Presentation on theme: "The Challenge to Reduce Crime and Recidivism Alan Clements, Assistant Superintendent, Karnet Prison Farm, Western Australia."— Presentation transcript:
The Challenge to Reduce Crime and Recidivism Alan Clements, Assistant Superintendent, Karnet Prison Farm, Western Australia
Introduction Alan Clements - Introduction The Department The past The present The future
Basic Facts The adult prisoner population rose steadily during the 2009/10 period, peaking at 4,893 on 27 March 2010, currently at In the last five years the daily average prisoner population increased by 38.6%. During this time the number of maximum security prisoners decreased by 26.6%, compared with increases of 43% for medium security prisoners and 76.5% for minimum security prisoners. Prisoners are now staying in custody longer, contributing to increases in the prisoner population. In last financial year (July 2009/June 2010) adults were managed in the community. The total number of staff 4,590. This includes approximately 2000 prison officers, 144 teachers, 160 medical (doctors, nursers etc) and 2000 public servants (this includes administration staff and psychologists, program facilitators etc.
Our Responsibilities The Department of Corrective Services fulfills its obligations by: Providing offender management services that protect the community Offering offenders the interventions they require to make a positive difference in their lives and reduce their involvement in the criminal justice system Supporting offenders to become responsible citizens, adopting law-abiding healthy lifestyles Promoting crime prevention.
Prisons in WA Situated in the southern hemisphere, Western Australia occupies approximately one-third of Australia’s total landmass. That is an area of 2.5 million square kilometres or 965,000 square miles. Wyndham to Albany 3576 klms or 2221 miles; Perth to Kalgoorlie 595 klms or 369 miles. The locations on the map below indicate the locations of the State’s prisons.
Range of Prisons and Options 14 diverse prisons throughout Western Australia. The prisons extend from Broome in the State’s north, Kalgoorlie to the east and Albany in the south. Providing services in both metropolitan and regional areas. Bandyup:Multi Security Prison for women in the metropolitan area undertakes assessments & programs Boronia:Minimum Security metropolitan releasing prison for women Bunbury Regional: Medium Security male, delivers specialist sex offender and other programs
Individual Prisons have specific functions some of these are: Casuarina:Maximum Security male prison – houses the majority of the states most serious and life sentenced offenders. Hakea: Remand and Assessment Centre Karnet:Minimum security prison – pre-release facility which delivers a range of programs including specialist sex offender programs. It also coordinates and produces the majority of primary produce for the rest of the State’s prisons. Wooroloo:Minimum security – pre-release facility which delivers a range of programs including substance abuse and violencebut does not house sex offenders. Also assists with food production.
Assessment & Sentence Management Process Most male offenders will be remanded at Perth’s Hakea Prison, with female offenders remanded at Bandyup Women's Prison, for assessment, regardless of the crime they have committed. Regional offenders generally will be assessed at the prison closest to where they were arrested. Offenders are assessed by staff who determine their security rating, health issues and what work, education or rehabilitation programs they require to assist with their rehabilitation.
Assessment & Sentence Management Process Offenders serving an effective sentence longer than 6 months will receive a more in-depth assessment, which includes developing an Individual Management Plan. This plan determines their placement and program attendance for the duration of their sentence. The security classification of an offender is the primary deciding factor, to where they will serve their sentence. Other factors include how close a facility is for family and friends to visit, health needs and program availability.
Assessment & Sentence Management Process The system is designed to reward good and sanction poor behaviour and unwillingness to address an offending life style. Program participation is not compulsory. The classification is based on a number of factors including the offender’s behaviour, offence type, history of offending and their willingness to participate in programs available within the prison system. The intent of this process is to house offenders as close to home with the lowest security rating possible, with due regard to the safety of the community. See Adult Custodial Rules Rule 18 for further information.Adult Custodial Rules
Adult Custodial Rules The Adult Custodial Rule base provides staff with a platform to manage the States offenders within prisons. The Rules also include: Operational Instructions Policy Directives Rules.Rules The Rules, Directives, Appendices and Instructions together form the majority of the overall system of prisons and offender management, which is derived from the Prisons Act 1981 and other associated legislation.Prisons Act 1981 The Rules are made by the Head of the Department, the Commissioner, with approval from the Minister and largely cover offender and prison officer conduct. The Rules deal with matters such as classification/placement of offenders, procedures and visits, some details of which are required to be enshrined in rules.
