2 TIMELINE YUAN DYNASTY 1260-1368 CE MING DYNASTY 1368-1644 CE NEOLITHIC CHINA C BCESHANG DYNASTY BCEZHOU DYNASTY BCEQIN Dynasty BCEHAN Dynasty 206 BCE-CE 221SUI DYNASTY CETANG Dynasty CEFIVE DYNASTIES CELIAO DYNASTY CESONG DYNASTIES CENorthern SONGSouthern SONGYUAN DYNASTY CEMING DYNASTY CEQING DYNASTY CE
3 Circular Hut, Banpo Village Neolithic Period (YANGSHAO) 5000-1700 BCE Tregear #2Reconstruction of a circular hut of the type excavated at Banpo, Shaanxi.The huts were constructed on a system of posts, for which the holes have been found.It is thought that the walls and roofs were of wattle and thatch.Trenching pounded earth (the flooring) easy to brush away.KILN AREA // DITCH //1. Sloping entrance2. Plastered or daubed interior partition3. Central fire pit4. Plaster floor or bare earth.5. Let stalks reeds clay5. Straw thatch6. Brushwood7. A Rectangular pit house8. A Round hut9. A Wattle and Daub Construction10. Vines and saplings woven between supporting poles with mud applied to create a protected place.
4 Painted pottery Basin from Banpo, Neolithic Period (YANGSHAO) 5000-1700 BCE Tregear # 4Painted pottery culturesUsually buff to reddish clay with black painted decoration. / Large use of “SLIP” liquefied clay, very typical of this type of this period.Probably of a symbolic significance, which can only be guessed at today, the fish and the human head with 3 pointed ‘halo’ motifs of Banpo move slowly towards abstraction. This movement from representation to abstraction is repeated in much of the other Painted Pottery decoration of north China. It can be seen, for instance, in the flower motifs of Henan.Here the sinuous movement of the motif complements the profile of the pot in a way, which makes it clear that it was deliberately chosen by the decorator.
5 Burnished Black Pottery Beaker, Neolithic Period (Longshan) 5000-1700BCE Tregear # 7Black burnished pottery;There is no painting involved;Tall beaker of thin burnished black pottery. A shape which is unique to the eastern area of the Black Pottery culture.From Weifang, Shandong. 3rd or early 2nd millennium BC.LONGSHAN artists seem to focus on the tactile aspect.It is a very fine wear, for some kind of religious ritual;The shapes are very refined;2 or 3 pieces would be added to become one long piece;
6 Bronze GU (goblet) Shang Dynasty 1766-1111 BCE Tregear # 14High –footed goblet, “GU”- Cast bronze. This trumpet-mouthed shape is a wine-drinking vessel; the hollow foot reaches up to the central zone. The rising blades are of cicada motif. 14th-13th C. BC.GU is a tall, trumpet-shaped vessel is a drinking cup, used for hot wine. Trumpet shape Siqueira design usually.
7 Bronze Ding (cauldron) Shang Dynasty 1766-1111 BCE Tregear # 15It is a square or rectangular container on four legs used for cooking, usually many bosses.It looks like a barbecue set in old times.DING = a four-legged vessel. Cast bronze. The human mask motif may refer to human sacrifice, but this vessel bears an inscription “large grain”.The simplification of the surrounds and the enlarged flanges point to a late Shang date.From Ningxian, Henan. 14th-12th C. BC.
8 JUE- 3-Legged Vessel for Heating Wine Cast Bronze, Shang Dynasty 1766-1111 BCE Tregear # 38It is a 3 legged vessel for heating wine. Cast bronze. This shape is unique to the Shang period although it is a development of a Neolithic Black Pottery shape. 13th-12th C. BC.It is an awkward, spindly wine vessel; used for serving heated wine in rituals, like a decanter of these days, but in bronze.
9 Bronze Yu (bucket) (Early) Zhou Dynasty 1111-221 BCE Tregear # 25Bucket with swinging handle, YU.Cast bronze.A piece showing some of the exaggeration characteristic of the early ZHOU period.The hooked and upswept flanges give a new profile to the vessel, although the decoration is still completely traditional.12th-11th C. BC.
