Introduction 1) Naturally available material - Clay /earth/soil -Wood/Timber -Sand/Fine aggregate -Rock 2) Artificial materials cement, brick, steel, tiles, ceramic, paints and varnishes glass, plastic, stone, lime.
Properties of material Toughness Strength Compressive strength it is a mechanical property of material. The ability of a material to withstand stress due to compressive forces on it, without fracture is called compressive strength force/load force/load Plasticity, Elasticity, Stiffness, Ductility, Fatigue, Creep, Mach inability. Cast ability,Workability,Malleability,Brittleness,Heat capacity,Specific heat,Thermal conductivity,Permeability,Coercive force,hysteresis
Requirements of stone 1)Structure: they may be crystalline or amorphous. Unstratified rocks are good as building stones. 2) Appearance-colour texture: stones of light shades may be preferred to dark coloured stones. Red and brown coloured. 3)weight: light weight stones are preferred for domes and arches. 4) Fitness of grains : non- crystalline stones are difficult to handle and liable to be disigntegrated. 5) durability: stone must have the property to resist loads, chemical action of atmosphere,rain,water,snow etc.
Types of stone: The stones are obtained from various rocks. The types of rocks are as below. Rocks may be classified on the basis of geological formation are types of stones Igneous rocks Sedimentary rocks Metamorphic rocks
Uses of stones In foundations, walls, columns, arches, blocks etc. In hydraulic structures like dams and bridges. In retaining wall masonry to retain soil. As ballast for permanent way in railways. To make concrete in the form of coarse aggregate.
Properties of stones Hard and durable Marble and quartzite have compact crystalline structure. Acid resistance Compressive strength. Importance of stones. In masonry In wall In natural beds with horizontal direction.
Brick Bricks are rectangular blocks made from clay. Composition of brick: The clay should be free from pebbles, gravel, alkalies, organic matter, vegetation and iron pyrites. 20 – 30%Alumina 50 – 60 %Silica <5 %Lime 0.1%Magnesia 5 – 6 %Iron oxide
Requirements of bricks Colour of brick is red copper and uniform. Edges should be sharp. Free form organic matter, salts,etc. There should be metallic ringing sound. Importance of bricks For walls of various building construction. Brick flooring provides skid resistance with economy. Used in lintel and column construction also they are light in weight. Clay products,hence eco friendly,cheap and easily available.
Types of bricks (1) Conventional / Traditional bricks: Size: 23 cm X 11.4 cm X 7.6 cm (2) Standard / Modular : Size : 19 cm X 9 cm X 9 cm Bricks are classified as per manufacturing: (1) Hand moulded (ground or table moulded) (2) Machine moulded (wire cut) Bricks are classified as per quality and utility: (1)1 st class (grade A) (2) 2 nd class (grade B) (3) 3 rd class (grade C) (4) 4 th class (grade D)
Uses of brick Bricks are used in wall masonry construction of building. Bricks are used in brick lintel construction. Bats of bricks are used in concrete in foundation work.
Properties of Bricks Properties of brick Physical mechanical thermal Durability Shape size colour density porosity compressive flexural water strength strength absorption heat sound insulation insulation
Requirements of good lime: -Not contain impurities. -Provide good plasticity and workability. -Set easily. -Moisture resistant. -Slake easily with water. -Low shrinkage. -Lime possesses good plasticity. -Good workability. -Good adhesion with masonry. -Stiffens quickly. -Good resistance to moisture. -Low shrinkage. Properties of lime
Types of lime Hydraulic lime Fat lime Poor lime Importance of lime Lime is a cementing material. Lime provides a cheap and a reliable alternative to cement. Lime is used to bind sand to prepare lime mortar for masonry work. Lime is important to prepare B.B.L.C.(bricks bats lime concrete)for foundation of buildings.
Uses of lime -Lime is used in the treatment of water and wastewater. -It is used in the manufacture of glass, refractory, sand lime bricks and paints. -It is used as lime mortar for masonry work of buildings. -It is used for plastering and white washing of buildings. -It is used as lime concrete to make water proof structures.
Cement is a product obtained by burning a well proportioned mixture of siliceous(containing silica), argillaceous(containing alumina) and calcareous (containing lime) materials and crushing the same into grey colour fine powder. Ingredients of cement SilicaProvides strength LimeProvides strength AluminaMakes the cement quick setting Iron oxideProvides colour, hardness and strength MagnesiaProvides hardness and colour Calcium sulphate(gypsum)Increase the initial setting time
Manufacturing of cement For manufacturing there are two method 1)Dry process 2)Wet process Stages 1)Mixing of raw materials 2)Burning in rotary kiln 3)Grinding in boll mill and tube mill 4)Packing in jute or gunny bags 5)Storage
Requirements of cement Found cool when touched by hand. Fine powder form while checking with first finger and thumb. Types of cement 1)Normal setting or ordinary Portland cement(opc). 2)Rapid hardening Portland cement. 3)Quick setting cement. 4)Pozzuolana Portland cement(PPC) 5)Low heat cement 6)Blast furnace cement 7)white cement 8)Sulphate resisting cement 9)Coloured cement
Uses of cement Used to prepare cement mortar for building construction works like masonry, plaster,painting, flooring etc.
