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Copyright©2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1 Introductory Chemistry: A Foundation FIFTH EDITION by Steven S. Zumdahl University of.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright©2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1 Introductory Chemistry: A Foundation FIFTH EDITION by Steven S. Zumdahl University of."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright©2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1 Introductory Chemistry: A Foundation FIFTH EDITION by Steven S. Zumdahl University of Illinois

2 Copyright©2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 2 Nomenclature Chapter 5

3 Copyright©2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 3 Mineral towers in Mono Lake, California Source: John Gerlach/Tom Stack & Associates

4 Copyright©2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 4 An Apothecary Shop

5 Copyright©2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 5 Naming of Compounds Naming of compounds has long been necessary to identify something Names originally based upon “common names” –Common nameStock system name –Epsom salts Magnesium chloride –Gypsum Calcium sulfate –Blue vitriol Copper (II) sulfate –Calomel Mercury (I) chloride –Saltpeter Potassium nitrate –Quicklime calcium oxide –Caustic soda sodium hydroxide

6 An ancient painting showing Romans drinking wine.

7 Copyright©2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 7 Sugar of Lead Boiling of wine produced a thick, sweet liquid which was used as a sweetener. Actually contained lead acetate –Pb(C 2 H 3 O 2 ) 2 –Thought to have lead to the downfall of the Roman empire due to lead poisoning (in addition to lead water pipes) –Lead poisoning causes lethargy and mental illness

8 Copyright©2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 8 Problems These common names were impractical –Worldwide communication problems –4 million compounds –We needed a system to “systematically” name all of these compounds, you wouldn’t have to memorize each name to know what it was. –If you learn the system, you will be able to name a compound from its formula and vice versa

9 Copyright©2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 9 Common Names - Exceptions Common names still in use today…….. H 2 O = water, steam, ice NH 3 = ammonia CH 4 = methane NaCl = table salt C 12 H 22 O 11 = table sugar CaSO 4 2H 2 O=plaster of paris

10 Copyright©2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 10 An artist using plaster of Paris, a gypsum plaster. Source: Bob Daemmrick/The Image Works

11 Copyright©2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 11 Naming Starts with Classifying Compounds 1.Binary Compounds = only 2 elements 2.Compounds containing polyatomic ions (sometimes called “ternary” compounds) 3.Acids = formula generally starts with H

12 Copyright©2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved Naming Compounds Binary Type I and II

13 Copyright©2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 13 Classifying Binary Compounds Compounds containing a metal and a nonmetal are binary ionic –Type I and II Compounds containing two nonmetals are Covalent –Type III Compounds containing H and a nonmetal = Acids

14 Copyright©2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 14 Binary Ionic Made of metal cation and nonmetal anion Name by naming the ions

15 Copyright©2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 15 Metal Cations Type I –Metals that can only have one possible charge –Determine charge by position on the Periodic Table Type II –Metals that can have more than one possible charge –Determine metal cation’s charge from the charge on anion

16 Copyright©2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 16

17 Copyright©2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 17 Type I Binary Ionic Compounds Contain Metal Cation + Nonmetal Anion Metal listed first in formula & name ¶Name metal cation first, name nonmetal anion second ¶Simple metal cation name is the metal name –simple metals are Groups 1A, 2A and Al, Ga & In ¶Nonmetal anion named by changing the ending on the nonmetal name to -ide

18 Copyright©2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 18 Examples KClpotassium chloride MgBr 2 magnesium bromide SrOstrontium oxide Al 2 O 3 aluminum oxide Rb 3 Nrubidium nitride KIpotassium iodide

19 Copyright©2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 19 Type II Binary Ionic Compounds Contain Metal Cation + Nonmetal Anion Metal listed first in formula & name ¶Name metal cation first, name nonmetal anion second ¶Metal cation name is the metal name followed by a Roman Numeral in parentheses to indicate its charge –Determine charge from anion charge –Common Type II cations in Table 5.2 ¶Nonmetal anion named by changing the ending on the nonmetal name to -ide

20 Copyright©2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 20

21 Copyright©2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 21 Determining the Charge on a Cation – Au 2 S 3 ¬Determine the charge on the anion Au 2 S 3 - the anion is S, since it is in Group 6A, its charge is -2 ­Determine the total negative charge since there are 3 S in the formula, the total negative charge is -6 ®Determine the total positive charge since the total negative charge is -6, the total positive charge is +6 ¯Divide by the number of cations since there are 2 Au in the formula & the total positive charge is +6, each Au has a +3 charge

22 Copyright©2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 22 Examples FeSiron (II) sulfide Fe 2 S 3 iron (III) sulfide Cu 2 Ocopper (I) oxide CuOcopper (II) oxide PbCl 2 lead (II) chloride PbCl 4 lead (IV) chloride Hg 2 Semercury (II) selenide

