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Greek and Roman Art •Aegean Art 1600 -1100 BC: Minoan Art from Crete Mycenaen Art from Mainland Greece • Greek Art: Archaic Period 600 - 480 BC Classic.

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Presentation on theme: "Greek and Roman Art •Aegean Art 1600 -1100 BC: Minoan Art from Crete Mycenaen Art from Mainland Greece • Greek Art: Archaic Period 600 - 480 BC Classic."— Presentation transcript:

1 Greek and Roman Art •Aegean Art BC: Minoan Art from Crete Mycenaen Art from Mainland Greece • Greek Art: Archaic Period BC Classic Period BC Hellenistic Period BC • Roman Art: 500 BC AD

2 The Aegean Sea Region While the civilizations in Egypt and Mesopotamia were flourishing, two distinct cultures developed along the Aegean Sea. One was on the island of Crete and is termed Minoan. The other was on the mainland of Greece at the city of Mycenae. They preceded Greek culture.

3 Map of Europe

4 Minoans were the richest of the Aegean civilizations
Minoans were the richest of the Aegean civilizations. Bounded by the sea, they created a luxurious, relaxed way of life. Their most important palace center was a huge complex at Knossos, called the Palace of Minos.

5 Palace of Minos at Knossos BC It contained many rooms, running water, a sewage system, theater, storerooms, terraces, and was decorated by frescoes. Frescoes are paintings made directly into wet plaster on the walls of buildings. Rather than sitting on top of the wall’s surface, the paint pigment becomes part of the wall itself.

6 Walls of the Palace of Minos were decorated by frescoes.

7 Minoan culture and art was greatly influenced by living near the sea
Minoan culture and art was greatly influenced by living near the sea. Minoan frescoes were characterized by lightness and freely shaped forms. The forms had a rhythmic quality inspired by the sea.

8 Minoan Fresco Painting
Elaborate frescoes painted into the plaster walls show many aspects of Cretan life. Some depict processions and ceremonies.

9 Images from nature appear, including birds and sea creatures such as dolphins.

10 Minoan Fresco Painting

11 Minoan Fresco Painting

12 Minoan Fresco Painting

13 Minoan Sculpture Sculpture was small, and like the frescoes, probably decorated the living quarters of merchant rulers. The Snake Goddess, carved from ivory and decorated with gold, is less than one foot tall. c.1550 BC

14 Minoan Pottery Pottery was often decorated with designs of plant and animal life. Here the octopus shape adheres to the form of the vase in a manner which unites the 3-dimensional object with a flat design.

15 Pottery was often decorated with designs of plant and animal life.
Minoan Pottery Pottery was often decorated with designs of plant and animal life.

16 Pottery was often decorated with designs of plant and animal life.
Minoan Pottery Pottery was often decorated with designs of plant and animal life.

17 Pottery was often decorated with designs of plant and animal life.
Minoan Pottery Pottery was often decorated with designs of plant and animal life.

18 Mycenaean Art The outer gateway at the citadel of Mycenae is called the Lion Gate, c.1250 BC. It is topped by a huge triangular-shaped, carved stone slab. Depicted on the stone are two majestic standing lions. The blocks are cut to fit exactly together. Little is known of Mycenaean culture, which ended abruptly around 1100 BC when the Dorians invaded from the north.

19 Mycenaean Sculpture The Vaphio Cups from a grave in Laconia are some of the most famous gold pieces found in Mycenae. The lively reliefs illustrate several ways people captured bulls.

20 Mycenaean Sculpture Funeral Mask 1500 BC, Gold, 12”

21 Greek Art: Archaic Period 600 - 480 BC Classic Period 480 - 323 BC Hellenistic Period 323 - 150 BC

22 Kouros Youth 600 BC This life-size nude represents either the god Apollo or an ideal athlete. Figures were stylized and did not represent real people. They face front, with arms held stiffly at their sides. This marble statue is in the Metropolitan Museum of Art in NYC.

23 Kritios Boy/480 BC The development of Greek art is easily seen in its sculpture. Early Greek figures were stylized; this somewhat later figure shows a change towards a more naturalistic approach. The first important point is that the boy really stands; his back leg is not bound to the stone block for balance. Openings are seen between the arms and sides. Notice how the right hip drops down and inward. The knee of the foward leg is lower than the other knee. The body weight rests mainly on the left leg, forming a slight S-curve. This pose is called contrapposto. Instead of a stiff and stylized pose, this relaxed gesture helps the figure come to life for the viewer.

