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Chapter 36 The Cold War Begins, 1945-1952. I. Postwar Economic Anxieties The decade of the 1930s had left deep scars: Joblessness and insecurity pushed.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 36 The Cold War Begins, 1945-1952. I. Postwar Economic Anxieties The decade of the 1930s had left deep scars: Joblessness and insecurity pushed."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 36 The Cold War Begins,

2 I. Postwar Economic Anxieties The decade of the 1930s had left deep scars: Joblessness and insecurity pushed up the suicide rate and dampened the marriage rate Babies went unborn—pinched budgets and sagging self-esteem wrought a sexual depression The war banished the blight of depression The faltering economy threatened to confirm the worst predictions of the doomsayers: – Who foresaw another Great Depression Gross national product (GNP) slumped in An epidemic of strikes swept the country

3 I. Postwar Economic Anxieties (cont.) The growing power of organized labor deeply annoyed the conservatives. – Obstacles that slowed the growth of organized labor: Congress passed the Taft-Hartley Act over President Truman’s vigorous veto – It outlawed the “closed” (all-union) shop – Made unions liable for damages that resulted from juris- dictional disputes among themselves – Required union leaders to take a noncommunist oath The CIO’s Operation Dixie: – Aimed at unionizing southern textile workers and steel workers, failed to ease fears of racial mixing

4 I. Postwar Economic Anxieties (cont.) – Some groups of women proved difficult to organize – Union membership peaked in the 1950s – The Democratic administration took steps to forestall economic downturn: It sold war factories and government installations to private business at fire-sale prices It secured the passage of the Employment Act of 1946: – Made government policy “to promote maximum employ- ment;” a three-member Council of Economic Advisers: » To provide the president with the data and the recom- mendations to make that policy a reality.

5 I. Postwar Economic Anxieties (cont.) 1944 passage of the Servicemen’s Readjustment Act: – Better known as the GI Bill of Rights, or the GI Bill: – Made generous provision for sending the former soldiers to school – Some 8 million veterans advanced their education – Majority attended technical and vocational schools – Some 2 million attended colleges and universities – The total spent on education was $14.5 billion in taxpayer dollars – The Act enabled the Veterans Administration (VA) to guarantee $16 billion in loans for veterans to buy homes, farms, and small businesses – The bill nurtured the robust and long-lived economic expansion and profoundly shaped the entire history of the postwar era.

6 II. The Long Economic Boom, 1950–1970 The 1950s American economic surge: America’s economic performance became the envy of the world National income nearly doubled in the 1950s Nearly doubled again in the 1960s Shooting through the trillion-dollar mark in 1973 Americans, 6% of world’s population, were enjoying about 40% of the planet’s wealth Fantastic eruption of affluence Prosperity underwrote social mobility Paved the way for the success of the civil rights movement

7 II. The Long Economic Boom, (cont.) It funded vast new welfare programs, Medicare It gave Americans the confidence to exercise unprece- dented international leadership in the Cold War era. – Americans drank deeply from the gilded goblet: Make up for the sufferings of the 1930s They determined to “get theirs” while the getting was good They hungered for more Size of the “middle class” household earning between $3,000 and $10,000 a year By the end of the decade the average American family owned a lot.

8 II. The Long Economic Boom, (cont.) 60% now owned their own homes in 1960, compared to 40% in the 1920s Women reaped the greatest rewards: – Urban offices and shops provided a bonanza of employment – The great majority of new jobs created went to women – Especially in the service sector – Women accounted for ¼ of the American workforce at end of the war and nearly ½ five decades later – Yet popular culture glorified the traditional feminine roles of motherhood and mothers – The clash between the demands of suburban housewifery and the realities of employment eventually sparked a feminist revolt in the 1960s.

