3Videos: Smarthistory: Art History at Khan Academy Raphael, School of Athens (12:29)https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zpLEUF8qS3oColumbia University’s Art Humanities Series: Masterpieces of Western ArtRaphael's Fresco of the School of Athens (18:04)https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uOrG6jfBzEU
5Simple perspectiveInvention of Giotto di Bondone ( ), a fresco painterbetween the Gothic and Renaissance periodsThis technique overlaps objects to imply distance
6Two major artistic innovations of the Renaissance ATOMOSPHERIC &LINEAR PERSPECTIVEImproved NATURALISM in two-dimensional artallowed artists to create a convincing representation of real space within a landscape scenequickly adopted by artists, who to developed increasingly true-to-life forms using these techniques
7Linear perspectiveFlorentine architect Filippo Brunelleschi ( ) invented itAlso known as SINGLE VANISHING POINT PERSPECTIVERenaissance painter Masaccio ( first applied this in art (seen here in The Trinity)Even though northern Renaissance painters learned this approach, they used it in a different mannerLines converge towards one or more vanishing points on a real or imaginary horizon
8ATMOSPHERIC or AERIAL PERSPECTIVE the technique of suggesting depth as in one’s actual visual perceptionby depicting distant objects in softer focus, hazywith less detail and paler colors.
9BRUNELLESCHI invents LINEAR PERSPECTIVE Filippo Brunelleschi (1377–1446)Builder of the dome of the Duomo in Florencethe inventor oflinear perspective in the Renaissance
10BRUNELLESCHI develops LINEAR PERSPECTIVE inspired by the study of ancient texts, esp. those describing mathematical laws byEuclidPtolemyUsing theoretical manuscripts, and perhaps through the process of attempting to sketch ancient ruins in Rome accurately, Brunelleschi developed the elements of linear perspective:horizon line,vanishing point, andorthogonal lines
11Brunelleschi’s Linear Perspective mathematical system used toorganize an image anddetermine the relative scale of objects within it.
12Brunelleschi’s Linear Perspective HORIZON LINEto mark the location of the horizon in the distance of the image.VANISHING POINT on the HORIZON LINEUsually at the center of the horizonThe ideal point of viewORTHOGONAL LINESseries of diagonal linesfrom the edges of the picture to the vanishing point.The resulting grid becamethe underlying organizational structure of the image, andthe scale of all of the details within the work was then determined by that grid.
13Brunelleschi’s Experiment: About 1420a visual demonstration of the linear perspective concept,illustrated that it could indeedrecreate a perfect image of real, three-dimensional spaceon a two-dimensional surface.
14Brunelleschi’s Experiment: Brunelleschi painted an image (now lost) of the piazza of the Baptistery of Florence using his linear perspective system.He drilled a hole in the center of the panel at the vanishing point.Then positioned a viewer at the same location within the piazza from which he had painted the scene.FIRST:hold up the painting,turn it to face the Baptistery, andlook through the drilled hole at the back.
15Brunelleschi’s Experiment: Next:hold a mirror up in front of the painting.see Brunelleschi’s painting reflected in the mirror, andthen drop the mirror and see the actual piazza view through the drilled hole.In comparing the two, the viewer was convinced of the accuracy of the image and thus Brunelleschi’s method.
16Brunelleschi’s Experiment Linear Perspective: Brunelleschi's Experiment from Khan Academy (4:15)SmartHistory:YouTube: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bkNMM8uiMwwBEST ONE: Episode 3 - POINT OF VIEW: Scientific Imagination in the Renaissance from James Burke’s series, THE DAY THE UNIVERSE CHANGED
17Alberti: On Paintng (1436)Brunelleschi was the first to demonstrate the principles of linear perspective,it was not formally systematized untilLeon Battista Alberti (1404–72)wrote On Painting in 1436effectively an artists’ manual explaining the process
18ATMOSPHERIC PERSPECTIVE a.k.a.: aerial perspectivethe technique of suggesting depthby depicting distant objects in softer focus,with less detail and paler colors.visually recreates the optical reality we experiencewhen we see a distant view,where light is scattered across a vista by naturally occurring particles in the air,such as smoke and water vapor.
