but declining, 83% Level 2, c. 2 years, trade specific; college day release; 5x more apprentice applicants than places; fixed CITB apprentice grant partly through levyExclusion of trade unions and FE sector though FE colleges key providers (Diplomas + work experience); divide between FE and industryTraining variable standard & narrow, high drop out rateConforming to particular labour market segment →too narrow, unrelated to other occupations, not geared to development of individual or changing labour process
7Definitions: English bricklaying trade Weak VET, intellectual function separated from manual, → weak occupational statusSkills = physical and mental dexterity to perform employer-defined tasks in work process, acquired through traditional apprenticeship, learning mainly on job with little theoretical underpinningCompetences confined to narrow trade skills required to produce given outputRegulation and Currency: CSCS registration but difference between collectively agreed, qualification and pay levelsScope defined by employer/trade associations, little involvement of TUs & educationalists,
8The English bricklaying qualification NVQ Level 2Mandatory:Conform to general workplace safetyConform to efficient work practicesMove and handle resourcesErect masonry structuresSet out masonry structureOptional:Erect masonry claddingLay domestic drainageErect thin joint masonry structurePlace and finish non-specialist concretePlaster and render surfacesMaintain slate and tile roofingRepair and maintain masonry structures
9The English bricklaying qualification (2) NVQ Level 2‘Erect masonry structures’Scope of performance:Interpreting information such as drawingsComplying with relevant legislationSelecting resources for the workComplying with organisational procedures, including maintaining a clean work environment and waste disposalCarrying out the work: measuring, marking out; laying; position and securing; using tools and equipment; erecting masonry in brick and block)Knowledge and Understanding: (factual and procedural)Relevant legislation and proceduresKnowledge of materials, components and equipmentKnowledge of methods, calculating quantities, lengths, etc.Application of knowledge to methods of work (e.g. erecting walling, laying blocks, mixing mortar)
10English bricklaying VET/apprenticeship NVQs:Utilitarian, task-specific, based on the performance of tasks/skillsAccumulation of skills rather than holistic competence developmentThe role of knowledgeMinimal, underpinning specific tasks, captured by the notion of skills‘anti-learning culture’ of disaffected young people‘you gain knowledge to be able to do the role that you are employed to do’ (CECA representative)The move to NVQs has involved ironing out the ‘nice to know but not necessary to know’ (ConstructionSkills representative)‘why disaffect them and give them an additional hour in the classroom’ (college representative commenting on introduction of IT)
11Nature of Bricklaying VET in Germany Social partnership model of regulation, including assessment3-year dual system apprenticeship level 3+; high success rate (77%; 92% inc. second attempt)comprehensive training; college + workshop + workplace; no modular structure; ‘step-wise’ (Stufenausbildung)qualification in one of 3 sub-sectors after 2 years (Hochbau, Tiefbau, Ausbau)occupational qualification after 3 yearscomprehensive mapping of occupations onto sector → occupational qualifications (Beruf Construction: 14 Berufe) → occupational labour market i.e. importance of qualification for labour market entry (82% of bricklayers have qualification)graded wage structure (6 levels) linked to qualification levels and hence collective bargaining system
12German bricklaying apprenticeship ‘Occupational capacity’: as Beruf strong social identityVET as the continuation of education (compulsory education leaving age of 18)Handlungskompetenz‘the ability and readiness of the individual to act adequately and in a socially- and individually-responsible way in occupational as well as in social and private situations’Comprises occupational, personal and social dimensionsAutonomy: planning, carrying out, evaluation
13German bricklaying apprenticeship Content:industrial knowledge (labour law, materials, health & safety, environmental protection)occupational knowledge and skills (building technology, technical drawing)general and civic education (economics, politics, German, sports)Broad scope of activity:Core units include: laying bricks, specialist masonry, concreting, formwork, rendering, cladding, plastering, insulation, surveying, renovation, planning (reading drawings, setting out, assessing and ordering materials), quality control.
14Definitions: German Maurer Beruf Formally recognised social category i .e. close relationship between occupation and social statusRegulated VET and qualifications, promotion, theoretical & practical knowledge necessary to undertake defined and broad range activitiesHolistic and multi-dimensional competences linked to developing individual capacity and changes in labour processSystematised combination of knowledge, skills and competence i.e. uniting intellectual and manualScope determined by social partnersLink between occupational qualification and recognition through collective bargainingLink between occupations and education →mapping occupations onto sectoral structure
15Conclusions 1: the qualifications skills-based (level 2)task-specific, employer-definedminimal educational inputnot a precondition for labour market entryoccupational (level 3)notion of competence developmentrecognised entry route to the labour market
16Conclusions 2: Scope of the occupation skills-basedrestricted range of tasks, focussed on outputs and performancebricklaying as a tradeoccupationalbroad range of activitiesfocus on the independent planning, execution and evaluation of tasks
17Conclusions 3: Future Trends Overall stability of European Construction workforce (Cedefop 2010).Stability in demand for intermediate levels of know-how over this period.
18Conclusions 4: Important Developments However, the stability of demand for intermediate level qualifications masks one important trend: -The increasing importance of self and project management and communication abilities for construction workers over this period (Danish Technological Institute 2008)