9 III. The Roots of Postwar Prosperity What propelled this economic growth: – The Second World War itself: The United States used the war to fire up its factories and rebuild its economy Much rested on the underpinnings of colossal military budgets (see Figure 36.1) Fueled by massive appropriations for the Korean War and defense spending (10%) Pentagon dollars primed the pumps of high- technology industries—aerospace, plastics, and electronics

10 III. The Roots of Postwar Prosperity (cont.) The military budget financed much scientific research and development (“R and D”) Unlocking the secrets of nature was the key to unleashing economic growth – Cheap energy fed the economic boom: Americans and Europeans controlled the flow of the abundant petroleum of the Middle East They kept prices low Americans doubled their consumption of oil: – Endless ribbons of highways – Installed air-conditioning in their homes » Engineered a sixfold increase in the country’s electricity-generating capacity between

11 II. The Roots of Postwar Prosperity (cont.) – Workers chalked up spectacular gains in productivity—the amount of output per hour of work: 1950s on average productivity increased 3% per year Enhanced by the rising educational level of the work force – By 1970 nearly 90% of the school age population was enrolled in educational institutions – Better educated and better equipped in 1970s could produce twice as much as the 1950s – Changes in the nation’s basic economic structure

12 II. The Roots of Postwar Prosperity (cont.) Conspicuous was the accelerating shift of the work force out of agriculture – Consolidation produced giant agribusinesses able to employ costly machines – Mechanization, rich new fertilizers, government subsidies and price support; one farmworker could now feed 50 people, compared to 15 people in the 1940s – Farmers now plowed their fields in air-conditioning tractor cabs, listening to stereophonic radios – By the end of World War II, famers made up 2% of working Americans–yet fed much of the world.

13 Figure 36-1 p832

14 IV. The Smiling Sunbelt The population redistribution set in motion by World War II: Americans had always been people on the move After 1945, an average of 30 million people changed residences every year Families especially felt the strain of separation Popularity of advice books on child-rearing: – Dr. Benjamin Spock’s The Common Sense Book of Baby and Child Care In fluid postwar neighborhoods, friendships were hard to sustain Mobility exacted high human cost in loneliness/isolation

15 IV. The Smiling Sunbelt (cont.) The growth of the Sunbelt— – A fifteen-state area stretching from Virginia through Florida, Texas, Arizona and California Had doubling of its population The South and Southwest was a new frontier Distribution of population increase, 1958 (see Map 36.1) Federal funds in the states of the South and West were annually receiving $444 billion more than those of the North A new economic war between the states seemed to be shaping up.

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17 V. The Rush to the Suburbs America’s modern migration from the cities to the new suburbs (see pp ) – Government policies encouraged movement away from urban centers – Federal Housing Administration (FHA) and Veterans Administration (VA) Home-loan guarantees a home in the suburbs Tax deductions for interest payments on home mortgages was a financial incentive Government-built highways sped communities to suburban homes; facilitated this mass migration.

18 V. The Rush to the Suburbs (cont.) The home construction industry boomed in the 1950s and 1960s – Levittown revolutionized the techniques of home construction – Helped people move to the suburbs – Critics wailed at the aesthetic monotony of the suburban “tract” development “White flight” to the suburbs left the inner cities black, brown, and broke (see pp ) – Shopping malls were another post-World War II invention – Government policies aggravated this spreading pattern of residential segregation – Refused mortgages, loans limited black mobility, sending them into public housing projects—solidifying racial separation

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20 VI. The Postwar Baby Boom Upheavals of the baby boom: – The huge leap in the birthrate in the decade and a half after 1945: Marriages were in record numbers at war’s end Began immediately to fill the nation’s empty cradles Touched off a demographic explosion adding 50 million to the nation by the end of the 1950s Crested in 1957 By 1973 fertility rates had dropped below the point necessary to maintain existing population figures without further immigration.

21 VI. The Postwar Baby Boom (cont.) – This boom-or-bust cycle of births begot a bulg- ing wave along the American population curve – For example, increase of elementary school enrollments to nearly 34 million in 1970 With a closing of elementary schools and unemployment of teachers throughout the late 1970s – By 1960s economic shift of baby products to youth products (“youth culture”) – By 1970s the aging baby boomers culture changed again.