10 bronze Yu (bucket) in form of a monster (Late) Shang Dynasty 1766-1111 BCE Tregear # 18It is a Bucket with swinging handle, YU. Cast bronze.The monster with terrified human being embodies much of the late Shang style.The elaborate surface decoration includes KUI, felines and serpents; a small deer forms the knob.Much use is made of leiwen to enrich the surface. 11th C. BC.
11 Bronze Ding (Early) Zhou Dynasty 1111-221 BCE Tregear # 27 (wrong image, couldn’t find legs one)3 legged vessel with cover, DING. Cast Bronze.The cover can be reversed to make a bowl.At this period elegance of form demanded subordination of the decoration, which is here abstract, with a quatrefoil motif in the centre of the cover.6th C. BC.
12 Funerary Banner, Mawangdui tombs (Han Dynasty) 206 BCE- CE 221 Tregear #40A symbolic painting found on the coffin of the lady portrayed in the center of the banner. Mid-2nd C. BC. 3 world levels…1.TOP- Sky world with mythical inhabitants;2.MIDDLE- Earth world with the marquise & female attendants;3.BOTTOM- Neither world with groupings of ritual vessels + mourners;
13 Funerary Banner (detail), Mawangdui tombs (Han Dynasty) 206 BCE- CE 221 Tregear #41Lower portion of the banner. The style of painting in sinuous line and rich colour is probably close to the style of finer contemporary works on fabric, none of which have so far been found.The murky underworld or sea is again represented by mythological scenes.The sinuous line of serpentine dragons, entwined in the jade ring (BI) and encircling the humans, seems to link this composition to CHU art of a century earlier.However, the treatment of the humans and of the mythological scenes is conceived in the “new style”, in which painting unites the real and the imaginary worlds.The juxtaposition of real and imaginary, first seen in the Shang bronzes, is characteristic of the HAN period.
14 Battle Scene (rubbing), Wu Family Shrine (Han Dynasty) 206 BCE- CE 221 Tregear #44Rubbing of a stone relief from the WU LIANGZI shrine, Shandong.This section shows a battle scene on a bridge over a river.The scattered surface composition reads from the base line upwards. AD
15 Incense burner in form of a mountain, Mancheng tombs (Han Dynasty) 206 BCE- CE 221 Tregear #51Incense burner in the form of a mountain.Cast bronze with gold and silver inlays.The cover is pierced so that the incense smoke wreathes out.Small animals and humans wander amongst the peaks.It is from the tomb of Prince LIU SHENG. Mancheng, HEBEI. Late 2nd C. BC.
16 Lamp in form of a girl, Mancheng tombs (Han Dynasty) 206 BCE- CE 221 Tregear #52Gilt bronze oil lamp in the form of a kneeling servant girl.Her right arm and sleeve form the chimney of the lamp, and the cylinder around the wick revolves to allow the light to be directed.From the tomb of Princess DOU WAN, Mancheng, HEBEI.2nd C. BC.
17 “Flying” Horse (Han Dynasty) 206 BCE- CE 221 Tregear #54It is a cast bronze figure of a horse with one foot poised on a flying swallow.This famous piece comes from GANSU and represents a lively tradition of horse models in the area.HAN.
18 Detail from Murals in Tomb Chamber of Yong Tai near Chang-an (Tang Dynasty) CE 618-906 Tregear #65Detail from the murals in the tomb chamber of Princess Yong Tai, near Chang’an.A serene expression of gentle movement now complements the traditional linking of figures by facial expression and gesture.There is here a real representation of space and volume on the ground plane and around each figure.Dated 706.
19 Emperor Ming Huang Travelling in Shu color on silk (Tang Dynasty) 618-906 Tregear #68The Emperor MING Huang Travelling in SHU.Colour on silk.The picture reads from left to right and falls into 3 episodes.It is executed in the style of idyllic landscape painting of the Tang Dynasty.Later copy of 8th C. original.
20 Colossal Amitabha Buddha (Sui Dynasty) CE 581-618 Tregear #70Colossal standing Amitabha Buddha.Marble sculpture in the calm style of Sui.The Buddha is now much more fully clothed, and the treatment of the folds and threads of the drapery has become an important part of the sculptor’s expression of form.From Hebei. Dated 585.Turbulent movement in sculpture.
