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Resistance to Communist Rule: The 1956 Hungarian Revolution.

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Presentation on theme: "Resistance to Communist Rule: The 1956 Hungarian Revolution."— Presentation transcript:

1 Resistance to Communist Rule: The 1956 Hungarian Revolution

2 Post WWII Soviet military occupies Hungary –Install Hungarian Communist Party as government Mutual Assistance Treaty grants Soviet Union continued military and political presence

3 Post WWII (cont’d) Stalin dies. Khrushchev denounces Stalin’s purges; begins de- Stalinization- raised possibility of reform in Hungary Austria establishes its neutrality- raises hope in Hungary that it too may adopt a neutral status

4 Why Revolt? Hard-line Stalinist regime left bitter taste Secret Police (AVH) were oppressive Soviet control of economy- resulted in a great deal of poverty Censorship and lack of freedom Hungarians were religious- Soviets banned religion

5 The Revolution Begins October 23, 1956: –Massive student march through the streets of Budapest –Confrontation at parliament building led to crowd being fired upon by State Security Police –This infuriated people across Hungary and the revolt spread –Hungarian Communist Party Secretary Erno Gero requested Soviet military intervention

6 The Government Collapses Oct. 24, 1956 –Soviet tanks enter Budapest Oct. 25, 1956 –State Security Police open fire on a crowd at parliament –Soviet tanks, thinking they are the target, return fire –Some in the crowd who are armed begin shooting and are themselves shot- many civilians are killed –As a result, the government falls –Imre Nagy becomes PM and Soviet tanks withdraw to the countryside

7 The Second Soviet Intervention Nov. 1: Nagy and his cabinet declare Hungary’s neutrality and withdrawal from the Warsaw Pact Nov. 4: In response to this, Soviet tanks enter Budapest to restore communist control By Nov. 10, 2500 Hungarians had been killed and the revolution has been crushed Thousands of Hungarians were arrested, imprisoned or deported. Many thousands fled the country as refugees Nagy and other leaders were executed

8 Aftermath Sent message to the West that the Soviets would use force to maintain their sphere of influence In the 1990s, Gorbachev and later Yeltsin, officially apologized for Soviet actions during the Hungarian Uprising

9 Yugoslavia Josip Broz = Tito He liberates Yug from Nazis Red Army shows up and commits assaults on Yugoslavs = tension with USSR Issues over control – Stalin didn’t want Tito as equal Tito freed Yugoslavia without major Allied help He ruled independently of Moscow = angers Stalin Tito asks Bulgaria for a trade union and doesn’t invite USSR – Stalin gets really angry

10 Stalin asks Bulgarian, Yugoslav leaders to Moscow – Tito doesn’t attend – sends grunts Stalin proposes union of Albania, Yug, Bulg Tito views this as opportunity for Red Army to occupy Bulgaria and threaten Yugoslavia Political differences in 1948 mean Yug expelled from Cominform (organization of communist parties) Soviets withdraw aid, so US gives aid Tito allowed Greek communists to regroup in Yugoslavia – also supplied them – angers Stalin “Can’t Touch This” attitude towards Moscow – geographical separation means Yug is hard to control Stalin tries to reintegrate Yug, and fails Yugoslavia presents alternative communist model – threat to USSR

11 Tito Tito – A man Unwilling to accept Being pushed Around by Moscow


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