22 VII. Truman: The “Gutty” Man from Missouri Presiding over the postwar period was the “accidental president” Harry S. Truman Truman was called “the average man’s average man” First president in many years without a college education He had farmed, served as an artillery officer in France during World War I, and failed as a haberdasher Involved somewhat in Missouri politics, rose from a judgeship to the U.S. Senate Though a protégé of a notorious political machine in Kansas City, he managed to keep his own hands clean.

23 VII. Truman: The “Gutty” Man from Missouri (cont.) – Started the presidency with humility but gradually gained experience: He gathered old associates of the “Missouri gang” to gather around him and was stubbornly loyal to them Had trouble in his public appearances He had down-home authenticity Few pretensions, rock-solid probity A lot of old-fashioned character trait called moxie

24 VIII. Yalta: Bargain or Betrayal? The Yalta conference: – The final fateful conference of the Big Three, February 1943 at the former tsarist resort on the Black Sea – Stalin, Churchill and the fast-failing Roosevelt – Momentous agreements and plans: Final plans to smash the buckling German lines And assign occupation zones in Germany Stalin agreed that Poland, with revised boundaries, should have a representative government based on free elections.

25 VII. Yalta: Bargain or Betrayal? (cont.) Bulgaria and Romania were to have free elections—a promise flouted The Big Three announced plans for fashioning a new international peacekeeping organization—the United Nations The most controversial was the Far East: – Roosevelt’s standpoint: Stalin should enter the Asian war, and pin down Japan, which Stalin fulfilled after Germany collapsed: – The Soviets received: » The southern half of Sakhalin Island and Japan’s Kurile island » Granted joint control of the railroads of China’s Manchuria

26 VII. Yalta: Bargain or Betrayal (cont.) » Special privileges of the seaports of Dairen and Port Arthur – These concessions gave Stalin control over the vital industrial centers of America’s weakening Chinese ally Roosevelt’s critics: – He sold Jiang Jieshi (Chiang Kai-shek) down the river – Also that he assailed the “sell-out” of Poland and other Eastern European countries Roosevelt’s defenders: – Stalin, with his red army, could have secured more of China – If Stalin had allowed free elections in Poland and the liberated Balkans, things would have been different

27 VII. Yalta: Bargain or Betrayal (cont.) The Big Three were not drafting a compre- hensive peace settlement: – They were sketching general instructions and testing one another’s reactions – Broken promises that were overlooked – More specific understandings among the wartime allies awaited the arrival of peace.

28 IX. The United States and the Soviet Union – United States and Soviet Union reaching cordial understanding would be hard: Communism and capitalism were historically hostile social philosophies: – The United States did not officially recognize the Bolshevik government until 1933 – Soviet skepticism was nourished by the long delays of Americans and British to open up a second front against Germany – Britain and America had frozen their Soviet “ally” out of the project to develop atomic weapons – Washington abruptly terminated the lend-lease aid to USSR in 1945

29 IX. The United States and the Soviet Union (cont.) – Different visions of the postwar world separated the two superpowers: Stalin aimed to guarantee the security of the Soviet Union By maintaining an extensive Soviet sphere of influence in Eastern and Central Europe, the USSR could protect itself and consolidate its revolutionary base as the world’s leading communist country Many Americans saw the “sphere of influence” as an ill-gained “empire” – The “sphere of influence” clashed with Roosevelt’s and Wilson’s “open world” –decolonized, demilitarized, democratized with a strong international org. for global peace.

30 IX. The United States and the Soviet Union (cont.) Both countries were isolated from world affairs before World War II – United States through choice – The Soviet Union through rejection by other powers – Both had a “missionary” diplomacy—trying to export to the world their political doctrines – Each believed in their own particular ideology— thus some confrontation was unavoidable.

31 IX. The United States and the Soviet Union (cont.) In the fateful progression of events: – Suspicion and rivalry Between communistic, despotic Russia And capitalistic, democratic America – Cold War: A tense standoff for four and a half decades It shaped Soviet-American relations It overshadowed the entire postwar international order in every corner of the globe It also molded societies and economies and the lives of individual people all over the planet.