19ART VOCABULARY: Sfumato : (noun) - from the Latin (via Italian) fumare ("to smoke"),used to denote a painting technique.Sfumato means that there are no harsh outlines present (as in a coloring book). Areas blend into one another through miniscule brushstrokes, which makes for a rather hazy, albeit more realistic, depiction of light and color.An early, wonderful example of sfumato can be seen in Leonardo‘s Mona Lisa
20ATMOSPHERIC PERSPECTIVE particularly effective in landscape views,where an artist wants to show a deep recession into space.While linear perspectiverelies on orthogonal lines to achieve this effect,in atmospheric perspectivethe presentation is subtler and less precisely measured.
21ATMOSPHERIC PERSPECTIVE seen in some ancient frescos, such aslandscape scenes from Pompeii,but it was first widely used in paintings duringthe early Northern Renaissancein the fifteenth century
22ATMOSPHERIC PERSPECTIVE Descriptions and explanations of the technique were written during this period by artists such asLeon Battista Alberti andLeonardo da Vinci.
23FRESCO PAINTING a major element of Italian Renaissance art, particularly in its early phase.Fresco is a type of mural or wall paintingin which the artist paints directly onto a wet plaster wall.As the fresco dries, the pigment becomes embedded into the fabric of the wall, thus creating an extremely durable and long-lasting image.
24FRESCO PAINTING Method used since antiquity. Examples from Greek art, the Minoan periodon the island of Crete,Palace at Knossos was decorated with fresco.
25FRESCO PAINTINGThe Romans embellished their domestic architecture with this technique,and many frescoes may be found in ancient caves, palaces, and temples in India and Mexico.
26FRESCO PAINTING In more recent times, fresco was used by the Mexican Muralists andby American artists working for the Works Progress Administration during the 1920s and 30s. (Everett & Rivera)
27TRUE FRESCO: BUON FRESCO ORIGIN & NAMEfrom the Italian word “fresco,” meaning “fresh.”BUON FRESCO or TRUE FRESCO = The basic process
28TRUE FRESCO: BUON FRESCO STEPS:The entire wall is roughly plastered and prepared for painting.The artist sketches an image directly onto this under layer or may transfer a full-scale preparatory cartoon of the work to the wall.The lines of the sketch are pricked with holes.The sketch is held against the wall, and a bag of chalk or ash (the SPOLVERO is hit along the drawing, leaving a line of dots on the wall which will serve as a design guide for the artist.
29TRUE FRESCO: BUON FRESCO THE INTONACO:Each day, before work on the painting is undertaken, a thin layer of fine wet lime plaster, called the INTONACO, is applied to the wall in the area that will be worked for the day.THE GIORNATA:This area is known as the GIORNATA or “day’s work,” and pigment that has been mixed with water is painted into this layer during the course of the painting session.
30TRUE FRESCO: BUON FRESCO A major challenge = the painting area must be completed before the giornata area has dried.Only then will the pigment become fully set into the wall.If the giornata is not completed in time, or if any mistakes are made, the area must be scraped clean and the process repeated.
31fresco à secco, or “dry fresco” Another fresco technique whichinvolves painting onto the surface of a dry plaster wall.does not exhibit the same durability as true fresco,as the pigments do not bind to the wall in the same way.Both techniques were used during the Renaissance period,often in conjunction with each other in the same painting.
32Watch 10:13 – 13:09Columbia University’s Art Humanities Series: Masterpieces of Western ArtRaphael's Fresco of the School of Athens (18:04)https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uOrG6jfBzEU
33Raphael: Biography and Artistic Career Raffaello Sanzio da Urbinowas born on April 6 or March 28, 1483.into an artistic familyHis father, Giovanni Santi, was a painter in the court of Federico da Montefeltro, the Duke of Urbino.
34Raphael formal artistic career began at age twelvein the workshop of Perugino.He left Urbino to work in Florence in 1504,where he painted many of his famous Virgin and Child imagesreceived a variety of commissions for altar paintings and portraits.
35Called to Rome by the Pope by Pope Julius IIin 1508to help decorate the Pope’s private apartments at the Vatican.Raphael ultimately completed a number of works at the Vatican andundertook many other projects for private patrons in Rome as well.
36Succeeded Bramante as Vatican Architect Raphael worked as an architect, designing churches, mansions, and palaces.He succeeded Donato Bramante as chief architect of the Vatican in 1514.He is known for various works in tapestry as well as drawing and printmaking.
37Died in 1520 became unexpectedly ill in late March of 1520, and Died April 6th, 1520 , fifteen days later,only thirty-seven years oldhis artistic status, already well established in his lifetime, only continued to grow after his death.Today he is considered one of the most important artists of the Italian Renaissance.