21 Rubbing of Princess Yong Tai tomb, Chang’an (Tang Dynasty) CE 618-906 Tregear #78Rubbing of incised decoration from the sarcophagus of the Princess Yong Tai tomb, Chang’an.This carving indicates the style of figure painting in the 8th C. : a flowing line and simple composition expressing both space and volume. Dated 706.
22 Ceramic figure of a Camel (Tang Dynasty) CE 618-906 Tregear #86Tomb model of a saddled camel. Cream, green and yellow glazes over a white earthenware body.Such models of animals, servants, entertainers and household goods were produced in quantity in the 8th C.Cast from moulds and assembled in sections, they achieve many lively poses.
23 “Traveling in Streams and Mountains” (by FAN KUAN) Northern Song Dynasty CE 960-1279 Tregear #90*HE DISCRIBED clearly the landscape, you can enter the landscape painting.*The horses are passing at the bottom of the piece.*There is a great space in between, all white to give a distance to the back ground.*There is some architecture in the end it is probably a Buddhist temple.*Pure nature at the top.*It’s were we go when we are completely evolved.*It has to be realism.*The begin to follow a guide book, and there are many books.*If it’s a pine tree, it has to have a specific look.* It has to be described in a certain way.
24 Early Spring (by GUO XI) hanging scroll Northern Song Dynasty CE 960-1279 Tregear #91About 50 years later, Guo X painted Early Spring.This artist also painted at court, by now that of the Northern Song at Kaifeng.He was not only a court painter – which implied portraiture, decoration and religious painting – but also the head of the Imperial Academy.He must, therefore, have been an artist of considerable standing amongst his contemporaries.There are, indeed, records which confirm that he was a good painter in many fields, who painted landscapes for his own satisfaction.Few of his works have survived, and of these EARLY SPRING is probably the best known.
25 “On a Mountain Path in Spring” (by MA YUAN) SOUTHERN SONG DYNASTY CE 1128-1279 Tregear #101Ink & light color on silk.An album leaf in which MA YUAN uses surface compositional devices close to HUI ZONG but adds the illusion of space and depth with the hill to the left and the flying bird.
26 MU-QI Persimmons (Ink on Paper) Southern Song Dynasty CE 1128-1279 Tregear #104This small painting epitomizes the CHAN ideal with its subtle evocation of colour in tone and its witty brushwork.
27 Wandering in the Fuchun Mountains (by HUANG GONGWANG) Yuan Dynasty CE 1260-1368 Tregear #112Hand scroll, ink on paper, 1350.Comparison both with the early masters whom Huang admired and with the contemporary paintings by ZHAO MENGFU and QIAN XUAN show the strength of this master’s work.
28 The Rongxi Studio (by NI ZAN) Yuan Dynasty CE 1260-1368 Tregear #114NI ZANcame from a comfortably well-off family which owned a fine house and a famous library.He was an educated man who chose not to take up the office for which he would have been fitted.During the period of national troubles, both taxation and local unrest hit his family and eventually he sold up the family estate and, to avoid having to submit to the local ruler, he and his wife lived on a boat on the lakes.It seems that his highly personal landscapes, variations on the same lakeside subject, date from this period.His vision is one of calm waters and of uninhabited land in a silvery light.Painted in light ink on paper, Ni Zan’s paintings are executed with light, staccato brushwork and in a very narrow range of tone.The artist has a sure eye for expressing space across water.He uses a vertical hanging scroll format and he is the finest exponent of the “stretched” composition: whereas the 11th C. landscape painter bound his painting to the edges of the fame and related one eye level to another by interlocking units within the composition.Ni Zan and other 14th C. painters expanded the space between these units, daring almost to split the composition horizontally, but trying it by the use of vertical elements, such as tall tree in the foreground, to unite the surfice.
29 Imperial Palace, Forbidden City, Beijing (Ming-Qing Dynasty) 15th-17th cen. CE Tregear #120General view of one of the inner courtyards of the Palace. 15th C. foundation.The grand plan includes ceremonial, religious, administrative & domestic quarters.