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33 X. Shaping the Postwar World Bretton Woods Conference: – Bretton Woods, New Hampshire, in 1944 The Western allies established the International Monetary Fund (IMF): – To encourage world trade by regulating currency exchange rates Founded the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (World Bank): – To aid economic growth in war-ravaged and underdeveloped areas The United States took the lead in creating these bodies and supplied much of their funding. The Soviets declined to participate (see pp ).

34 X. Shaping the Postwar World (cont.) The United Nations Conference opened on April 25, 1945: Roosevelt shrewdly moved to establish the new international body before the war’s conclusion Meeting at the San Francisco War Memorial Opera House, representatives from fifty nations fashioned the United Nations Charter – The United Nations (U.N.): Was a successor to the League of Nations Differed in many ways: – The League adopted rules denying the veto power to any party to a dispute

35 X. Shaping the Postwar World (cont.) – The U.N. realistically provided that no member of the Security Council, dominated by the Big Five (United States, Britain, France, the USSR, and China), could have action taken against it without its consent – The U.N. also featured the General Assembly which could be controlled by smaller countries – In contrast to the American reception of the League in 1919, the Senate overwhelmingly approved the U.N. Charter on July 28, 1945, by a vote of 89 to 2.

36 X. Shaping the Postwar World (cont.) The United Nations, headquartered in New York City, has had some successes: Helped to preserve peace in Iran, Kashmir, and other trouble spots It played a large role in creating the new Jewish state of Israel The U.N. Trusteeship Council guided former colonies to independence Through such arms as UNESCO, FAO, WHO, has brought benefits to peoples the world over

37 X. Shaping the Postwar World (cont.) The new technology of the atom tested the spirit of cooperation – The new organization failed badly: Bernard Baruch called for a separate agency to have world-wide authority over atomic energy, weapons, and research: The Soviet Union called for the total outlawing of nuclear weapons by every nation The Soviet Union used the veto power to scuttle proposals A priceless opportunity to tame the nuclear monster in its infancy was lost.

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39 XI. The Problem of Germany Hitler’s ruined Reich created problems for all the wartime Allies: They agreed that the cancer of Nazism had to be cut out of the German body politics—involved in punish- ing Nazi leaders for war crimes The Nuremberg war crimes trial : – Tried 22 top culprits – Accusations included » Committing crimes against the laws of war and humanity » Plotting aggressions contrary to solemn treaty pledges – Justice, Nuremberg-style, was harsh.

40 XI. The Problem of Germany (cont.) » 12 accused Nazis swung from the gallows, and 7 were sentenced to long jail terms » “Foxy Hermann” Goering escaped the hangman by swallowing a hidden cyanide capsule » Other trials continued for years – Critics condemned these trials as judicial lynching: » Because the victims were tried for offenses that had not been clearcut crimes when the war began Beyond punishing the top Nazis, the Allies could agree on little about postwar Germany – American Hitler-haters wanted to dismantle the industrial- ized German factories and reduce the country to a potato patch

41 XI. The Problem of Germany (cont.) – The Soviets, denied American economic assistance, were determined to rebuild their shattered land by extracting enormous reparations from the Germans – Both clashed headlong with the reality that an industrial, healthy Germany economy was indispensable to the recovery of Europe – Along with Austria, Germany had been divided into four military occupation zones: » Each one assigned to one of the Big Four powers (France, Britain, America and the USSR) (see Map 36.2) The Western Allies: – Refused to allow Moscow to bleed their zones of the repar- ations that Stalin insisted he had been promised at Yalta

42 XI. The Problems of Germany (cont.) – They began to promote the idea of a reunited Germany – The communists responded by tightening their grip on their Eastern zone – It was apparent that Germany would remain indefinitely divided: » West Germany became an independent country, wedded to the West » East Germany, along with other Soviet-dominated Eastern European countries Poland and Hungary, became nominally independent “satellite” states bound to the Soviet Union » Eastern Europe virtually disappeared from Western sight behind the “iron curtain” of secrecy and isolation » The division of Europe would last some 4 decades.