Education & Vocational Training A significant component in the assessment process is the literacy and numeracy levels of offenders as these areas are viewed as critical in increasing an offenders ability to gain employment on release. The Department aims to make a positive difference in the lives of offenders through a variety of rehabilitation and education programs. Offenders can take part in a wide range of education, vocational, life skills and employment preparation programs while in custody.
Education & Vocational Training As a starting point, Education staff at each prison assist offenders with basic education and literary skills. Offenders complete education programs such as Training and Further Education (TAFE) courses or vocational training in the form of apprenticeships and TAFE certificates. In doing this, offenders leave prison with a better chance of finding a job or continuing their education.
Course Information All offenders serving effective sentences of 6 months or more have their literacy levels tested when they enter prison. The Department's Education and Vocational Training Unit (EVTU) has received State and national awards for the training it delivers to offenders. The aim of the training is to give offenders the best chance possible to find a job when they are released so the EVTU works with the Department of Education and Training, public and private registered training organisations and a network of government, industry and social service providers.
Course Information Australia’s resources boom has meant a shortage of skilled labour, we assist by ensuring All courses comply with industry standards, meaning all qualifications and certificates are nationally recognised, giving offenders better job prospects when they are released. All courses commenced in prison can be continued in the community at a TAFE college or with any other nationally registered public or private training providers.
Course Information Offenders can study the following courses on a full-time or part-time basis: Adult basic education Vocational (job) education and training Secondary and Higher Education Employability and life coping skills Pre-release and Prisoner Employment Program Driver education and training.
Prisoner Employment Program The Prisoner Employment Program (PEP) is available to minimum-security offenders who are close to being released. The program matches offenders with paid employment, education or work experience, with the understanding they will continue this employment or training once released. The aim is to improve an offender possibilities of getting a job, an apprenticeship or a TAFE course upon release. The program also means offenders can develop skills and support networks in the community, assisting them to successfully re-enter the community. All payment from employers is held in a secure account for offenders until they are released. If required they can access funds to purchase tools, work clothes and pay family bills with approval from the prison administration.
Prisoner Employment Program PEP is used as the platform to showcase to prisoners the benefits of employment and training together with the realisation that employers are very open to look at prisoners to employ, particularly with the high skill levels the offenders have gained in prison. This is done through Career and Employment Expos held at each prison once or twice per year. The development of a Post Placement Support Model was seen as essential in ensuring that prisoners continued to be resocialised back into normal life after release. Part of the Employment Coordinator’s role in the regions is to support and monitor prisoners in their employment after release. A Post Placement Support Officer is currently doing this role in the metropolitan area.
ASSESSMENT Overview of PEP Literacy Numeracy Convictions Disclosing EED Employability Skills Accommodation Transport Family Qualifications Background Aspirations F/T or P/T Employability Employers Training Required Medical Condition Barriers EMPLOYERS DCS Approval PEP Policy Expo DVD Employer Handbook Profile list WORK EXPERIENCE CASE MANAGEMENT PD Training required VET Training required Life Skills Training ID required Job Seeking Skills Outcare JNP link up Centrelink Accommodation Family Involvement Employer Expos Interviews Resumes Budgeting Health Issues Conviction Issues EDUCATION TRAINING EMPLOYMENT JSAP/AAC Post Placement PPE Assessment Training Counselling Other JSAP/AAC Apprenticeship Traineeship Family Post Placement Transport Tools PPE Counselling Further placement Further studies Other Minimum Security Applicatio n Approval Minimum Security Referral/ Approval PEP FLOWCHART (Employment Coordinators) Application/ApprovalAssessmentPreparationPlacementPost Placement (Case Management)
Prison Industries Two key focuses for the Department are: To be as self-sustainable as possible, and Make a positive difference in the lives of offenders and the community. All sentenced offenders must work.