30 Temple of Heaven, Beijing (Ming Dynasty) CE 1368-1644 (15th cen.) Tregear #122This circular building with violet-blue tiled roof and brilliantly painted woodwork faces the Altar of Heaven at which the Emperor performed seasonal rituals.Late Qing period.
31 Marble Camels on the Spirit Way to Ming Tombs of Nanjing (Ming) 1369-1644 Tregear #124It is a road flanked by animal sculpture which leads to the Ming tombs at Nanjing.The first two Ming emperors were buried at Nanjing, where the tomb site, though similar, is smaller than that at Beijing.
32 Returning Home at Evening (by DAI JIN) Ming Dynasty CE 1368-1644 Tregear #125It is a hanging scroll, ink & slight colour on silk.The scale of this large painting imparts a new dimension to a brush style which is clearly related to the 13th C. BC.
33 Fishing Boat by a Willow Bank (by QUI YING) Ming Dynasty CE 1368-1644 Tregear #130Colour on silk.Using a high view and delicate composition, the artist achieves a most poetic and decorative effect.
34 Autumn Landscape (by KUN CAN) Qing Dynasty CE 1644-1911 Tregear #139Obs. Couldn't find right pictureInk and slight colour on paper.The atmospheric effect of the distance is enhanced by the colour.The 3rd of the Individualist painters was Kun Can, also a monk about whom very little is known, and from whose work only a few landscapes and album leaves survive.His compositions tend to be sprawling and anecdotal.The structure does not have any of the tightness of other classic style painters,
35 Kazaks Presenting Horses to Emperor (by LANG SHINING / CASTIGLIONE) Qing Dynasty CE 1644-1911 Tregear #147Kazaks Presenting Tribute Horses to the Qian Long Emperor (detail). Handscroll, ink and color on paper. Another example of court taste, with its mixture of European and Chinese styles.His drawing, however, was Italian, as was his use of color, light and shade, modelling and linear perspective, all of which seemed exotic and fascinating to the Chinese. His style became popular at court and was adopted by several Chinese painters. The result was a new “realism” in painting which was at odds with all that Shi Tao, Badashanren or the Four Wangs stood for. Nevertheless, this type of realism become rooted I Chinese tradition and it further generated a school of decorative painting in the 18th & 19th C.Outside courts circles, life was rich and independent in spirit. In flourishing dstricts such as Yangzhou, Suzhou and Nanjing, artists and craftsmen found a ready market. A group of overtly commercially-minded painters, who were yet of the educated class, made their appearance in these centers. Advertising their work for sale and producing considerable quantities of small paintings, they made a good living from their work. These artists were grouped under the name of Eccentrics and were at some pains to create a memorable personal style. Although none of them was of the stature of Shi Tao or Badashanren, they were all to some extent innovators. Mei Qing ( ) was a friend and admirer of Shi Tao.