43 XI. The Problems of Germany (cont.) What about Berlin? – Deep within the Soviet zone – Divided into two sectors occupied by troops of each of the four victorious powers – In 1948 after controversies over: German currency reform and four-power control The Soviets abruptly choked off all rail and highway access to Berlin – Berlin was a huge symbolic issue for both sides

44 XI. The Problems of Germany (cont.) The Americans organized the gigantic Berlin airlift: – American pilots ferried thousands of tons of supplies a day to the grateful Berliners – Western Europe took heart from this demon- strated American commitment in Europe – The Soviets finally lifted the blockade in May 1949 – This same year the two Germanys, East and West, were established. The Cold War congealed.

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46 Map 36-2 p845

47 XII. The Cold War Congeals Stalin, seeking to secure oil concessions, broke an agreement and removed his troops from northern Iran: – Moscow’s hard-line policies in Germany, Eastern Europe and the Middle East wrought a psycho- logical Pearl Harbor – Americans were upset by the Kremlin’s unwillingness to continue the wartime partnership

48 XII. The Cold War Congeals (cont.) Truman’s response to various Soviet challenges: – Containment doctrine: Crafted by George F. Kennan Held that Russia, whether tsarist or communist, was relentlessly expansionary Said that the flow of Soviet power could be contained by “firm and vigilant containment” – Truman Doctrine: Truman went before the Congress on March 12, 1947 and requested support of his doctrine

49 XII. The Cold War Congeals (cont.) He asked for $400 billion to bolster Greece and Turkey United States support for those who were resisting “Communist aggression” Claims that he pitched his message in the charged language of a holy global war against godless communism—a description of the Cold War Theologians, like Reinhold Niebuhr ( ) supported Truman – Vocal enemies of fascism, pacifism, and communism – Christian justice, including force if necessary, required a “realist” response to “children of darkness” like Hitler and Stalin.

50 XII. The Cold War Congeals (cont.) Threat in Western Europe: – Especially France, Italy, and Germany Danger of being taken over from the inside by Communist parties On June 5, 1947, Secretary of State George C. Marshall invited the Europeans to get together and work out a joint plan for economic recovery – If they did, the United States would provide substantial financial assistance – This forced cooperation would eventually lead to the creation of the European Community (EC).

51 XII. The Cold War Congeals (cont.) The Marshall Plan: Met in Paris in July 1947 to thrash out the details Marshall offered the same aid to the Soviet Union and its allies Called for spending $12.5 billion over four years in 16 cooperating countries (see Map 36.3) Congress at first balked at this mammoth sum Looked huge when added to the $2 billion given through the various United Nations agencies Congress voted the initial appropriations in April 1948.

52 XII. The Cold War Congeals (cont.) The Marshall Plan was a spectacular success: American dollars assisted the anemic Western European nations: “Economic miracle” drenched Europe in prosperity Communist parties in Italy and France lost power, and these two countries were saved from communism – Truman decision in 1948: Against the antagonized oil-endowed Arabs Truman officially recognized the state of Israel on the day of its birth, May 14, 1948

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56 XIII. America Begins to Rearm The Soviet menace resulted in: – Creation of a huge new national security apparatus The National Security Act 1947: – Created the Department of Defense – Was to house the Pentagon building – To be headed by a new cabinet office, the secretary of defense – Under the secretary was the civilian secretaries of the navy, the army and the air force – The uniformed heads of each service were brought together as the Joint Chiefs of Staff

57 XIII. America Begins to Reform (cont.) – Established the National Security Council (NSC) to advise the president on security matters – The Central Intelligences Agency (CIA) to coordinate the government’s foreign fact gathering – The “Voice of America” authorized by Congress 1948 began beaming American radio broadcasts behind the iron curtain – Congress: Resurrected the military draft: providing conscription of selected young men from 19 to 25 The Selective Service System shaped millions of young people’s educational, marital, and career plans.