Prison Industries Offenders can undertake employment in a number of industries including the abattoir, dairy, bakery, laundry, textiles and cabinet workshops. Operating like any business, the industries provide a variety of goods to internal and external customers. Offenders must apply to work in industries, much like the process of winning a job in the community. Once approved, offenders can develop vocational and educational skills, making them ready and qualified to find employment once they are released. Most industries are connected to accredited TAFE courses and apprenticeships. To see what training courses are available to offenders, refer to Education and Vocational Training. Education and Vocational Training
Prison Industries Prison Industries also take on contracts from external and charitable organisations. However, they only accept work that does not threaten or disadvantage Western Australian businesses. Offenders also manufacture items for donation including disability ramps, seating for hospitals and aged care facilities, study desks and bicycles for disadvantaged children at Christmas.
Rehabilitation A key focus for Corrective Services is to make a positive difference in the lives of offenders through education and vocational training, employment skills, healthcare, counselling and support, programs and providing a structured work day. The aim is to make sure offenders leave the system with more knowledge on how to improve their lives whether through increased life skills, work qualifications, improved health or parenting skills.
Rehabilitation Many people think that by delivering a program that focuses on substance abuse or offending behaviour, an offender can be 'cured', leave the system and adopt a law-abiding lifestyle. While the Department does give offenders the opportunity to take part in programs and interventions, it is ultimately up to the individual to change.
Rehabilitation It is important to note programs and education are not compulsory, it is the choice of each individual to try and improve their life style and associated consequences. However the Prisoners Review Board (Parole) takes a serious view of those offenders who do not take the opportunity to improve themselves. This can often result in an offender being denied parole and completing the full sentence handed down by the Court, this can mean several more years in prison.
Rehabilitation It requires more than a program to turn a life around, particularly if people return to the same dysfunctional lifestyle that may have led to their offending in the first place.
Rehabilitation Programs One of the Department’s biggest goals is to help offenders gain the skills they need to live a law-abiding lifestyle once their sentence is complete. One way to help achieve this is through a range of programs and interventions which target offending behaviour such as substance abuse and violence programs. Over the past 2 years, the Department has made considerable progress in the number and quality of programs and interventions on offer. As a result the numbers of offenders in programs, both in the community and prisons, has jumped significantly.
Rehabilitation Programs There is a widely-held public opinion that the Department can 'cure' people of their offending behaviour however the reality is much different. Instead, the Department aims to help offenders get their lives back on track by better understanding their offending behaviour and learning new ways to avoid reoffending. The Department offers programs that address addiction, violent offending, general offending, sex offending and those that work to improve a prisoner's cognitive skills.
Addressing Offender Drug & Alcohol Use A large proportion of the State's offenders have some sort of alcohol or drug-related problem that has contributed to their imprisonment. To help rehabilitate people with alcohol and drug dependencies, the Department offers a Pathways Program - an intensive, 21 week program focusing on reducing reoffending and substance abuse.
Types of Offending When a person commits an offence and is jailed, they have the option of undergoing a range of treatment programs to help them identify their problem areas. These include sex offending, violent offending and general offending programs. Sex offending programs cover a range of issues including victim empathy, social perspective taking and critical reasoning. The aim is to give participants the skills and insight they need to accept responsibility for their offending behaviour. All programs are voluntary, and therefore offenders who continue to deny their offence cannot take part. For this reason, the Sex Offender Deniers Program was introduced in 2008.
Types of Offending A number of violent offending programs are run at prisons throughout the State. These programs look at the causes of violent offending and help prisoners develop positive behaviour and attitudes. Domestic violence programs are also available for male prisoners and focus on accepting responsibility for actions.
Types of Offending General offending programs aim to help offenders get a better understanding of why they offended, using a range of treatment methods including problem solving, relapse prevention and safety planning. They also help them work toward improving various aspects of their lives. Programs designed specifically to meet the needs of women have also been introduced.