36 NEOLITHIC CHINAPaleolithic = survival consumed all the time and effort of early humans in China. They did not make pottery. Until 5000 BCE fundamental life-style changes began occurringNeolithic = Agricultural settlements develop along YELLOW RIVER. Hunters and fishermen became farmers. Production of ART. 3 Styles: 1. Painted style, 2. Black burnished style, 3. Rough gray wareYellow River = Is the mother river of China, the China’s sorrow. Agricultural development started by this river in the Neolithic Period of ChinaYangshao = One Neolithic cultural designation in Northwest China. It is a general term used for the painted pottery cultures. Decoration importance.Banpo = It was a circular village or rectangular. Ceramic were typified by red pottery with black slip decoration. Vessels are buff colored clay body with black decoration. Motifs: fish, masks or human face, geometric designLongshan = 2nd Phase of Neolithic Culture. The Black Pottery period. No painting. Focused on the tactile aspect of the ceramics. Shapes importance.Xia Period = This was the time were legendary people teaches other people to do agriculture, ceramics, architecture. Discoveries since 1920s seem to verify its existence
37 SHANG DYNASTY – 1766=1111 BCE Erlitou = Shang = Dynasty divided into 3 phases: 1.Erlitou Phase 1600 BCE; 2.Zhengzhou Phase BCE; 3. Anyang Phase BCE. Writing develops during the ShangErlitou =Early Shang Dynasty Phase ca BCE(Erlitou Phase)Tianming =the principle that Heaven decides who will rule on earthOracle =Bones, shamans tried to read the signs of nature to help direct king. Oracle Bones were used by the Shang royalty in consulting their oracles.I Ching =an ancient Chinese book of divination, in which 64 pairs of trigrams are shown with various interpretations.Piece-mold =method was the technique for casting these vesselsHorror vacui =bold relief decorations, space-filling conventions, sensibility operating hereSplayed figure =most frequent conventions it is divided in half lengthwiseTaotie =seems to be a mask or face of a mythical animalKui =are small “dragons”; they are two-legged animals with snout, ears, tailLeiwen =is a spiral, called the “thunder spiral”Liding =3 legged vessel for cooking and/or for heating wineGu =tall, trumpet-shaped vessel is a drinking cup, used for hot wineJue =awkward, spindly wine vessel; used for serving heated wine in ritualsDing =square or rectangular containers on 4 legs were used for cookingGui =used for storing foods (either liquid or solid)Zun =a vessel with the shape of a vaseGuang =container made of bronze, used for wine storage and serving
38 ZHOU DYNASTY – 1111-221 BCE Early Western ZHOU = Late Eastern ZHOU = The Classical age – Fundamentals of Chinese civilization were formed. From mixed agricultural-hunting society to an organized urban and feudal state. They lived to the west of the Shang, with a capital in Shaanxi province. They conquered the Shang (771 BCE)Early Western ZHOU =Moved the capital to Henan province. Thus divided the dynasty into Early + Late. Established feudal duchies that gained autonomy with decentralized powerLate Eastern ZHOU =During the 6th C. BCE 6 states warred over supremacy – QIN, CHU, ZAN, ZHAO, WEI + HAN.“The Warring States Period”YU = EarlyA bucket, which includes a handle – dynamic and complex shape in traditional bronze vessel – strong, blunt force to the Zhou pieces. Yu the same shape – a couple of centuries later – outline of vessels have simplified greatly, as has surface decorationHU =(vase) with bird on lid; this period saw development of sculpture in the round“Late ZHOU hook” =Another motif spiral with tightly raised curl at terminationBELLS =As early as the Shang dynasty both north and south China produced BELLSMIRRORS =Many mirrors have been found in late Zhou tombsJADE =Most precious and meaningful green stone of all materials to the ChinesePI =Jade carved in the form of a flat Disk and is decorated with the celestial dragon
39 QIN DYNASTY 221-206 BCE SIDDHARTHA = The original name of Buddha PYTHAGORAS =a Greek philosopher and mathematician, known for the Pythagorean Theorem, about the relationship between the sides of a triangle which has one angle of 90 degreesCONFUCIUS = a philosopher that defined political + familial relationships – code of ethics – excellence is a matter of right conduct that can be learned – education men were best hope for stable government - “golden rule” one should treat inferiors in the same way that one would like to be treated by your superiors. It became a systemLAOZI =founded the Taoism, a nature philosophyTAO DE JING =Book of the Way and Its PowerYIN/YANG =Concentrates on man in scheme of nature, esp. forcesTAOISM =meant to put humans in harmony with the natural order. In the Han dynasty it turned into a religionTAO =Laozi founded Taoism, Called “TAO” a nature philosophyQIN =Dynasty BCERuled by Shi Huang DiSHI HUANG DI =Zheng, the Qin ruler, declared himself 1st emperor. Unified politics, very repressive. Standardized writing style. Bureaucratic regime.XI’AN =Capital of Shaanxi province ( BCE) – discovered in 1974; one of the greatest archeological discoveries in history - Tomb protected by 7,000 terra-cotta soldiersTHE GREAT WALL =Begun 214 BCE; it eventually extended about 1500 miles – besides keeping out barbarians, it could keep in rebels