58 XIII. America Begins to Reform (cont.) The Truman administration decided to join the European Pact—North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO): The treaty was signed in Washington on April 4, 1949 The 12 original signatories pledged to support any attack and to respond with “armed force” if necessary The Senate approved the treaty on July 21, 1949, by a vote of 82 to 13 Membership was boosted to 14 in 1952 when Greece joined and to 15 in 1955 by the addition of West Germany.

59 XIII. America Begins to Reform (cont.) The NATO pact was epochal: It marked a dramatic departure from American diplo- matic convention A gigantic boost for European unification A significant step in the militarization of the Cold War NATO became the cornerstone of all Cold War American policy toward Europe With good reason pundits summed up NATO’s three- fold purpose: “to keep the Russians out, the Germans down, and the Americans in.”

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61 XIV. Reconstruction and Revolution in Asia Reconstruction in Japan: – Easier because it was a one-man show MacArthur led the program for the democratization of Japan Top Japanese “war criminals” were tried in Tokyo from 1946 to 1948 – 18 were sentenced to prison terms, 7 were hanged – MacArthur was successful and the Japanese cooperated to an astonishing degree – A MacArthur-dictated constitution was adopted in 1946 » Renounced militarism » Provided for women’s equality » Introduced Western-style democratic government.

62 XIV. Reconstruction and Revolution in Asia (cont.) Reconstruction in China – Not as smooth as Japan: A bitter civil war raged for years between the Nation- alists and communists Washington halfheartedly supported the Nationalist government of Generalissimo Jiang Jieshi in his struggle against communism: Communism was under Mao Zedong (Mao Tse-tung) Corruption in the Generalissimo’s regime which began to corrode the confidence of his people Communist armies swept south forcing Jieshi in 1949 to the island of Formosa (Taiwan).

63 XIV. Reconstruction and Revolution in Asia (cont.) – The collapse of Nationalist China was a depressing defeat for America and its allies in the Cold War—the worst to date: Nearly ¼ of the world’s population—some 500 million —was swept into the communist camp The so-called fall of China became a bitterly partisan issue in the United States Truman, the argument ran, did not “lose” China, because he never had China to lose Jiang himself had never controlled all of China.

64 XIV. Reconstruction and Revolution in Asia (cont.) More bad news: – In September 1949 Truman announced that the Soviets had exploded an atomic bomb – To outpace the Soviets in nuclear weaponry, Tru- man ordered the development of the “H-bomb” (hydrogen bomb) J. Robert Oppenheimer led a group of scientists in opposition to the crash program to design thermo- nuclear weapons Famed physicist Albert Einstein declared that “annihilation of any life on earth has been brought within the range of technical possibilities.”

65 XIV. Reconstruction and Revolution in Asia (cont.) The United States explored its first hydrogen device on a South Pacific atoll in 1952 Not to be outdone, the Soviets countered with their first H-bomb explosion in 1953 The nuclear arms race entered a perilously competitive cycle Nuclear “superiority” became a dangerous and delusive dream.

66 XV. Ferreting Out Alleged Communists One of the most active Cold War fronts was at home, where an anti-red chase was in full cry: In 1947 Truman launched a massive “loyalty” program: – The attorney general drew up a list of 90 supposedly disloyal organizations – The Loyalty Review Board investigated more than 3 million federal employees – Some 3,000 of whom either resigned or were dismissed, none under formal indictment.

67 XV. Ferreting Out Alleged Communists (cont.) Individual states became involved Loyalty oaths were demanded of employees, especially teachers In communists were brought before a New York jury for violating the Smith Act of 1940: – The first peacetime anti-sedition law since 1978 – Convicted of advocating the overthrow of the American government by force, the defendants were sent to prison – The Supreme Court upheld their convictions in Dennis v. United States (1951).