Types of Programs The Sex Offending Denier’s Program is a 95 hour treatment program. This program targets individuals who categorically deny committing sexual offences. The program covers such areas as: self esteem, coping, attachment, sexuality, empathy, risk factors and warning signs. It is not intended to change the stance of denial, rather to work with offenders to minimise risk of future offending through planning for the future.
Types of Programs Think First is a structured cognitive - behavioural group program, designed for use in criminal justice settings. The objectives of the Think First program are: To help group members develop their skills for thinking about problems and for solving them in real life situations. To apply these skills to the problem of offence behaviour and help group members to reduce their risk of future offending. The Think First program is delivered by prison officers state-wide. It is a 60-hour program consisting of 30 x 2 hour sessions.
Types of Programs A Building on Aboriginal Skills (BOAS) program is available in many regional prisons. This is designed for Aboriginal offenders who want to reconnect with their land and culture while learning cognitive skills and positive behaviour. Delivered by prison officers, both programs are available Statewide.
Leave for Prisoners Offenders may be allowed leave from a prison for a variety of reasons, an offender may be given permission to leave prison for a certain amount of time. The following types of leave may be available to offenders after they have been through a comprehensive assessment process and they are eligible. Attendance at funerals and visiting gravely ill relatives An offender may apply to leave the prison for a set period on compassionate grounds. This includes attending a funeral or visiting a gravely ill person who has only been given a short time to live. A prisoner is always accompanied by an officer on such leave. Re-Integration Leave The Re-Integration Leave program enables long-term, minimum-security offenders to leave prison under the supervision of an approved sponsor for set periods of time. This leave means offenders who have spent a long time in prison can re-establish family and community relationships which helps them adjust when they are released.
External Activities To give offenders more opportunities for rehabilitation and re- connecting with the community before their release, minimum- security prisoners are able to take part in a range of activities outside prison that: promote health and wellbeing give them knowledge and skills that will help them live a law abiding lifestyle provide opportunities for them to improve themselves, for example through education and training help offenders pay back their debt to the community for the crimes they have committed. An offender's involvement in these activities is always based on a stringent assessment.
External Activities Section 95 activities are generally run from minimum security institutions. The activities are generally supervised by a prison officer but offenders may be approved to be unsupervised, this can involve undertaking work for local community groups or Shire authorities. Activities can include but are not limited to work, recreation, educational and skill development, religious activities or work associated with the operation of the prison.
Work Camps Work camps are annexes of prisons where up to 20 minimum- security offenders live and work with a prison officer, for the benefit of the local community. There are 6 offender work camps in regional communities across the State. Each year, work camp offenders carry out approximately 75,000 hours of work in regional communities, repaying Western Australia with about $1 million worth of work (labour). Work camps give low-risk, minimum-security offenders the chance to develop skills while helping out local communities with valuable work such as conservation, maintenance and construction.
Work Camps The busy days undertaking meaningful work assists offenders develop work and social skills which help them re-enter society more readily when their sentences are completed. The work undertaken is usually for not-for-profit or local community groups and organisations, which may otherwise not be completed due to a lack of funds or volunteers. The variety of work is extensive and can include tree planting and coastal regeneration, recreational and heritage projects, includes maintenance of national parks and reserves, trail construction and restoring heritage sites and buildings of significant historical value as well as maintenance and grounds work at government facilities. Offenders may also undertake smaller projects for the local community and can play an important role in assisting after events of a disaster such as floods and bushfires.
Repay WA Whilst not under the domain of prisons Repay WA is the name used to describe community work projects carried out by offenders who have been given a sentence by the Courts to be served in the community. Seen as an effective sentencing option, the projects give offenders a way to repay their debt to society. In 2008/09, offenders performed more than 180,000 hours of work on community projects. At any one time, there are about 400 community work projects operating from Derby to Albany, saving WA taxpayers more than $2.8 million. Repay WA relies on not-for-profit and community organisations to nominate work projects that provide meaningful work opportunities for offenders. Community work projects may include graffiti and vandalism clean-ups, landscaping, recycling or restoration projects. Offenders who are released on parole may also be required to undertake work of this nature as a part of their parole conditions.