40 HAN Dynasty 206 BCE-CE 221 HAN = Emperor GOA ZU = SILK ROAD = Dynasty 206 BCE The victor in the struggle after Shi Huang Di’s death was Goa ZuEmperor GOA ZU =He was a peasant from Han River valley; the dynasty took this as its name . Confucianism was established as official ideologySILK ROAD =The Han rule established a trading route that linked east and westWANG MANG =4 Centuries of Han rule were interrupted about midpoint by a brief usurpation – this was achieved by himDAI =(201 BC-200 BC) Died in her 50’s – personal name XIN ZhuiTombs, Han objects furnished elaborate shaft and chamberMAWANGDUI =A tomb was found at this place in 1971, near Changsha in Hunan province. It had been made for the wife of the Marquise of Dai.MARQUISE of DAI =The Emperor’s Wife, she was found intact in her tomb, an amassing archeological achievementMANCHENG TOMB =The tombs of Prince Liu Sheng and his wife Dou Wan were found in 1968.Objects found: 1. Jade Burial Suit; 2. Lamp in the Form of a Kneeling Girl; 3. Censer (incense burner); 4. Rubbing from Wu Liangzi Shrine; 5. Flying HorseLIU SHENG =A son of Emperor Jing Di. A prince born in CHANG’AN in 113 BC from the Han Dynasty, his tomb was found in 1968 in the Mancheng Tomb.DOU WAN =The wife of Prince Liu Sheng. Her tomb was in the same location at Mancheng Tombs, Hebei. Her body was encased in a jade burial suitCENSER =(incense burner) late 2nd C. BCE bronze with gold/silver inlay. It represents a mountain, and the smoke makes a pattern of a dragon. It is all about nature.RUBBINGS =Paint or graphite smudged on the walls, making murals in the path of the Mancheng Tombs halls.WU LIANGZI =It is a famous Shrine or a temple in Shandong CE – a rubbing of stone reliefs in the Wu Family tomb or shrine, paying homage to the emperor, also the site is with his nameHIERATIC SCALE =The use of different size for significant or holy figures and those of the everyday world to indicate importance; the larger the figure; the greater the importance
41 NORTHERN & SOUTHERN Dynasties 219-580 CE NORTHERN WEI =North was overrun by non-Chinese nomads called Toba TartarsSplit into 3:WEI/ SHU/ WUSIX DYNASTIES =“Age of Fragmentation” 6 Chinese dynasties during the periods of the Three Kingdoms ( AD), JIN Dynasty ( ), & Southern and Northern Dynasties ( ).This era immediately followed the fall of the HAN Dynasty in 220 AD, and was an era of disunity, instability and warfare. The era ended when Emperor Wen of Sui reunified S. & N. China (The Sui Dynasty began).WESTERN JIN =A REGIME IN THE 3RD C. THE COUNTRY WAS SPLIT INTO 3.AND it was united under an ineffective regimeYUNGANG =Is a site about 10 miles west of WEI capital, a series of rock-cut templesTHERAVADA BUDDHISM =Lesser vehicle – more suited to monastic life – one strives to be an ARHAT = perfect saint; practices self denialARHAT =practices self denialMAHAYANA BUDDHISM =Ultimately triumphs over Theravada BuddhismBODHISATTVA =The protector of Buddha.Delays entry into Nirvana to help others.Opposite to ARHAT
42 = the personification of the cosmos SUI Dynasty CE (sway)Sui = CE (pronounced: sway) YANG CHIEN, the “EMPEROR OF WEN”, REUNITED CHINA. - N. Barbarians were absorbed into the culture; Buddhism flourishedLONGMEN CAVES =there are 97,000 figures in 1,352 caves. The grottoes and niches of LONGMEN contain the largest + most impressive collection of Chinese ART of the late N. WEI + TANG Dynasties – BUDDHIST RELIGION - (It represents the high point of Chinese stone carving.)VAIROCANA BUDDHA= the personification of the cosmos
43 TANG Dynasty CETANG = The 7th + 8th C. alliances + military made the Tang empire the largest on earth; known for its aristocratic culture. Objects on the tombs give us an idea of the beauty of TANGS arts.LI YUAN = Declared himself emperor in 618. The succeeding TANG emperors were capable and enlightenedPRINCESS YONG TAI = was the granddaughter of TANG Emperor Gaozong + his wife Empress Wu Zetian. High level ceramic industry production.PORCELAIN = a powder granite rock made into a clay, terra coda form. Used for ceramic production of fine upper class sophisticated ceremony.CELADON = (ceramics)-(gray-green) glaze was developedXING ware = it is a porcelain + a glaze. To finish the refined piece.RUBBING = smudging, penetrating the wall deeply.SARCOPHAGUS = A decorated stone box for a dead body, used in ancient times + sometimes displayed as a monument.COLORED GLAZES = A liquid that is put on clay pots, + dried in hot ovens, in order to give shine surface.