38The School of Athens: Analysis Went to Rome at the behest of Pope Julius II,to assist in the redecoration of the papal apartments at the Vatican.For Pope Julius II,who ruled the Church from 1503– 13,had moved his private quarters within the Vatican palace to new rooms in November of 1507.Many artists contributed to the redecoration of these spaces, andFor Pope Leo Xafter Julius’ death in 1513.Raphael’s contribution to the project was finally completed in 1524, after the artist’sown death in 1520.
39The School of Athens: Analysis The School of Athens is one of four frescoes Raphael created for this chamberThe chamber is known today as the Stanza della Segnatura,But it was Julius’s personal library at the time the frescos were commissioned
40The School of Athens: Analysis Vasari identified the room as the Stanza della Segnatura in his Lives becauseby the 1540s, when he was writing his history of Renaissance art, it was the room where the Pope signed important documents.*This point is an important one because in order to understand the meaning of the fresco cycle, it is necessary to understand how the space was used when the paintings were conceived.In the early 1500s when Raphael began the decorations, the room held Julius’s personal library.
41LATER:The Stanza della Segnatura THEN: Julius II’s personal library
42Four Frescos for Julius’s Library Books organized intofour groups,according to the main branches of human knowledge recognized at that time.The frescoescorrespond to these four categories andare placed above the appropriate portion of the book collection.In this way, the books and frescos together sum up Western learning as it was known in the Renaissance.
43Four Frescos for Julius’s Library On the longer walls of the rectilinear space, which held the bulk of the texts, were the larger frescosPhilosophy andTheology,The shorter walls presentedPoetry andLaw.
44Four Frescos for Julius’s Library These titles were used by Raphael to identify the works, but today we know the paintings by different names:Law is now Jurisprudence,Poetry is Parnassus,Theology is The Disputa, andPhilosophy is The School of Athens.
49The “Famous Men” Prototype All of the frescos present scenes based on the “Famous Men” (uomini famosi) prototype.This type of gathering,which echoes contemporary sacra conversazione or “sacred conversation” altarpieces,displays a group of important individuals together within a unified space.
50The “Famous Men” Prototype The uomini famosi modelwould have been familiar to Raphael,as it was typical for library decoration at the time.Two Renaissance examples in particular may have been known to him:the Duke of Urbino’s Studiolo (in Urbino, Raphael’s birthplace) andthe Collegio del Cambio in Perugia (which he may have helped Perugino to paint).
51The “Famous Men” Prototype the Duke of Urbino’s Studiolothe Collegio del Cambio in Perugia (These examples similarly show a grouping of individuals, and in each case, the men stand plainly in view, labeled with their names for easy identification.
52Raphael Transforms the Model his images instead present figures in dynamic conversation with each other.Their poses are lively, andtheir interactions suggest individual personalities and manners.
53Raphael Transforms the Model also avoided identifying notations, and soleaves the work of identifying the figures up to the viewer.We assume that Raphael’s patron would have given specific instructionsas to the iconography of these paintings,including lists of the figures to illustrate.The way in which Raphael was able to enliven this fairly straightforward directive is a true testament tohis artistic skill andindicates a highly sophisticated and educated audience.
54The School of Athens the most famous of the frescos. illustrates a plazafilled with all of the known philosophers and scientists of the ancient world—the men whose wisdom was rediscovered throughout the Renaissance.The architectural space is clearly classical in inspiration.Above are a series of three massive, coffered barrel vaultsthat echo the ruined ancient baths and basilicas that were still visible in the heart of Rome..
55The School of AthensThe plaza is decorated with classical statuary, including flanking colossal figures ofApollo, patron god of the artsAthena, patron goddess of wisdom.
56The School of AthensThe architecture is clearly organized using linear perspective.Orthogonal lines run throughthe vaulting as well asthe stonework of the flooring.
57The School of Athens Raphael also employed atmospheric perspective, which can be seen in the gradual lightening of the blue in the sky as the space recedes.
58The School of Athens Within this vast and beautiful space are gathered dozens of figures,each presented as an individual character with hisphysical features,costuming, andposture.Many are in concentrated and energetic conversation,while others appear more pensive and psychologically isolated within the space.