Transitional Services Transitional Managers (TMs) are located at each of the State's prisons to coordinate services which will assist offenders re-enter the community. The services include: Re-Entry Link program Transport Options Program Supported Accommodation Services Family Support Service Centres
Transitional Services Re-entry Link Program The Re-entry Link Program is a voluntary program to help prisoners improve their life skills, prepare for release, find somewhere to live and link up with job network providers, family and community support services. Offenders are eligible for support 3 months before they are released and for 6 months after they get out. This service operates in every prison across the State.
Transitional Services Transport Options Program TOP provides transport to offenders from remote locations who may have difficulty returning to their homes when they are released from prison or a work camp. This policy is in place to make sure offenders are fit to travel and all vehicle and safety requirements are met.
Transitional Services Supported accommodation services Support is available for people who have just got out of prison and other ex-offenders who are at risk of committing crime if they don't have somewhere stable to live. This includes: Short-term and emergency accommodation - for newly released offenders for up to 3 months Transitional accommodation and support services - accessible via the relevant prison's transitional manager to offenders for up to 9 months post-release, including mothers and babies Long-term accommodation for single people for up to 18 months.
Transitional Services After they are released, offenders can get help with: organising Centrelink payments keeping a place to live linking back in with family and friends finding a job finding somewhere permanent to live life skills. Services currently operate in the Perth metropolitan area, Albany, Bunbury, Geraldton and Kalgoorlie.
Other programs available Real Men & Real Relationships - addresses jealousy, anger and resentment issues within relationships Challenging the Fury Within - addresses regulating emotional response Changing Negative Thinking - addresses identifying negative thinking patterns, teaches strategies to replace them with positive thinking Life Skills program - (only available to men 6 months out from EED); teaches life skills, some cog skills, budgeting, job applications etc DRUMBEAT - aims to channel various emotions and teach expression through playing of drums Being There in Here - Reading project whereby the men can read/ dictate a children's book and have it burnt onto a CD, the book and CD go home to the child, the aim of which is to maintain the family bond. Sycamore Tree Project - examines the consequence of crime and accountability as well as restorative justice by bringing victims of crime to work with offenders Alternatives to Violence Program - is run in three stages, Basic, Advanced and Facilitators programs all look at the alternatives and recognising the signs that lead to violence.
Other programs available Passport Program - if an offender’s child is in school the offender can earn "points" by attending programs, work or defined projects such as education. The points then convert into "money" which the school will use to assist the child with school trips, educational tools, lunches, uniform needs etc. DATS (Drug and Alcohol Through Service) provided by Holyoake and Cyrenian House, however Outcare also run an A&D counselling program: this service provides one on one counselling to individuals who are four months out from their EED, often engagement with one of these services is mandatory upon parole depending on the offences. It is looked upon favourably by the Board if the men engage prior to release as it indicates that they are putting community supports in place and addressing their offending behaviour. Aboriginal Legal Service: provide a re-entry service predominantly for aboriginal offenders Aboriginal Alcohol and Drug Service: Men's healing Program: a yarning/ counselling program for aboriginal men and their families.
Other services available Bendigo Bank – Offenders can open bank accounts to save, however cannot operate those bank accounts for transactions unless approved by the Superintendent Child Support Agency - In attendance Medicare card applications Proof of Age Card applications Fines Enforcement Registry; can assist in setting up Time to Pay, conversion to time and wiping of certain fines Birth certificate applications HR, MC etc Driver Licences; only for approved offenders Outcare case management; for offenders 6 months out from EED can offer support and short term emergency accommodation and support for up to 12 months after release TASS - Centrecare (Transitional Accommodation Support Service); can provide limited accommodation, SO's cannot apply for this service ASSP - Centrecare (Accommodation Support Service Program); can provide limited accommodation, SO's cannot apply for this service Outreach - Uniting Care West; provides support to long term offenders (four years and over) and sex offenders or offenders with no supports locally. Generally it is preferred if the offender self refers to this service who are in attendance on a fortnightly basis. Offenders have to link with the service at least 6 months out before any external support can be offered such as possible accommodation or a sponsor for home leaves.