44 Northern & Southern SONG Dynasty 960-1279 CE Northern Song =A Dynasty ( ); Southern Song led by ZHAO KUANG YIN: a powerful leadership reestablished.Southern Song =( ) – Led by ZHAO KUANG YIN: a powerful leader, he was reestablished.Chan =Buddhism School notable for its emphasis on Dharma practiceBodhidharma =Attempted to return to what Buddha had taughtCourtly Mode =Governmental or works of literatiMonumental Mode =Early great landscapesLyric Mode =Evocative and emotional paintingSpontaneous Mode =Extreme radical brush workHUI ZONG =( ) was the 8th most famous emperor. Luxurious life, tragic death. Jurchens of the JIN dynasty invaded.FAN KUAN =He was a landscape excellent painter, of 10th & 11th C. Li Cheng follower. “Nature is a true teacher” Recluse painter in the rugged Qiantang mountains of Shanxi.GUO XI =Painter: “Early Spring” – N. Song 11th C. hanging scroll – not structured nature, but a poetic suggestion of natureDING WARE =This white porcelain with incised or impressed designs.Cizhou ware =Ceramics, developed in the Song period. 11th-12th C. Known for its kilnsHANGZHOU =A capital at the time, it moved to Beijing later. 4th largest metropolis area nationallyMA YUAN =S. SONG 13th C.- referred to as “one corner MA” because center of interest is off to one side – this is the hallmark of the LYRIC MODE = asymmetric balance / tensionsSU DONGPO =Was a writer, poet, artist, calligrapher, pharmacologist, and statesman of the Song DynastyXIA GUI =2nd master of the lyric mode. Asymmetrical style at it’s best.MU QI =He was a monk; Greatest practitioner of the “SPONTANEOUS MODE”- an abbreviated technique: rapid, calligraphic brushwork.
45 YUAN Dynasty CEMONGOLS = hordes conquered China in 1279; they were led by GENGHIS KHANGENGHIS KHAN = Mongol ruler that conquered China in The fearsome Mongolian warrior of the 13th C.KUBLAI KHAN = The son of Genghis Khan. He was the great Khan of mongolia 1260, Emperor of China The Mongol Empire incorporated China to Persia, Russia to PolandMARCO POLO = A famous visitor, world traveler, merchant from Venice, Italy. Which recorded in “Livres des merveilles du monde”, a book which did much to introduce Europeans to Central Asia and China. FRA MAURO MAPQIAN XUAN = (Artist0 – “Squirrel on a Peach Bough” 12th C. – washes of color indicate formsHUANG GONGWANG = (Artist) – “Wandering in the Fuchun Mountains” 14th C. – He was one of the founders of new school of literati painting. – less emphasis on detail, more generalitiesNI ZAN = (Artist) – “The Rongxi Studio” 14th C. – 30” hanging scroll. – Large amount of white paper shows implied purity. He used his brush marks marks very sparely.WANG MENG = (Artist) – “Thatched Hills on Mount Tai” 14th C. – He reminds us that nature can unkempt as well as vast and ordered
46 MING Dynasty CEHONGWU = founding of Ming dynasty was under a peasant-born Chinese HongwuDAI JIN = (Artist) – “Returning Home at Evening” 15th C. – Founded the Zhe School, a group of professional / court paintersWEN ZHENGMING = (Artist) – “Lofty Leisure Beneath a Sheer Cliff” 16th C. – later Ming painting ( ) is mostly by members of scholarly class. He experimented color, realisticallyQIU YING = (Artist) – “Fishing Boat by a Willow Bank” 16th C. – The professional painters, very traditionalDONG QICHANG = (Landscape Artist) – 17th C. “Autumn Mountains” – He wrote a book on Chinese painting “HUASHUO”(TALKING OF PAINTING) – This book defined aesthetic thinking about Chinese painting. He established historic + stylistic periods.TALKING of PAINTING = A book by Dong Qichang. It defined aesthetic thinking about Chinese painting. He established historic + stylistic period.