59The School of AthensAt the center of the assembly, and at the epicenter of the fresco, we seePlatoAristotle.clearly silhouetted against the sky in the distancethe vanishing point of the composition is located between their heads.
60The School of Athens Plato is on the left, bald and with a long gray beard.Holds his book, Timaeus, in his left hand,points upward with his right.
61The School of Athens Aristotle is on the left darker hair and beard, holds his own Ethics in his left hand, andgestures, hand flattened and palm downward, with his right.
62The School of AthensThese distinct motions indicate divergent perspectives,one heavenly andthe other worldly,which can be seen to sum up the philosophical ideas of the two men.
63The School of AthensArranged in a large, elliptical form around the central figures are other important classical thinkers.to the left with Platophilosophers concerned with the ultimate mysteries transcending this world areon the right with Aristotle:those concerned with nature and the affairs of men
64The School of AthensIt is believed that each figure represents a specific individual, though there is much debate regarding who each one might be.Some generally accepted identifications include Socrates,who is seen in the group at the base of the Apollo statue to the left.He ticks points off on his fingers as he defends an argument to the figures around him—enacting the Socratic method of learning.
65The School of AthensIn the right foreground, Euclid is seen holding calipers and demonstrating a theorem for a group of students.Each member of the group illustrates a different moment of coming to an under-standing of the mathema-tician’s instruction—their gestures and facial expressions show that each is at a different phase of the process.
66The School of AthensPythagoras is seated and writing at the lower left while a young figure holds up an image of a harmonic scale.
67The School of AthensThe Cynic philosopher Diogenes is seen sprawled on the steps toward the center of the painting.
68The School of AthensAnother important aspect of the fresco is that it is believed that Raphael included a number of his contemporaries in the painting.For example, it has been suggested that the Euclid figure is a portrait of the architect Bramante.
69The School of AthensIn the right foreground, Euclid is seen holding calipers and demonstrating a theorem for a group of students.Each member of the group illustrates a different moment of coming to an under-standing of the mathema-tician’s instruction—their gestures and facial expressions show that each is at a different phase of the process.
70The School of AthensThe foreground figure, who glumly rests his head on his hand in the traditional pose of melancholy, is possibly a representation of Raphael’s contemporary, Michelangelo, in the guise of the philosopher Heraclitus.
71The School of AthensAt the extreme right, we see a self-portrait of the artist, who looks directly out at the viewer (as he would have done in looking at himself in a mirror to create the likeness).
72The School of AthensThis inclusion of contemporary thinkers in the form of their classical precursors is an extremely elegant illustration of the Renaissance itself.Overall, the School of Athens is one of the most significant frescoes of the era.It not only demonstrates the high level of technical skill and aesthetic beauty we have come to expect from art of this period,but it also sums up, in so many aspects of its visual and conceptual form, the most important ideas of the age.
74WHO’S WHO? 11: Parmenides 12: Socrates 13: Heraclitus (Michelangelo) According to Michael Lahanas in his book The School of Athens, “Who is Who?” Puzzle they are usually identified as follows:1: Zeno of Citium2: Epicurus3: Federico II of Mantua4: Anicius Manlius Severinus Boethius or Anaximander or Empedocles 5: Averroes6: Pythagoras7: Alcibiades or Alexander the Great?8: Antisthenes or Xenophon9: Hypatia (Francesco Maria della Rovere)10: Aeschines or Xenophon11: Parmenides12: Socrates13: Heraclitus (Michelangelo)14: Plato (Leonardo da Vinci)15: Aristotle16: Diogenes17: Plotinus or Michelangelo18: Euclid or Archimedes with students (Bramante)19: Zoroaster20: Ptolemy R: Apelles (Raphael)21: Protogenes (Il Sodoma, Perugino, or Timoteo Viti)11: Parmenides12: Socrates13: Heraclitus (Michelangelo)14: Plato (Leonardo da Vinci)15: Aristotle16: Diogenes17: Plotinus or Michelangelo18: Euclid or Archimedes with students (Bramante)19: Zoroaster20: Ptolemy R: Apelles (Raphael)21: Protogenes (Il Sodoma, Perugino, or Timoteo Viti)
75Videos: Smarthistory: Art History at Khan Academy Raphael, School of Athens (12:29)https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zpLEUF8qS3oColumbia University’s Art Humanities Series: Masterpieces of Western ArtRaphael's Fresco of the School of Athens (18:04)https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uOrG6jfBzEU