Interior Walls and Coverings Traditionally, interior walls were plaster. – The plaster was made of lime, sand, and animal hair. Plaster could be died using various methods. http://tudorhistory.org/places/b w/index.html
Two permanent wall coverings existed: – Wall Painting – the plaster panels were painted in mural-like form, often in an episodic manner with each panel a different scene. – Patterned Paper – small sheets of usually 15 by 9 inches were glued onto the wall. These sheets were made using wood- block printing methods. http://wwwrockrose.blogspot.com/2011/07/gr eat-british-garden-tour-day13.html http://organzola.co.uk/fairlyte/ elizabethan/docs/history.php
Painted cloths were sometimes used to decorate walls by both the rich and the not- so-rich. – A Simon Forman of London had over 72 yards of painted cloths in just two rooms on his house. Biblical scenes were the most common scene on painted cloths.
Gilt Leather and Embroidery Gilt leather panels became popular decorations in the late 1500s-early 1600s. – These panels originated in Spain. – Originally, gold leaf was used for coloring but it gave way to a cheaper, sturdier varnish. http://www.1stdibs.com/furniture_item_de tail.php?id=188008
Embroidered work covered many surfaces in Elizabethan England including beds, seats, and windows. Most Elizabethan women could embroider and would do much of their own embroidery. – Most large pieces were given to professionals to be completed in a more timely manner. http://www.1st-art-gallery.com/Anonymous- Artist/Embroidered-Hangings-From-The-State-Bed-At- Calke-Abbey-(detail).html
Wood Panelling Hardwood panelling, primarily of oak, was a popular type of wall decoration. Several styles of panelling were available: – Plain seasoned oak panels – Painted oak panels – Carved wall panels http://www.pbase.com/zulakit ten/image/91002188
Ceilings and Floors Ceilings were traditionally white plaster. The plaster was often shaped into complex forms and motifs. Floors could be tile but were more often wood. The floors were covered in rushes and herbs. – The rushes were changed frequently in order to stay fresh in appearance, smell, and feel. http://vr.theatre.ntu.edu.tw/ hlee/course/th6_520/sty_16 c/minor/globe.htm
Furniture “Perhaps the most surprising thing about Elizabethan furniture is how little there was of it then” (58). More money was spent on textiles and wall coverings than furniture.
Most families would own a table, usually with at least chair with arms and a back and a number of stools and/or benches. – Most chairs were hard, uncomfortable, and festooned with cushions. http://www.onlinegalleries.com/antiques/d/a-magnificent- elizabethan-oak-drawleaf-table/44181
Cupboards were one of the most important pieces of furniture for the Elizabethan family. Cupboards consisted of a set of shelves and sometimes doors. – Some were practical, like the livery cupboard which stored food and/or clothes. – Others allowed the household to display its wealth in silver and dishes. http://www.thestar.com/comment/c olumnists/article/419810
Elaborate beds in many shapes, styles and sizes existed in Elizabethan England. Made of oak, most beds had corner posts, a carven headboard, and frames from which to hang curtains and a canopy. The Great Bed of Ware which slept up to eight people had three mattresses, two stuffed with wool and straw for support and one stuffed with down or feathers for comfort. http://www.flickr.com/photos/pri ncesscrazyhair/4593363146/
The wealthy ladies and other delicate folks of Elizabethan England invested in close stools, which were much more comfortable and fashionable than even the most intricate chamber pot. http://www.flickr.com/photos/princesscrazy hair/4593363146/