Intro The main finishing materials in modern construction include finishing mortars and concretes; natural and artificial masonry materials; decorative ceramics; materials and items made from wood, paper, glass, plastic, and metals; and paints and varnishes. Finishing materials are usually designed for interior or exterior finishing; some materials are used for both (for example, natural decorative stone, ceramic materials, and architectural glass). A special group consists of materials and items for covering floors, which must meet a number of specific requirements (negligible wear, high impact strength, and so on). Finishing materials also include acoustic materials, which are used simultaneously as sound-absorbing coatings and as a decorative finish for the interiors of theaters, concert halls, and motion-picture theaters.
Intro cont Finishes protect walls from the elements and from daily wear, and they play an important role in regulating indoor temperature and humidity. Natural finishes, which undergo minimal processing and are generally nontoxic, can be made from clay, lime, chalk, casein, rock dusts, earth pigments, and natural plant extracts such as oils and waxes. These naturally beautiful materials bathe walls in color and texture while balancing relative humidity, creating a more comfortable indoor environment.
Intro cont Natural finishes are essential for buildings made of straw bales, cob and non-stabilized adobe because these materials must “breathe” to remain healthy. However, their use is hardly limited to those types of homes.
Why should I use natural finishes? 1. They’re good for humans. Nontoxic natural finishes are essential for people with chemical sensitivities and respiratory problems. By balancing relative humidity in the atmosphere, they reduce dampness and mold. 2. They’re good for the planet. Natural finishes require less extraction and processing than synthetic finishes and have fewer disposal issues. Most of their ingredients biodegrade easily and safely and are recyclable. 3. They’re good for buildings. Natural finishes’ high vapor permeability (ability to let moisture pass in and out) allows buildings to “breathe,” which helps increase the durability of the walls, roof and foundation.
Earth plasters Clay plasters Plasters made with clay are beautiful, durable, and made from inexpensive and non-toxic ingredients. Clay creates a breathable finish material with a natural capacity to regulate moisture and temperature in the surrounding air. Clay naturally absorbs excess moisture in the air, helping air to feel more comfortable in summer, while its high thermal mass creates a battery heat (or cooling) storage that helps to maintain constant air temperature. Materials can often be found on or local to the building site, making the ingredients dirt cheap...literally. Clay naturally occurs in a variety of colors and clay plasters can be pigmented with mineral based pigments in every range of color.
Earth plasters cont When mixed and applied properly, the wall covering will be hard, durable, and beautiful. Earth plaster can even be used on the exterior walls and may easily last for seven to ten years or more without any maintenance. One advantage of earth plaster is that the color of the plaster itself can eliminate the need for any paint. This is good for the environment and can reduce construction costs. For color tints, natural pigments can be added to the plaster, and a range of colors can be created from yellow to red to green.
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Lime plasters Highly durable and crack-resistant. Commonly used in alternative construction. Smooth application and aesthetically pleasing. Lime is readily available in Kenya.
Earth plasters cont Gypsum plaster Gypsum is a sedimentary rock-like material that is unique in that it can be heated to give up some of its chemically combined powder and water, then restored to its original form when water is added. Because of this it can be easily formed into nearly any shape or molded into a form or sheets more commonly known as gypsum board (drywall) that are highly fire- resistant and easy to work with. Plastering is applied in layers depending on the type and strength of the base used.
Natural stone A traditional finishing material is natural stone, which is durable and has an attractive appearance. Facing products are produced from granite, syenite, gabbro, limestone, marble, and quartzite. Natural stone finishing materials are used for exterior and interior facings on walls and for floor coverings, mainly in public buildings and structures, such as theaters, hotels, and subway stations. Natural stone materials are also used in the form of decorative chips to finish the surfaces of concrete and reinforced- concrete parts and units.
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Decorative concretes and mortars Decorative concretes and mortars are very effective finishing materials. The decorative effect of these materials results from the use of colored cements and fillers produced by crushing various kinds of natural stones and by texturing the front surfaces of products (for example, large blocks and panels) during molding or after the concrete has hardened. Decorative concretes and mortars are used extensively in the factory finishing of structural members for fully prefabricated buildings; the use of decorative mortar mixtures for the exterior and interior finishing (plastering) during construction is limited, since the operation is time-consuming and labor- intensive.
Wood Among the wood finishing materials are decorative plywood, veneer, parquet, chipboard, fiberboard, and such articles as railings, plinths, and finish casings. Hardwood is generally used for interior finishes such as flooring, door linings, wall cladding and shelving. Wood finishing materials are notable for their excellent appearance and service qualities. Facing products are produced not only from decorative natural woods, such as oak, beech, and walnut, but also from carefully processed common species, such as birch and pine.
Wood cont Timber insulates heat and electricity but it tends to warp under heavy loads. This is the reason why timber needs seasoning, that is a reduction of its moisture content. The service life of wood finishing materials is increased by treating them with wood preservatives and by applying paint and varnish coatings.
Wallpapers Wallpapers of various types are widely used for interior finishing (mainly in residences); they have the advantages of low cost and labor requirements.
Paint Paint and varnish finishing materials are intended mainly for painting operations. In the past and even today, there are cultures that finish their floors walls and ceilings with a variety of natural materials such as: organic lime washes, clay plaster, straw/mud combinations, milk paint, natural oils, bees wax and other indigenous resources
Paint cont Milk (casein) paints - This is a simple, natural method for painting used traditionally in many cultures. Today, manufacturers provide a powder to which water is added, creating a non-toxic alternative to even many zero-VOC paints available on the market. Natural pigments are available, as well as complete instructions on how to apply. Note: milk- based paints do not work well on gypsum-type surfaces witout additional priming.
Paint cont Clay paints are another natural alternative – a traditional form of covering wall surfaces that has been takn up by eco- manufacturers to help with ease of use and availability. Ideally, if clay is desired in a wall coating, it should be sourced locally.
Paint cont Chalkboard paint Creating a space with chalkboard paint allows adults and kids alike to express themselves creatively. You can use it for calendars in your mudroom, kid's table tops, doors,drawers, message boards or whatever you can come up with! Chalkboard finish is durable and can be used on walls or furniture. This finish is completely non-toxic and free of all VOCs.
Velvet Velvet is a low-sheen finish that works well on walls and ceilings. It is durable and beautiful. Recommended for walls in lower traffic areas. Velvet hides imperfections Only luxury emulsion with the essence of pearls for that unique pearl glow finish on walls. Perfection in colour delivery achieved through unique ViViD Technology – richest & most vibrant delivery of shades. Enhanced flowability for easy & smooth application. Eco friendly emulsion – ecosure certified.
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