Chaplaincy Chaplaincy services are available in all Western Australian prisons to offer religious, moral and spiritual support. Offenders can meet with spiritual leaders from their chosen religion for services, pastoral visits, religious instruction and private counselling. Access to recognised spiritual or tribal elders is provided to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander offenders. Chaplains also conduct weekly religious services for offenders.
First Time in Prison Counselling and support services Being sent to prison can be a traumatic and distressing experience for many people, especially first-time prisoners. For this reason, there are a number of counselling and support services available. Each offender is assessed when they first arrive in a prison. The assessment means staff can work out a security rating, review health issues, determine program and education requirements which should be undertaken as a component of the rehabilitation process, and assist with settling into the prison environment. A counselling service, prison support officers and suicide prevention strategies are available to offenders who need extra support or who may be have thoughts of self-harm or suicide. Teams of social workers and psychologists work with health professionals, prison officers and other staff to help offenders deal with difficulties they might experience while in prison.
First Time in Prison Prison Support Officers Offenders have access to a range of services to help them cope. One of these is Prison Support Officers - Aboriginal employees who can be found at prisons around the State. Their main role is suicide prevention and they work closely with prison officers, nursing staff and the Prison Counselling Service. Prison Support Officers also manage the Peer Support teams. Peer Support offenders are located at each prison to provide support to new arrivals and any other offenders who is having difficulties. They are also part of the Prisoner At-Risk Group (PRAG) which manages all offenders at risk of hurting themselves or others. For more information on this group, refer to suicide prevention below.
First Time in Prison Prison Counselling Service provides individual counselling sessions for offenders who are having trouble coping in prison. It is made up of psychologists and social workers and assesses prisoners to see if they have any self-harm, suicide or other risk factors. If an offender is found to have any of these issues, the Service provides crisis counselling and other help. Offenders also have the support of the Aboriginal Visitors Scheme, a team of Aboriginal staff who provide support and culturally-appropriate advice to offenders. To find out more, refer to Aboriginal Visitors SchemeAboriginal Visitors Scheme
Suicide Prevention Offenders who are at risk of self harm or suicide are placed on the At Risk Management System (ARMS) - a suicide prevention strategy for people in custody. They are offered counselling and are closely watched while on the system. Offenders who need extra support or supervision to help them cope are put on the Support and Monitoring System (SAMS) - a case management system to make sure they receive the extra help and monitoring they need.
Releasing issues Employment Housing Mental Health Drug Use
Case Management Each offender with an Individual Management Plan has a prison officer assigned as their case manager. The intent is to assist where and when required to ensure the offender makes optimum use of the opportunities available to him. Offenders who are serving a sentence of less than six months are not assigned a case manager.
Prison Farms & Re-entry Services The two prison farms within close proximity to the metropolitan area offer the most comprehensive range of services and supports to pre release offenders in the State. Nearly every program or service available to male offenders operates from these two prisons to enhance the prospects of an offender not returning to prison. Unfortunately as yet there is not a comprehensive and coordinated approach to collecting data on recidivism and the success rates for intervention programs.
Not For Profit Organisations As the variety of services required are so varied and some very specialised the Department contracts out areas of work to not for profit agencies. Outcare for example is one of many agencies who are contracted to undertake the provision of services; examples are the facilitation of life skills courses, the provision of post release support and assisting with post release short term accommodation. The contracts are let through a tendering process and managed by the Contracted Services Directorate.
The challenge The challenge of combining multiple divisions, disciplines, programs, agencies to have a common purpose: Providing offender management services that protect the community and make a positive difference. Can only be achieved by working together.
Moving towards Integrated Offender Management Over the past five years the Department has progressed from a divisional silo mentality to a more integrated process driven agency. This process will be further enhanced by the move to develop an Integrated Offender Management Model. The theme is a Court to end of parole offender management model, which incorporates best practice and becomes the bedrock of our service provision. This is currently a work in progress.
Summary Identify opportunities; recognise and overcome barriers Continue to try and make a positive difference Contribute to community safety by ensuring we continue to develop better options.