68 XV. Ferreting Out Alleged Communists (cont.) The House of Representatives in 1938 had established the House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC): – To investigate “subversion” In 1948 Richard M. Nixon, committee member, led the chase after Alger Hiss: – A prominent ex-New Dealer – A distinguished member of the “eastern establishment” – Accused of being a communist agent in the 1930s – Hiss demanded the right to defend himself – He dramatically met his chief accuser before HUAC in August 1948.

69 XV. Ferreting Out Alleged Communists (cont.) – Hiss denied everything but was caught in embarrassing falsehoods, convicted of perjury in 1950, and sentenced to five years in prison. – The red hunt was turning into a witch hunt: In 1950 Truman vetoed the McCarran Internal Security Bill: – Authorized the president to arrest and detain suspicious people during an “internal security emergency” – Critics: the bill smacked of police-state, concentration camp tactics – The Congress enacted the bill over Truman’s veto.

70 XV. Ferreting Out Alleged Communists (cont.) – Julius and Ethel Rosenberg: Allegedly “leaked” atomic data to Moscow They were convicted in 1951 of espionage Went to the electric chair in 1953 The only people in American history ever executed in peacetime for espionage The sensational trial and electrocution, combined with sympathy for their two orphaned children, began to sour some sober citizens on the excesses of the red-hunters.

71 XVI. Democratic Divisions in 1948 Elections of 1948: – Republicans They gathered in Philadelphia to choose their presi- dential candidate Nominated Thomas E. Dewey – Democrats Truman was chosen: – In the face of vehement opposition by southern delegates – Alienated by his strong stand in favor of civil rights for blacks, especially his decision in 1948 to desegregate the military.

72 XVI. Democratic Divisions in 1948 (cont.) Truman’s nomination split the party: – Embittered southern Democrats from 13 states Met in convention in Birmingham, Alabama Nominated Governor J. Strom Thurmond of South Carolina on a States’ Rights party ticket – Vice president Henry A. Wallace threw his hat in: Nominated at Philadelphia by the new Progressive party To many he was the only hopeful voice in the deepening gloom of the Cold War – With the Democrats split, Dewey’s victory seemed assured.

73 XVI. Democratic Divisions in 1948 (cont.) Truman campaign: – Delivered over 300 hundred speeches – Lashed out at the Taft-Hartley “slave-labor” law – And the “do-nothing” Republican Congress – Whipping up support for his Program of civil rights Improved labor benefits Health insurance – On election night the Chicago Tribune early edition: “DEWEY DEFEATS TRUMAN.”

74 XVI. Democratic Divisions in 1948 (cont.) Election results: – Truman had swept a stunning triumph Thurmond took 39 electoral votes in the South Truman won 303 electoral votes, primarily from the South, Midwest, and West Dewey’s 189 electoral votes principally from the east The popular vote was: – 24,179,345 for Truman – 21,991,291 for Dewey – 1,176,125 for Thurmond – 1,157,326 for Wallace To make it sweeter, Democrats regained the Congress.

75 XVI. Democratic Divisions in 1948 (cont.) Why the victory? – Truman: His victory rested on farmers, workers, and blacks, all of whom were Republican-wary Republicans were overconfident Truman’s lone-wolf, never-say-die campaign – Dewey: Struck many voters as arrogant, evasive, and wooden.

76 XVI. Democratic Divisions in 1948 (cont.) Fourth point of Truman’s inaugural address – Called for a “bold new program”—thereafter known as “Point Four” The plan was to lend U.S. money and technical aid to underdeveloped lands to help them help themselves He wanted to spend millions to keep underprivileged peoples from becoming communists Rather than billions to shoot them after they became communists – The program was officially launched in 1950 – To impoverished nations: Latin America, Africa, the Near East, the Far East.

77 XVI. Democratic Divisions in 1948 (cont.) Fair Deal: – Program presented to Congress in 1949 called for: Improved housing Full employment A higher minimum wage Better farm price supports New TVAs Extension of Social Security.

