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The United States of America 英语国家概况. Chapter 13 Literature The United States of America.

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Presentation on theme: "The United States of America 英语国家概况. Chapter 13 Literature The United States of America."— Presentation transcript:

1 The United States of America 英语国家概况

2 Chapter 13 Literature The United States of America

3 Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press The Colonial and Revolutionary Periods I The Romantic Period II The Realistic Period III The Naturalistic Period IV The Modern Period V CONTENT The Contemporary Period VI

4 Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press The Colonial and Revolutionary Periods I 1.2 Feature in the Revolutionary Period 1.3 Representative figures and works 1.1 Feature in the Colonial Period

5 Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press 1.1 The Colonial Period ( ) Q1: Who were the first Americans? How did they come to America? Q2: What is the influence of pluralism on American literature?

6 Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press 1.1 The Colonial Period ( )(cont.)  Character of Writings—religious, practical, or historical.  American Puritanism—major topic stresses  predestination ( 预言 )  original sin  total depravity ( 堕落 )  limited atonement ( 赎罪 ) or the salvation ( 拯救 ) of a selected few who would receive God’s grace. Discussion: Compare the American Puritanism with Chinese Confucianism.

7 Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press 1.2 The Revolutionary Period  representative work—Thomas Jefferson’s Declaration of Independence.  Character of Declaration of Independence  rhetorical ( 带修辞色彩的 ) vigor  refined diction ( 措辞 )  polished style  ardent longing for freedom Q: How was American literature forwarded in the Revolutionary Period?

8 Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press 1.3 Representative Figures Benjamin Franklin Jonathan Edwards

9 Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press Jonathan Edwards  religious idealism  powerful sermons ( 布道 )— preaching the puritan ideas and condemning people’s depravity.  best-known work— “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God” (1741).  initiating the Great Awakening Movement to revive Puritanism.

10 Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press  Almanac—published continuously for almost a quarter of a century.  adages ( 格言 ) and sayings  “A penny saved is a penny earned.”  “Early to bed, and early to rise, makes a man healthy, wealthy, and wise.” Jonathan Edwards (cont.)

11 Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press Benjamin Franklin  levelheaded ( 头脑冷静的 ) common sense  a completely worldly man; a statesman, ambassador, scientist, essayist as well.  Poor Richard’s Almanac— both a literary achievement and a profitable business.

12 Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press Benjamin Franklin (cont.)  Autobiography—most famous work.  “the faithful account of the colorful career of America’s first self-made man”—rising from poverty and obscurity ( 身份低微 ) to wealth and fame.  Autobiography—a record of spiritual growth in addition to self-examination and self- improvement.

13 Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press The Romantic Period ( ) II 2.2 Writers of Fiction 2.3 Writers of Poetry 2.1 Feature 2.4 Questions

14 Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press 2.1 Feature  American Renaissance.  Character of American writings  free expression of emotions, attention to the psychic ( 精神的 ) states of their character.  exalted ( 赞美 ) the individual and the common man.  revealed unique characteristics of their own and grew on the native lands.  Best Representives  Washington Irving & James Fennimore Cooper  Walt Whiteman & Emily Dickinson

15 Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press 2.2 Writers of Fiction James Fennimore CooperEdgar Allan Poe Herman MelvilleRalph Waldo EmersonWashington IrvingNathaniel Hawthorne

16 Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press Washington Irving ( )  “the father of American literature”  the first to write using the local color and the details in his works.  symbolism to the themes.  Rip Van Winkle and The Legend of Sleepy Hollow—most famous stories.

17 Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press James Fennimore Cooper ( )  two great figures of American mythology: the brave frontiersman and the bold Indian.  author of the “Leather Stocking Tales”—a series of five novels  The Pioneers (1823)  The Last of the Mohicans (1826)  The Prairie (1827)  The Pathfinder (1840)  The Deerslayer (1841)  frontiersman hero—Natty Bumppo representing the ideal American.

18 Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press Ralph Waldo Emerson ( )  chief spokesman of New England Transcendentalism—summit of American Romanticism.  defined as “the recognition in man of the capacity of knowing truth intuitively, or of attaining knowledge transcending the reach of the senses”.  His essays have a casual style.  The best—Nature and Essays

19 Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press Nathaniel Hawthorne ( )  a descendant of Puritan immigrants.  a pioneer in psychological description.  wrote as a moralist; tried to find out how men reacted in their mind when they found they had done something wrong; exposed the evils of the society by describing the psychological activities of human beings.  most famous novel—The Scarlet Letter  other works  The House of Seven Gables (1851)  The Blithedale Romance (1852)  The Marble Faun (1860)

20 Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press Edgar Allan Poe ( )  a lonely writer both in life and literature history.  literary output: poetry, short stories, and reviews for literary works.  strange theme and style make him an outsider of the main current of American literature.  foreigners acclaimed him as genius  masterpieces  The Raven (1845)  The Fall of the House of Usher (1839)

21 Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press Herman Melville ( )  fame—established on Moby Dick.  acknowledged as one of the world’s great masterpieces.  theme—too far advanced for his contemporaries  presenting a bleak view of the world: the universe is Godless and purposeless; human life is also meaningless and futile.