Setting of cement Hardening of cement is different than setting of cement. Time required for setting depends upon: 1)Temperature 2)Percentage of water added 3)Humidity of the atmosphere initial setting time of cement shall not be less than 30 to 60 minutes and final setting time shall not be more than 10 hours. Importance of cement -An important binding material. -Binds fine and coarse aggregates to prepare cement concrete. -Cement mortar fill joints of bricks and stones in wall masonry construction. -On smooth and rough plaster painting work is easier and economical.
Requirements of metal: -Provide sufficient strength to bear the loads coming on them. -Provide resistance to corrosion and weather actions. -Provide resistance to fire and heat. -Good adhesion with cement concrete.. Types of Iron: -Hematite(red oxide) -Magnetite(black Oxide) -Siderite(carbonate) -Limonite(brown hematite) -Pyrite(sulphide)
Metals will be grouped in the following two categories: 1) ferrous metals: They contain iron as main constituent types : 1)pig iron 2)cast iron 3)Wrought iron 4)steel 2) non- ferrous metals: They not contain iron as main constituent. Types of metals
Importance of metal Metals are obtained from Fe. Iron is the most popular metal and it has been used in construction. Used in galvanizing and to make pipes. The strength and life of building depend upon stability and durability of R.C.C. structures. in bridge metals used in large way
Ceramic is a material consisting of components of metallic and non-metallic elements.
Requirement of ceramic Provide resistance to stains. Easy to clean. Non- slippary while wet. Durable. Easy to handle and not so heavy in weight. Properties of ceramic Ceramics are hard, strong and dense material. Low ductility. Good resistance to corrosion. Stable in environment Electric insulators.
Types of ceramics crystalline Non-crystalline Glass-bonded Single phase ( MgO, CaO ) Binary phase (FeO-MgO) Ternary phase These are natural and synthetic inorganic glasses. The crystalline phase are held in glassy matrix.
Uses of ceramics Bricks Tiles Pipes Chimney Insulators Dental implants Cement Radar domes Transmitter Optical equipments
Importance of ceramic Cement- a ceramic material is widely used in building construction. Glass- a ceramic material is used as shelves, decorative articles,etc is important building material. Transparent ceramics provide visibility in case of door, window glass in various building for inhabitants. The water and waste water pipes and fittings are important in building construction. The maintained clean surface of ceramics are giving new look at every instance.
TIMBER Timber is a natural building construction material obtained from trees.
Requirements of timber Dark uniform colour. Dense. Workable, good machinability. Uniform texture. Freshly cut log surface should emit sweet smell. Free from crakes, splits, warp, etc. When it is struck, it should produce a sonorous sound.
Types of timber NaturalIndustrial Babul Bamboo Banyan Neem Mango Teak Pine Palms Veneers Plywood Fiberboards Impreg timbers Compreg timbers
Uses of timber Railway sleepers Bridges Pipes Furniture Packing material Decorative pieces Doors and windows Matchbox Boat Roofs Lintels and arches Flooring Partition wall Rafters
Properties of timber Low heat conductivity. Small bulk density. Relatively high strength. It’s volume changes with moisture content. Long life. Importance of timber Used as walls, columns, beams, doors and windows in building construction. Easy to transport due to lesser weight and easy handling. Used in furniture decoration of buildings.
Advantages Disadvantages Easy to cut and reshape as per desired dimensions. Locally available. The workers of woodwork easily available. Useful to make door, window, ventilator and furniture of building in construction. Catches fire easily. Can be affected by termite. Not suitable for heavy loads and multistoried structures.
SAND Sand particles consists of small grains of silica.
Requirements of sand Clean, free from organic and vegetable matter. Contain sharp, angular and durable grains. Well graded. Not contain salts which attract moisture from the atmosphere. Maximum permissible clay content is 3 to 4% in sand.
Types of sand NaturalArtificial Natural sand is obtained from pits, river beds and sea beds. Artificial sand is formed by decomposition of sandstone due to various weathering effects.
Uses of sand Useful in various construction activities like masonry work, plaster work, flooring and concrete work.
Properties of sand Naturally available material. Durable. Mix with binding material easily. Shiny luster. Whitish brown colour. Importance of sand Sand-fine aggregate is the important material for construction work. It prepare cement mortar and cement concrete by mixing with cement like binding material. They fill up the voids in between coarse aggregate pieces in cement concrete.
AGGREGATES Aggregates are the naturally occurring material like sand, crushed rock and gravel.
Requirements of aggregate Sufficiently strong, hard, tough and durable. Aggregate surface should be rough and free from cracks. Good soundness. Uses of aggregate Fine aggregates are used to prepare cement mortar, lime mortar and cement concrete. Coarse aggregates are used to prepare cement concrete (PCC, RCC), etc. Fine aggregates are used in masonry, plaster, flooring, etc. work in building construction.
