8BalkansBalkans Bulg. Stara Planina (stä´rä plä´´nēnä´) , major mountain range of the Balkan Peninsula Bulgaria, E Serbia and Montenegro through central Bulgaria to the Black Sea. The Balkans are a continuation of the Carpathian Mts.
10The disputes in the Balkans are what set in motion the events that lead to WWI. Many “mini” countries in the Balkans were wanting true independence from either the Ottoman Empire or the Austria Hungary Empire that had the main control over this region. Serbia, Bosnia, Croatia and Slovenia were the primary countries wanting independence. These countries had informally united under one name- Yugoslavia
12The first of these countries to gain “formal” independence was Serbia The first of these countries to gain “formal” independence was Serbia. Russia Supported the Serbs, Austria Hungary did not. Austria Hungary did not want Serbia independent b/c they wanted to maintain control of the region Austria Hungary annexed Bosnia which at the time technically belonged to the Ottoman Empire even though Bosnia looked at itself as part of the Yugoslavian territory.
13The annexation of Bosnia by Austria Hungary proved that Austria Hungary had no intention of honoring any Balkan countries independence.
14In late June 1914 the heir to the throne of Austria Hungary Archduke Franz Ferdinand visited the Bosnian capital called Sarajevo. As the Ferdinand and his wife rode through the city a Bosnia revolutionary assassinated the couple
15The Triple Entente became known as the Allies- France, Russia, Great Britain and Italy (Italy joined in 1915 after the allies promise to give Italy the Austria- Hungary territory to Italy once the war is over.)Triple Alliance became the Central Powers- Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria.
16America and WWIPresident Woodrow Wilson wants the U.S to stay neutral. The U.S. citizenry was divided regarding which alliance they would support. The U.S. was made up of many immigrants and most immigrants supported their home country.
17Britain deployed a naval blockade to stop German ships from obtaining supplies and forced all neutral ships to port and be inspected.Germany knew that the Allies( France, Russia, Great Britain and Italy) needed supplies so Germany decided stop trade amongst these countries to force the Allies into surrender.
18To bypass the British blockade, Germany sent out U-boats submarines and to sink any of the Allies supply ships.February 1915 Germany announced they would sink without warning any ship around Great Britain.
20This angered Pres. Wilson and America. May German U Boat sank the passenger ship the Lusitania. Killing 1200 including 128 Americans.Wilson outraged but would still not enter the War.March 1916 German U Boat torpedoed French passenger ship the Sussex. Injuring passengers on board including some Americans
21Even after the Sussex the U.S. does not enter the war. However… Wilson wins re-election in 1916 largely because he is known and the non war candidate. But, that wouldn’t last.
22In January 1917 American intelligence intercepted a message from a German official (Arthur Zimmerman) to the German Ambassador in Mexico proposing that if Mexico would enter the war on the side of Germany (Central Powers) that once the war was won by the Central powers Mexico would get the Lost territory in Texas, New Mexico and Arizona( Mexico had lost this territory in the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo after the Mexican war that was a result of Texas annexing to the United States).
23Germany hoped that Mexico would embattle the U. S Germany hoped that Mexico would embattle the U.S. thus not allowing America to enter the war and assist the Allies. This scandal became known as the Zimmerman Telegram.In addition, in 1917 Germany resumed their unrestricted submarine warfare( even after they pledged not to) and began sinking all ships around Great Britain again and sank 6 American merchant ships between Feb. 3 and March 21
24America Enters WWIPresident Wilson petitions Congress to approve his call to war against Germany on April 2, After much debate Congress approves. America is now in WWI
25Shench v United States- Free Speech right could be curbed if what is spoken presents a “clear and present danger” to the country.Trench Warfare and “No Mans Land”-
26Women in the Military- Clerical, Army Corp of Nurses African American in the War- 42,000 served overseesWar Industries Board- Headed by Bernard Baruch coordinated productions of war Materials
27Russia Leaves WWIMarch 1917 Riots break out in Russia over the governments handling of the war and the lack of food and fuel. Czar Nicholas II the leader of the Russian empire is forced to abdicate his thrown. Government in Russia was in a state of instability and passed thru the hands of several temporary government. All of which continued to support Russia’s involvement in the war
28The Bolsheviks, a group of Communist, soon sought power in Russian The Bolsheviks, a group of Communist, soon sought power in Russian. Their leader was Vladimir Lenin. Lenin and the Bolsheviks overthrew the temporary Russian Government and seized control of Russia.
29Lenin’s first act as the new Communist leader of Russia was to pull Russia out of WWI. To get out of the war Russia agreed to the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk giving up substantial territory including the Ukraine and its Polish and Baltic Territories and also Finland.With Russia out of the War Germany seized the opportunity to advance their army. However, American troops were successful and stopping their advances.
30Germany is Pushed BackGeneral Pershing( US General) successfully pushed Germany back by assembling 600,000 troops with some 40,000 tons of supplies and 4,000 artillery pieces. One battle after the other Germany is defeated. Ultimately bringing and end to the war.November 11, 1918 Armistice(cease fire) is called. WWI is over.
31January 1919 a peace conference began January 1919 a peace conference began. Even though President Wilson wanted more lenient peace terms for Germany and the Central powers France and Great Britain did not.Wilson had presented a plan called the “Fourteen Points” based on the principle of justice to all peoples and nationalities.” In the first 5 points the president proposed to eliminate the general causes of the war through free trade, disarmament, freedom to the seas, impartial adjustments of colonial claims and open diplomacy in stead of secret agreements. The next eight points addressed thru right of self-determination. The 14th point called for a League of Nations for all nations to help preserve peace and prevent future wars by pledging to respect and protect each other’s territory and political independence.
32Despite Wilson’s hopes of more lenient peace terms for Germany the peace terms Germany had to agree to were very harsh.The Treaty of Versailles(peace treaty for WWI) was signed by Germany on June 28, Germany was stripped of all its armed forced and was made to pay for all war damages in excess of $33 billion dollars to the Allies. This would bankrupt Germany. Finally Germany had to acknowledge the guilt for the outbreak of the war.