78 XVI. Democratic Divisions in 1948 (cont.) – Reactions: Most fell victim to congressional opposition from Republicans and southern Democrats Only major successes: – Raising the minimum wage – Providing for public housing in the Housing Act of 1949 – Extending old-age insurance to many more beneficiaries in the Social Security Act of 1950.

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81 XVII. The Korean Volcano Erupts Korea, the Land of the Morning Calm: – New phase to Cold War: a shooting phase, June 1949 Soviet troops took north of the thirty-eighth parallel American troops took south of the thirty-eighth parallel Both superpowers professed to want reunification and independence of Korea As in Germany, each side helped to set up rival regimes above and below the parallel

82 XVII. The Korean Volcano Erupts (cont.) – By 1949, both sides had withdrawn their forces: Leaving a bristling armed camp Two hostile regimes eyeing each other suspiciously – The explosion came on June 25, 1950 Spearheaded by Soviet-made tanks, the North Korean army rumbled across the thirty-eighth parallel The South Korean forces were pushed back to Pusan – Truman saw the incident as a violation of the “containment doctrine” That shaped Washington’s foreign policy

83 XVII. The Korean Volcano Erupts (cont.) Prompted a massive expansion of the American military: – National Security Council Memorandum Number 68 (NSC-68): Recommending that the United States quadruple defense spending Truman ordered a massive buildup, well beyond what was necessary for Korea: – U.S. had 3.5 million men under arms – Was spending $50 billion per year on the defense budget— some 13 percent of the GNP.

84 XVI. The Korean Volcano Erupts (cont.) – NSC-68 key document of the Cold War period: It marked a major step in the militarization of American foreign policy It vividly reflected the sense of almost limitless possibility that pervaded postwar American society NSC-68 rested on the assumption that the enormous American economy could bear without strain the huge costs of a gigantic rearmament program Said one NSC-68 planner: “There is practically nothing the country could not do if it wanted to do it.”

85 XVI. The Korean Volcano Erupts (cont.) Truman and United Nations: – On June 25, 1950, obtained a unanimous condemnation of North Korea as an aggressor: The Security Council called all U.N. members, includ- ing the United States, to “render assistance” to restore peace Two days later, Truman ordered American air and naval units to support South Korea He ordered General Douglas MacArthur’s Japan- based occupation troops into action alongside the beleaguered South Koreans So began the ill-fated Korean War.

86 XVI. The Korean Volcano Erupts (cont.) United States’ role: – Simply participating in a United Nations “police action” – But in fact, the United States made up the overwhelming bulk of the U.N. contingents – General MacArthur, appointed U.N. commander of the entire operation: Took his orders from Washington, not from the Security Council.

87 XVIII. The Military Seesaw in Korea – MacArthur landed behind the enemy’s line at Inchon on September 15, 1950: Succeeded brilliantly North Koreans scrambled back behind the “sanctuary” of the thirty-eighth parallel The U.N. General Council tacitly authorized a crossing by MacArthur Truman ordered northward, provided there was no intervention in force by the Chinese or Soviets (see Map 36.4) – The Americans raised the stakes in Korea: Bringing China into the dangerous game.

88 XVIII. The Military Seesaw in Korea (cont.) Chinese involvement: – They would not sit idly by and watch hostile troops approach the boundary between Korea and China: – MacArthur boasted he would “have the boys home by Christmas” In November 1950, tens of thousands of Chinese “volunteers” – Fell upon his rashly overextended line – Hurling the U.N. forces reeling back down the peninsula.

89 XVIII. The Military Seesaw in Korea (cont.) Now the fighting was at a stalemate on the icy terrain near the thirty-eighth parallel. MacArthur pressed for drastic retaliation, while Washington refused to enlarge the already costly conflict: – Europe, not Asia, was the administration’s first concern, and the USSR, not China, loomed as the more sinister foe. MacArthur sneered at the concept of a “limited war” – Truman bravely resisted calls for nuclear escalation – When MacArthur began to criticize the president’s policies publicly, Truman had no choice but to remove the insubordi- nate MacArthur from command on April 11, 1951.

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