Types of aggregate Fine aggregateCoarse aggregate Size of aggregate is 4.75 mm or less is termed as fine aggregate. Size of aggregate is 80mm to 4.75mm is termed as coarse aggregate.
Properties of aggregate They are insoluble in water. They are of moderate weight. They are strong and durable. They have resistance to scratches. Importance of aggregate They have good adhesion with cement, bitumen like binder material. Coarse aggregate are used in RCC structures of building. They provide strength and stability to building.
MORTAR Mortar is a paste prepared by adding required quantity of water to mixture of binding material like cement or lime and fine aggregate like sand.
Requirements of mortar Good adhesion with bricks, stones etc. Resist penetration of rain water. Cheap, durable and workable. Uses of mortar To bind the bricks or stones firmly in wall construction work. Used in plaster work as finishing material to provide weather resistance.
CONCRETE Concrete is a mixture of cement/lime, sand, crushed rock and water. It is a major building material for construction work.
Preparation of concrete I. Ingredients of concrete : cement, sand, coarse aggregate and water. II. Methods of mixing of concrete : 1. Hand mixing 2. Machine mixing Importance of concrete Prepared at project site under supervision and fabricated. The concrete solidifies and hardens, attaining greater strength with age. They are strong and durable.
Uses of concrete Cement concrete is used from foundation to slab in buildings. Cement concrete is used in street walks, rigid pavements, streets, highways, airports and in foundations of ropeways. Cement concrete is used in lining of canals and reservoirs, concrete dams, tubewells and water conducting tunnels.
PAINTS AND VARNISHES The paints are coatings of fluid materials and they are applied over the surfaces of timber and metal. The varnishes are transparent or nearly transparent solutions of resinous materials and they are applied over the painted surfaces.
Requirements of paint Paint applied on a surface should dry within 24 hours. Neither crack nor shrink after drying. Not reveal brush marks after drying. An attractive appearance. The paint film after drying should be impervious and weather resisting. Requirements of varnish The film left by varnish should be shining and glossy. The colour of varnish should not develop cracks on drying.
Properties of paints Available in wide range of variety. Available in various colours. Have effect of weather actions. Have resistance to water at certain extent. Spreaded and strached as a layer on base by brushes. Properties of varnish Transparent. Provide shine on old and new wood work. Stretchable to provide thin film or layer on base. Available in black, brown, red like colours. It is possible to make them colourless.
Uses of paints and varnish Provide clean, good and colourful attractive appearance to the surface. Prevent decay of wood. Provide corrosion resistance in metal. Varnish brightens the appearance of the grain in wood. Importance of paints and varnish Paints provide a decorative colourful finish. Resist the growth of bacterial and fungus on walls and timber surfaces. Paints and varnishes are provided as film or layer as protective coatings.
Type of paintUses Aluminum paintGas tanks Piers of Marine structure Radiators Hot water pipes Oil storage tanks Cement paintExternal plastering of building Asbestos paintStructures exposed to acid, steam, gas Cellulose paintSurfaces which are exposed to heat, cold and water. Bituminous paintIronwork in waterbody Oil paintFor woodwork and ironwork of building Plastic paintFor all types of building
GLASS Glass is an amorphous, inorganic, homogenous, transparent or translucent material.
Uses of glass To make laboratory apparatus. To make optical instruments. Decorative articles. Spectacles, lenses. Windows, doors, ventilators. Prisms Medicine bottles. Glass bricks. Combustion tubes. Cooking utensils. Panel walls, partition walls. Electrical appliances, bulbs, tubes.
Properties of glass Available in varieties of colours. No effect of air and water. Resistance to chemicals. Can not deform. Hard. Affected by alkalies. No sharp melting point. Importance of glass Glass blocks cut off the glare but it admits sunlight and controls sound and heat in a better way. Missile contains thousands of glass items.
PLASTIC The plastic is an organic substance and it consists of natural or synthetic binders or resins with or without moulding compounds.
Requirements of plastics Provide good heat resistance. Their colours should not be faded easily. Possess good strength. Their shape and size should not be distorted easily. Durable with good resistance to cracks and breaks. Uses of plastics They are used to make- Furniture like sofa, table, chair, etc. Optical lenses, spectacles, frames. Handles of tools, cases of machines, covers. Waterproof doors, bags. Sanitary fittings like taps, pipes, valves, etc.
Types of plastic Thermo plastic : Linear or chain structure. They are used for toys, electric insulators, pipes, valves, fan blades, etc. Acrylic, P.V.C., polystyrene, polyethylene, nylons, etc. are thermoplastic. Thermosetting plastic : Cross linked or network structure. Telephone receivers, switches, plugs, adhesives, foams, etc. are made from thermosetting plastics. Bakelite, polyesters, malamines, etc. are thermosetting plastics.
Properties of plastic Light in weight. Absorb shocks. Free from corrosion. Low thermal and electrical conductivity. Importance of plastic Plastic doors on external walls and in bath w.c. are not affected by water and are easily openable. Decorative and light weight furnitures are easy to clean and rearrange in buildings.