22 Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press 2.3 Writers of Poets Emily Dickinson Walt Whitman

23 Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press Walt Whitman ( )  poems—The Leaves of Grass  combined the ideal of democratic common man and that of the rugged individual  poetic style  free verse—poetry without a fixed beat ( 拍子 ) or regular rhyme scheme.  his poetry ironically ignored by the general public due to his unconventional style.

24 Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press Emily Dickinson ( )  different from Whitman  the poetess—turned to the outer world and embraced society, democracy and nation;  cast her eyes inward to explore the inner feelings of the individual.  shy and sensitive nature, she avoided visitors and led a quite reclusive ( 隐居的 ) life.

25 Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press Emily Dickinson ( ) (cont.)  short poems  the real world—invisible in the concise lines, neither are there people.  nature dwell in her world, and metaphysical ( 形而 上学的 ) thinking like death and immortality occupies her mind.  most famous poems  My Life Closed Twice Before Its Close (1896)  Because I could Not Stop for Death (1890)  A Narrow Fellow in the Grass (1891)  constructing a wonderful world—small but intense, fresh, individual and original.

26 Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press 2.4 Questions Q1: What are the characteristics of American writing during the Romantic period? Q2:How much do you like Nathaniel Hawthorne’s work—The Scarlet Letter, and how do you interpret the letter “A”? Q2: How much do you like Nathaniel Hawthorne’s work—The Scarlet Letter, and how do you interpret the letter “A”?

27 Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press The Realistic Period ( ) III 3.2 Representative Figures 3.1 Feature

28 Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press 3.1 Feature  a reaction against Romanticism.  stressing—truthful treatment of material.  the writings are concerned with the world of experience, the commonplace, the familiar and the low.  dominant figures—  Mark Twain  William Dean Howells  Henry James

29 Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press 3.2 Representative Figures Henry JamesWilliam Dean HowellsMark Twain

30 Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press Mark Twain ( )  grew up in the Mississippi River frontier town of Hannibal, Missouri.  Twain’s style— based on vigorous, realistic, colloquial American speech—a new appreciation of their national voice.  first major author coming from the interior of the country; capturing its distinctive, humorous slang and iconoclasm.

31 Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press Masterpiece  The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn  Huck’s inner struggle between his sense of guilt in helping Jim to escape and profound conviction that Jim is a human being.  Through escape, he gets to know Jim better and accepts Jim as both a human being and a loyal friend Mark Twain ( ) (cont.)

32 Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press Other Famous Novels  The Adventure of Tom Sawyer (1876)  The Prince and the Pauper (1882)  Life on the Mississippi (1883)  The Man That Corrupted Hadleyburg (1900)  The Mysterious Stranger (1916) Mark Twain ( ) (cont.)

33 Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press Contribution  making colloquial speech an accepted, respectable literary medium in literature.  influence of his style  sweeping across the American literary world.  far-reaching  making Some 20th-century writers acknowledge their indebtedness ( 受惠 ) to Mark Twain Mark Twain ( ) (cont.)

34 Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press  bridges the 19th and 20th centuries and connects America and Europe.  “the international theme” —the meeting of America and Europe.  Europeans—more cultured, more concerned with art, and more aware of the subtleties of social situations  Americans—morality and innocence Henry James ( )

35 Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press Major Works  The American (1877)  Daisy Miller (1878)  The Wings of the Dove (1902)  The Golden Bowl (1904)  The Portrait of A Lady (1881) Henry James ( ) (cont.)

36 Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press  realism—photographic pictures of externals but includes a central concern with “motives” and psychological conflicts.  prolific writer— drama, poetry and novels in addition to criticism, travelogues ( 旅行见闻 ) and autobiography.  masterpiece—The Rise of Silas Lapham (1885) William Dean Howells ( )

37 Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press The Naturalistic Period ( ) IV 4.2 Representative Figure 4.1 Feature

38 Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press 4.1 Feature  Apply principles of scientific determinism to fiction and drama.  Viewing human beings as animals in the natural world responding to environmental forces and internal stresses and drives.