24 Charioteer of Delphi Bronze, 470 BC This is typical of the changes which took place during the Greek Classic Period — the figure is a specific individual, and the pose is more natural. It is cast in bronze. Few bronze sculptures survived over the ages — most were lost or melted down later for use in making weapons and ammunition.

25 Charioteer of Delphi Bronze, 470 BC
The charioteer was originally polished, its eyes made of glass paste,its lips and eyelashes of copper. In most later bronzes these features are now missing, and dark holes remain for the lost eyes. The cloth folds, muscles and facial features are naturalistic. The calm look symbolized a classical balance of emotion, personality and physical ability.

26 Three Goddesses, 435 BC, Marble
Some sculptures were designed to fit exactly into the pediment, the flat triangular area at each end of the Parthenon. The drapery seen in this sculpture was rendered in such a convincing manner that it appears to cling to the draped figures. The folds create visual movement, leading the viewer’s eye through the piece.

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28 The Parthenon Athenians decorated the most famous building in their city, the Parthenon with an ambitious sculptural undertaking. Both the east and west ends of the building were filled with statues that were larger than life. A continuous frieze (a sculpted band) ran for 525 feet around the top of the wall of the cella.

29 The Parthenon The parade of riders is part of a relief that continues (as a frieze) around the entire inner wall of the Parthenon. This is a detail of the larger piece BC, marble, 42” tall.

30 The Parthenon The parade of riders is part of a relief that continues (as a frieze) around the entire inner wall of the Parthenon. This is a detail of the larger piece. 432 BC, marble, 42” tall.

31 The Parthenon Outer frieze

32 The Parthenon Eastern frieze

33 The Dying Gaul, c BC This is a Roman marble copy of a Greek bronze. It is life-size and shows the struggle of a wounded man about to die. The figure is depicted as a real person with genuine feelings, not as an idealized warrior hero.

34 The Dying Gaul, c BC This is a Roman marble copy of a Greek bronze. It is life-size and shows the struggle of a wounded man about to die. The figure is depicted as a real person with genuine feelings, not as an idealized warrior hero.

35 Nike of Samothrace c. 190 BC Marble, 8’ tall One of the greatest Hellenistic sculptures: it is the symbol of Winged Victory. The force of the wind whips the drapery into lively folds which follow the curves of anatomy. The space around the female figure is activated and is a dynamic part of the composition.

36 Old Market Woman c. 2 BC Marble, 50” tall The artist’s interest is in the realistic, pained portrayal of a tired and burdened woman. It is not about idealized beauty.

37 Painting on Vases Black-figured Amphora, c. 530 BC
An amphora is a large storage jar with two handles Early vases of the Archaic period are of red clay, with black figures and decorations painted on them. These illustrate events which may be real or mythical. Later period vases feature white figures on black backgrounds.

38 Painting on Vases Black-figured Amphora, c. 530 BC
An amphora is a large storage jar with two handles Early vases of the Archaic period are of red clay and have black figures and decorations painted on them. These illustrate events which may be real or mythical. Later period vases feature white figures on black backgrounds.

39 Greek Painting on Vases White-figured Hydra, c. 410 BC
A hydra is a large jug intended for carrying water from the community fountain. The handles are on the side, and have a different shape from the ear-like handles of the amphora. This shows a great change in technique and visual style. The background is now painted black, and brush lines can be drawn freely on the red figures to show detail.

40 The Battle of Issus, c. 100 BC, marble mosaic, 17’ wide This is a Roman marble-chip mosaic copy of a Greek painting originating around 315 BC. Only four colors—red, yellow, white and black—are used in the mosaic. The anatomy is very accurate, as is the lighting and overlapping placement of objects in space.

41 Greek Architecture Over time, Greek structures evolved from having a heavy appearance to a light and airy feel. Architecture was focused around temples where ceremonies were held. The Greeks were very concerned with harmony and proportion. The Acropolis in Athens contains several buildings in the later style.

42 Heavy, sturdy columns with no base
Architecture Doric Order: Heavy, sturdy columns with no base Ionic Order: Classical style with slender columns, fluted shafts, fancy scrolls at top Corinthian Order: Classical style featuring tall, slender columns topped by fancy capitals decorated with plant leaves.

43 Architecture Corinthian Order

44 Architecture Doric Order

45 Greek Architecture Doric Order

46 Caryatid A support or column in the form of a human figure, usually female.

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