23 Copyright©2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved Naming Compounds Binary Type III

24 Copyright©2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 24 Type III - Binary Compounds of 2 Nonmetals Name first element in formula first, use the full name of the element Name the second element in the formula as if it were an anion –However, remember these compounds do not contain ions, they are covalent compounds!!!!!! Use a prefix in front of each name to indicate the number of atoms Never use the prefix mono- on the first element

25 Copyright©2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 25 Prefixes Drop last “a” in the prefix if the name begins with vowel octa-8 hepta-7 hexa-6 penta-5 tetra-4 tri-3 di-2 mono- (not used on first nonmetal) 1 PrefixSubscript

26 Copyright©2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 26

27 Copyright©2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 27 Examples COcarbon monoxide CO 2 carbon dioxide BF 3 boron trifluoride N 2 O 5 dinitrogen pentoxide NOnitrogen monoxide CCl 4 carbon tetrachloride NO 2 nitrogen dioxide

28 Copyright©2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 28 A mix of types Na 2 OLiF Cs 3 NSnO H 2 OHgS Mg 3 P 2 CoN CuFNCl 3 CrCl 3 CS 2

29 Copyright©2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved Naming Compounds Containing Polyatomic Ions

30 Copyright©2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 30 Compounds Containing Polyatomic Ions Polyatomic ions are charged entities that contain more than one atom –Must memorize name, formula and charge –Look for Patterns!! Polyatomic compounds contain one or more polyatomic ions Name polyatomic compounds by naming cation and anion –Non-polyatomic ions named like Type I and II Polyatomic Acids contain H + and a polyatomic anion

31 Copyright©2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 31 Polyatomic Ions to be memorized!!!!!! Carbonate CO 3 2- Nitrate NO 3 1- PhosphatePO 4 3- Chlorate ClO 3 1- BromateBrO 3 1- SulfateSO 4 2- HydroxideOH 1- AmmoniumNH 4 1+

32 Copyright©2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 32

33 Copyright©2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 33 Copper (II) sulfate crystals.

34 Copyright©2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 34 Patterns for Polyatomic Ions ¬Elements in the same column on the Periodic Table form similar polyatomic ions –same number of O’s and same charge ClO 3 - = chlorate  BrO 3 - = bromate ­If the polyatomic ion starts with H, add hydrogen- before the ions name and add 1 to the charge CO 3 2- = carbonate  HCO 3 - = hydrogen carbonate

35 Copyright©2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 35 Patterns for Polyatomic Ions -ate ion –chlorate = ClO 3 - -ate ion plus 1 O  same charge, per- prefix –perchlorate = ClO 4 - -ate ion minus 1 O  same charge, -ite suffix –chlorite = ClO 2 - -ate ion minus 2 O  same charge, hypo- prefix, - ite suffix –hypochlorite = ClO -

36 Copyright©2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 36 Oxyanions Polyatomic ions that contain a given element and different numbers of oxygen atoms –SO 2 2- hyposulfite ion –SO 3 2- sulfite ion –SO 4 2- sulfate ion –SO 5 2- persulfate ion

37 Copyright©2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 37 Some other Oxyanions CO 3 2- Carbonate, etc NO 3 1- Nitrate, etc ClO 3 1- Chlorate, etc PO 4 3- Phosphate, etc

38 Copyright©2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 38 Name these….. NaNO 3 CuSO 4 Ca 3 (PO4) 2 Fe(OH) 2 NH 4 ClO 3 Mg(ClO 4 ) 2

39 Copyright©2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved Naming Acids

40 Copyright©2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 40 Acids Contain H + cation and anion Binary acids have H + cation and a nonmetal anion Oxyacids have H + cation and a polyatomic anion

41 Copyright©2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 41

42 Copyright©2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 42

43 Copyright©2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 43 Rules for Naming Acids If anion does not contain oxygen, acid is named with hydro- added to the front of anion, and –ic is added to end of anion name, along with acid –HCl hydro chlor ic acid –HF hydro fluor ic acid –H 2 S hydro sulfur ic acid

44 Copyright©2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 44 Rules for Naming Acids cont. When anion contains oxygen (oxyanion) the root name of the anion is used, along with –ic acid for oxyanions ending in –ate –ous acid for oxyanions ending in –ite –H 2 SO 4 sulfate ion Sulfur ic acid –HNO 3 nitrate ion Nitr ic acid –HNO 2 nitrite ion Nitr ous acid

45 Copyright©2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 45 Other examples HClO hypochlorite ion hypochlorous acid HClO 2 chlorite ion chlorous acid HClO 3 chlorate ion chloric acid HClO 4 perchlorate ion perchloric acid HIO 4 ?????!!!!!!

46 Copyright©2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved Writing Formulas from Names

47 Copyright©2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 47 Writing the Formulas from the Names For Type III compounds, use the prefixes to determine the subscripts For Type I, Type II, polyatomic Compounds and Acids –Determine the ions present –Determine the charges on the cation and anion –Balance the charges to get the subscripts

48 Copyright©2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 48 Figure 5.3: A flow chart for naming acids. The acid is considered as one or more H + ions attached to an anion.


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