39 Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press Theodore Dreiser ( )  American values—materialistic  human individual is obsessed with a never-ending, yet meaningless search for satisfaction of his desires. Money Sex  embracing social Darwinism “the survival of the fittest” 4.2 Representative Figure

40 Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press Masterpiece  Sister Carrie (1900)  Carrie—a country girl looking for a better life in Chicago. Drouet took her home as mistress. Hurstwood, Drouet’s friend, deserted family and forced her to run away with him. Carrie became a famous actress; Hurstwood committed suicide.  Dreiser’s naturalistic pursuit  expounding the purposelessness of life  attacking the conventional moral standards. 4.2 Representative Figure (cont.)

41 Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press Other Works Trilogy ( 三部曲 ) of desire  The Financer (1912)  The Titan (1914)  The Stoic (1945)  masterpiece—The American Tragedy (1925) 4.2 Representative Figure (cont.)

42 Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press The Modern Period ( ) V 5.2 Modern Poetry 5.1 Lost Generation

43 Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press 5. 1 Lost Generation  American writers caught in WWI and cut off from the old values; unable to come to terms with the new era Ernest Hemingway Q: What is the Lost Generation? F. Scott Fitzgerald 5.1.1

44 Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press F. Scott Fitzgerald ( )  The Great Gatsby—a masterpiece in American literature.  Gatsby discovers the devastating cost of success in terms of personal fulfillment and love.  Gatsby’s life pattern:  first, a dream  Then, disenchantment ( 觉醒 )  Finally, a sense of failure and despair  end of the American Dream

45 Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press Earnest Hemingway ( )  Nobel Prize winner  major works  A Farewell To Arms (1928)  For Whom the Bell Tolls (1940)  The Old Man and the Sea (1952)

46 Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press Earnest Hemingway ( ) (cont.)

47 Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press  Hemingway’s world—chaotic and meaningless  man fighting a solitary struggle against a force he does not understand.  Hero possessing a “despairing courage”.  the courage enables a man to behave like a man, to assert his dignity in face of adversity ( 灾祸 ).  writing style— colloquialism  concrete, specific words  casual and conversational  short, simple sentences Earnest Hemingway ( )(cont.)

48 Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press 5.2 Modern Poetry  Ezra Pound ( )— a link between US and Britain  Imagism  “image”  something that “presents an intellectual and emotional complex in an instant of time.”  The Cantos— he wrote and published until his death. Representative Figure

49 Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press The Contemporary Period (1939- ) Black Writers 6.1 Jewish Writers 6.2 The Beat Movement 6.3 Literature of Modern South 6.4 Women’s Voices 6.5 Drama 6.6 VI

50 Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press 6.1 Black Writers  Richard Wright—Native Son (1940)  Ralph Ellison—Invisible Man (1952)  James Baldwin—Go Tell It on the Mountain (1954)  readers conscious of an oppressed race groaning and struggling for salvation

51 Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press Langston Hughes ( )  poet laureate, literary figure of Harlem Renaissance.  embraced African- American jazz rhythms and incorporated blues, spirituals, colloquial speech, and folkways in his poetry.  most beloved poem “The Negro Speaks of Rivers”  suggesting that, like the great rivers of the world, African culture will endure and deepen. 6.1 Black Writers (cont.)

52 Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press 6.2 Jewish writers  Jewish writers not only focus upon Jewish characters and social questions, but also bring a distinctively Jewish sense of humor to their novels.  Yiddish—language used by European Jews  preserve Jewish culture, isolated but intact ( 完好的 ), until the early 20th century.

53 Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press Saul Bellow ( )  Won Nobel Prize in 1976  Famous works ■ Dangling Man (1944) ■ The Victim (1947) ■ The Adventures of Augie March (1954) ■ Henderson the Rain King (1959) ■ Herzog (1964) ■ Mr. Sammler’s Planet (1970) ■ Humboldt's Gift (1975) 6.2 Jewish writers (cont.)

54 Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press Saul Bellow ( ) 6.2 Jewish writers (cont.)

55 Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press 6.3 The Beat Movement  “beat”— representing a non-conformist, rebellious attitude toward conventional values concerning sex, religion and the American way of life, an attitude resulting from the feeling of depression and exhaustion and the need to escape into an unconventional, communal mode of life.  central Beat writers  William Burroughs  Allen Ginsberg  Jack Kerouac

56 Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press Beat Writers’ Works  express emotion “raw”, rather than “cooked” through memory and translation into art.  representative works  Jack Kerouac— On the Road (1957),  William Burroughs—Naked Lunch (1959)  Allen Ginsberg—Howl (1956) 6.3 The Beat Movement (cont.)

57 Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press Beat Writers’ Works 6.3 The Beat Movement (cont.)