47 QING Dynasty CEMANZHOUS (Manchus)= A group of people, another period when a foreign dynasty rules China. They didn’t so much take over as “liberate” China from MingZHU DA= (Artist) – “Landscape in Manner of Dong Yuan” 17thC. - A Chan Buddhist, painted in an individualistic styleGENRE= Type of style (everyday life)SHI TAO = (Artist) “The Peach Blossom Spring” 17th C. He used color in his landscape and GENRE (everyday life) scenesFORBIDDEN CITY= A walled enclosure of central Beijing, containing the palaces of 24 emperors in the Ming and Qing dynasties.KUN CAN= (Artist) – “Autumn Landscape” 17th C. – Admired for his effects of transitory light, i.e., by depicting sunsets in colorWANG YUANQI= (Artist) – View of Mount Hua” 17th C. – It represents conservative style of Qing dynasty.Was an Italian Jesuit trained as a painter in Italy. One of several European people in the Qing court.LANG SHINING (Castiglione) =18th C.PAGODA= The only distinctly Buddhist type of building. A temple complexFENGSHUI= a system of laws considered to govern spatial arrangement and orientation in relation to the flow of energy, and whose favorable or unfavorable effects are taken into account when sitting and designing buildingsCHANG’AN = The Capital of Shaanxi province, in Central China: a capital under the HAN and Tang. Ancient Chinese empire, it was the departure city of the SILK ROAD to the west.TEMPLE of HEAVEN=The emperor of Ming and Qing Dynasties visited the temple yearly in a ceremony to the gods.Taoist temple- (a combination of Confucianism & Buddhism)
48 CHINESE ARCHITECTUREPAGODA = The Main Feature of a Temple Complex. A variation of the Tower (like Indian SHIKHARA)FUJIAN CLAN HOUSES = in South-Western + Guangdong Province. Like a village, fortress-like, self-sufficient. Rectilinear or Circular Structures. 13th C. or earlier, until today. 3 Stories high, it holds 200 or more members. Made of clay.BRACKETING SYSTEMS = the length of the building could be extended easily “curtain walls”. Horizontal Axis- a characteristic emphasis on the width of the buildings. Bilateral symmetry – equal number of units on both sides from the center. Hipped roof – 4 sloping sides (cantilevered overhangs).HIERARCHICAL ARRANGEMENT = Taking in consideration tribal origins, following a tradition of other Dynasties and past cultures. Love the tribe form of architecture.SKY WELL = Large open courtyards in the center of a building. Usually in the Southern buildingsCOURTYARD HOUSES = Siheyyuan, most famously in Beijing. It is a quadrangle surrounded by a building, used for palaces, temples, private homes with a sky well in the center.CURTAIN WALLS = system is an outer covering of a building in which the outer walls are non-structural, but merely keep the weather out and the occupants in. Lightweight material.GEOMANCY = practice of architectural orientation developed into a complex set of concepts called (fengshui)HIERARCHICAL = a system of organization in which people or things are divided into levels of importanceBILATERAL SYMMETRY = the typical rectilinear plan consists of a center unit flanked by an equal number of units on either side of the center thus creating a symmetrical overall schemeJIAN = bay – a modular unit or space, defined by columnsHIPPED ROOF = roof that has 4 sloping sidesFENGSHUI = (Wind + Water) belief is adhered to based traditional symbolic referencesCANTILEVER = Eaves that are with four sloping sides characterized in Chinese Style Indigenous hierarchical arrangementHORIZONTAL AXIS = a characteristic emphasis on the width of the buildingsENCLOSURE = creation of private space (emphasis on interior spaces)
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