58 Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press 6.4 Literature of Modern South  William Faulkner—Nobel Prize winning novelist  Major works  The Sound and the Fury (1929)  As I Lay Dying (1930)  Light in August (1932)  Absalom, Absalom! (1936)  Go Down, Moses (1942)  stories set in a small southern county, exploration of basic human nature and basic patterns of human behavior make them enduring works in world literature.

59 Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press 6.5 Women’s Voices American  Feminist movement during the 1960s and 1970s affected American culture and women’s relationship with the opposite sex.

60 Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press Tony Morrison (1931- )  Nobel Prize for Literature in  explored the experience of black women in a racist culture.  famous novels—The Bluest Eye (1970) & Beloved (1987)  the latter is about Margaret Garner, a slave escaping with her children; when recaptured, attempted to kill her children rather than return them to life of slavery. 6.5 Women’s Voices (cont.)

61 Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press Alice Walker (1944- )  spoke for the women’s movement, for the anti- nuclear movement.  concern of her works  sexual and racial realities within black communities;  unavoidable connections between family and society. 6.5 Women’s Voices (cont.)

62 Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press Alice Walker’s Masterpiece  Fiction—weaving back and forth through time and individual perspectives.  Characters—seek redemption, forgiveness and peace.  received the Pulitzer Prize in 1983 for The Color Purple. 6.5 Women’s Voices (cont.)

63 Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press Amy Tan (1952- )  Chinese-American writer  portrays the lives of Chinese American daughters and their Chinese immigrant mothers.  characters’ conflicting emotions  being native-born Americans of Chinese ancestry.  Novels  The Joy Luck Club (1989)  The Kitchen God’s Wife (1991) focus on the relationships between mothers and daughters. 6.5 Women’s Voices (cont.)

64 Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press 6.6 Drama  rise of American drama in 20th century.  With the opening of theatres, drama turned up as an influential literary form in American literature.  three representative playwrights.

65 Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press Eugene O’Neill ( )  greatest playwright, won Nobel Prize in  drama—serious literature and wrote tragedies consistently.  wrote 45 plays  highly experimental in form and style;  combining literary theories of symbolism, naturalism and expressionism.  great influence on later American playwrights. 6.6 Drama (cont.)

66 Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press Eugene O’Neill’s Famous Plays  Beyond the Horizon (1920)  The Hairy Ape (1922)  Desire Under the Elms (1924)  The Iceman Cometh (1946) — climax of his career  Long Day’s Journey into Night (1956)  sensitive artist.  felt “the discordant ( 不调和的 ), broken, faithless rhythm” of his time;  probing into the root of human desires and frustrations;  pessimistic plays, leaving the characters without illusion and hope. 6.6 Drama (cont.)

67 Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press Eugene O’Neill’s Famous Plays 6.6 Drama (cont.)

68 Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press Tennessee Williams ( )  a dramatist, wrote novel, poetry, prose and short stories.  representative works  The Glass Menagerie (1945)  A Streetcar Named Desire (1947)—for which was awarded Pulitzer Prize.  Cat on a Hot Tin Roof (1955)  Suddenly Last Summer (1958) 6.6 Drama (cont.)

69 Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press Tennessee Williams’ Writing Features  wrote of isolated and lonely people of American society.  good at creating pathetic ( 悲惨的 ) woman  typical one— Laura, heroine in The Glass Menagerie.  a fragile girl lives in illusion, which is smashed to pieces by a male intruder—symbol of reality. 6.6 Drama (cont.)

70 Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press Arthur Miller ( )  “social dramatist”—concerns the conflicts of the individual within society and presents a social critique of the inhuman capitalist system.  Death of a Salesman (1947)  modern tragedy;  presentation and disclosure of the cruelty and bloodiness of capitalism.  other important plays  All My Sons (1947)  The Crucible (1953)  A View from the Bridge (1955) 6.6 Drama (cont.)

71 Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press Arthur Miller Masterpiece—Death of a Salesman 6.6 Drama (cont.)

72 Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press Arthur Miller Masterpiece—Death of a Salesman  modern tragedy  presentation and disclosure of the cruelty and bloodiness of capitalism.  miserable life and tragic death of Willy— firm conviction in American dream.  Disillusioned, he killed himself to get $ 20,000 life insurance money. 6.6 Drama (cont.)

73 Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press Willy—the salesman not ambitious dream & harsh reality To establish his own business, to pay off the loan for the house, to have successful children and live happily with his family. The company he served for 30 years dismissed him for his getting old. Two sons turned out to be losers in the society; One—a thief; the other—a braggart. 6.6 Drama (cont.)

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